A device for determining stresses and deformations of structural elements
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the control and measurement technology, in particular to a device for non-destructive testing (stress and strain) of structural elements (pumps , vessels, etc), and allows high performance to estimate the parameters of stress and strain. A device for determining stresses and deformations of structural elements contains the laser, camera, monitor, interface, computer, microscope, block offset, the control unit of the laser, the preprocessing block, the buffer storage device, a video processor, the control unit scale, the control unit laser display that allows you to pre-identify unreliable parts of the design elements, and then to get information only from these sites. 6 Il. The invention relates to automation, in particular to a device for non-destructive testing (stress and strain) of structural elements (pumps, vessels, etc), and allows high performance to estimate the parameters of stress and strain.A device for registration of deformations arising from the application of deforming forces, containing the light source, about the store from the object coherent light, generates interfering focused image of the object, sliding one relative to another in the transverse direction, a device for recording the interferogram resulting from the interference of focused images  the Principle of the device based on the analysis of the speckle interference images taken before and after exposure to the effort.The disadvantage of this device is that you cannot fast (rapid) assessment of deformations due to the need for pre-memory (commit) images on the film.The closest technical solution of the invention is a device for the determination of stresses and deformations of pipelines, pressure vessels and structural elements containing the source that directs a beam of light on the surface of the test object, the optical receiver (television camera) which receives the reference dot pattern, formed at the reflection interface with the connected monitor, the computer (with display), performing a comparison of the stored and current paintings 
A disadvantage of the known device is a low speed because of the need pererabatyvaiushchaia determine the magnitude of the strains and stresses of structural elements.The aim is achieved in that in the known device containing a laser, optically associated with the object, camera, monitor, interface, computer unit, separate information output of which is connected to the input of the display, additionally introduced microscope that transmits the optical image from the object to the input of the TV cameras, the block displacement, mechanically coupled to the laser, a microscope and a camera, and two data outputs with two separate informational outputs of the computing unit, the control unit of the laser, the output of which is connected to the input of the laser, and the entrance to the first output interface, an input connected to the microcomputer, and the second output with the control input of the control unit scale, the output of which is connected to the input of the monitor and the information input of the preprocessing block, and the information input information output of the camera, the clock output of which is connected to the clock inputs of the preprocessing block, the buffer storage device and the processor, the first synchrolift to the first synchronou block pre-processing and synchronou buffer storage device, and the second synchrolift to the second synchronou block predvaritelniye with the Manager, the address and data outputs of the buffer storage device and an information input-output information input-output microcomputer, another information input-output of which is connected with the information output of the buffer storage device, controller, and two address input of which is connected with a control and two address inputs of the preprocessing block.The introduction of the microscope, a buffer memory device, the preprocessing block, a GPU, a control unit scale, unit, shift and control unit of the laser allows to identify unreliable ("suspicious") plot element design and high performance to determine the necessary characteristics.In Fig. 1 shows a structural diagram of the device of Fig. 2 shows a variant of the block offset, and Fig. 3 execution control unit of the laser of Fig. 4 execution control unit scale; Fig. 5 execution of the preprocessing block and a buffer memory device, and Fig. 6 version of the video processor.The device consists of a laser 1, the beam of which is directed to the object 2, the microscope 3, optically associated with about 7, computing unit 8, a display 9, block 10 of the displacement unit 11 controls to zoom, unit 12 of the control laser, a monitor 13 and the interface 14, the input laser 1 is connected to the output of the control unit laser (BUL) 12, and the output is optically associated with the object 2, the optical microscope 3 is associated with the object and camera 4, the information output of which is connected to the information input of the control unit scale (BOOM) 11, two separate data output computing unit 8 is connected to two respective information input unit bias (BS) 10, is mechanically connected with the microscope 3, laser 1 and camera 4, the input BLVD 12 is connected with the first output interface 14, the second output of which is connected with the control input of the BOOM 11, the outlet 11 is connected to the monitor 13 and the information input unit pre-processing (BPO) 5, who with his Manager and two address outputs connected with a control and two address inputs of the buffer memory (BLT) 6, the clock output of the TV camera 4 is connected to the clock inputs of RPU 5, BLT 6 and the video processor 7, an information input-output of which is connected with the information input-output microcomputer 8, first synchrolift camera 4 is connected to the first synchronator BOP 5 and synchro is part of block 8, the second synchrolift camera 4 is connected to the second synchronator BOP 5 and synchronator the video processor 7, managing, address and information the input of which is connected to the control, address and data outputs BLT 6, the input of the display 9 is connected to a separate data output computing unit 8, a separate output of which is connected to the input interface 14.The device operates as follows. On a signal from the computing unit 8 via the interface 14 and the BLVD 12 includes a laser 1, illuminating the object under examination 2. Laser 1 also contains a lens, forming a diverging laser beam of light. When lighting the surface of the object 2, which is optically rough surface (i.e., changing the height of the terrain are of the order of the wavelength of the incident light), the observed speckle effect, which represents the image in the form of a granular structure. The complex amplitude P (()) scattered by the surface of the light at a point is the sum of the amplitudes of all waves scattered all points of the surface, and can be written in the form
U() k u(x,y)exp[i2G(x,y)/]dxdy (1) where k is a constant; U(x, y) function that describes the complex amplitude of light passing to the point (y, x);
G is a geometric factor determined the size of the surface topography of the object 2 at the point (x, y); - wavelength.The image corresponding to the undeformed condition of the object 2, increases the microscope 3, read (perceived) television camera 4 is stored BLT 6. When reading an image, it may be subject to change scale with unit 11 controls to zoom. This image is processed and zoom (using the BOOM 11 is similar to the reference image, and then compared using the video processor 7, which calculates the necessary parameters based on the evaluation of evaluation
argextrI(F1F2()) (2) where F1TI; F2EI. Moreover, EI via the parameter contains all possible changes in image scale, linear displacement and relative rotation of the compared images.If TI and EI combined scale (this operation is performed automatically or with operator assistance when choosing the best from the point of view of precision, scale), the video processor 7 determines the desired parameters based on the analysis of mutually correlation function described by the following expression:
I(,,) [ F1(x1,y1)F2(x2,y2)dS]2< / BR>x1(x ) cos + (y ) sin ;
y1(y ) cos (x ) sin is the real T; F2(x2, y2) function describing EI; S the area of correlated images.If TI is offset EI in significant quantities in linear coordinates, to identify (recognize) plots the sample surface is implemented by the following decision rule:
< / BR>where d d signals respectively proportional to the steepness of the front and back edge section MCFs axis Of the points corresponding to the deviation from the highest value of MCFs by the value of1d-d+; accordingly, signals proportional to the steepness of the front and back edge section MCFs axis Of the points corresponding to the deviation from the highest value of MCFs by the value of1'.Signals d d d d -are set in advance in the preliminary experiment.Thus, based on the analysis of MCFs can determine the direction and magnitude of the offset X, Y on the respective axes of the coordinate system XOY related to an investigated surface of the object 2. In addition, it identifies a possible reversal T (i.e., the surface area of the object 2) with respect to EI (i.e., reference position).The operation of squaring MCFs (2) povyshaet the accuracy of the estimates of the necessary parameters, as the amplitude of the side peaks is influenced by divergent part of the compared images. Mismatched parts TI and EI arise from the bias TEE relatively EI (due to deformation of the object surface 2 is one part of the image disappears and another one appears).The application of rule (4) increases the probability of correct operation (correct recognition), as the decision is made after analysis of both fronts MCFs, the slope of which depends on the interference level on the compared images TI and EI.Stress components are determined from the strain components on the ratios of stress and strain from the formula
Q,= -+T, (5) where E is the elastic modulus; Poisson's ratio; coefficient of thermal expansion; T is the temperature change of the object;ijthe distortion tensor; Qmatrix deformation; i, j voltage.The analyzed surface area of the object displayed on the monitor 13. After completion of the analysis of this area of the object surface 2 is the offset of the laser 1, the microscope 3 and the camera 4 using block 10 offset. As block 10 displacement (Fig. 2) use serial two-coordinate table 15 (type TFR 901-01) and two interfaces 16, 17. Control the and-scan is a two-dimensional actuator, consisting of two linear stepper motors. Part of the buffet also includes a control unit and a manual control box.Each motor is an electromagnetic module, which includes a movable element (inductor) on the magnetic air suspension and the stationary part (stator) having cutting teeth with a pitch of 0.64 mm, the control Unit ensures the formation of the signals on the move engines inductor using electric reduction and electromagnetic damping inductor.To move the inductor in the control unit from the computer is sent a signal characterizing the mode and parameters of movement (speed, acceleration, number of steps, direction of movement). The movement of the inductor can be also from the manual operating unit with the task of all modes and parameters move.To control the shift mechanism used serial devices parallel currency I2, 16, 16, intended for connection to the channel of microcomputers external devices in communication with the computer data in parallel code.Communication is 16 bit words or bytes with the help of program operations funds interrupt p coordinates. Device And 2 appears to the CPU as three addressable register: output register control coordinate; input register sensor data coordinates; the status register move mode coordinate. Address registers are set by the user using the radio buttons.The device 2 includes logic interrupt that is compatible with the channel of microcomputers, which allows the device user to generate the signal requirements interrupts.All output signal lines loaded on one standard TTL load and secure the limiting diodes.In Fig. 3 shows a variant of the control unit laser (BUL) 12. This unit is made for the case of laser control, not having a system control microcomputer (for example, from micro electronics-60"). BLVD 12 includes a switch that includes a laser 1 according to the control signals coming from the interface 14. The switch contains the following items: 18, 22 resistors, 19 relay 20 transistor, diode 21, a capacitor 23.The switch is simple. The control signal coming from the interface 14, opens the transistor 20, which applies a voltage to the relay coil 19 (1), including their contacts (To what galom U 5, the necessity in this part of the BLVD disappears, management will occur directly from the interface 14.In Fig. 4 presents a diagram of the connection of the control unit zoom BOOM 11 with other blocks of the device. The BOOM 11 is made on the basis of television installation and crafts vocational-62 and consists of device-guided linear amplifier remote control. BOOM 11 allows a fourfold remote zoom, work in information mode when the illumination of the object, rated voltage ambient temperature. Nest items 2 remote control PU 120-1 "External control" via a standard interface And 2 14 connected to the microcomputer 8, the command which is being scaled. As the camera uses a serial television camera KTP 83-1. As the monitor 13 can be used in serial visual display units VK V and VK V.In Fig. 5 presents the different versions of the preprocessing block 5 and the buffer storage device 6. With BLT on PG 7 receives the following signals: signal resolution 34 on the control bus EP 7; address 38 on the address bus EP 7, data from 37 to shii second XOR; 29 the first memory block; element 30 OR 31 shaper control signals; 32 second memory block; the first counter 33; 34 driver enable signal; 35 of the second counter; 36 a control unit, the buffer memory 37; 38 counter.In Fig. 6 is a diagram of the video processor VP 7. Here on the control bus (SHU) receives the following signals: clock pulses and lowercase quenching pulses with TC 4 and the enable signal with the BLT 6.As the microscope 3 is used for serial optical microscope MBS 9 (or IAS-10), which directly connects to the camera 4.As the computer 8, you can use the microcomputer family "electronics 60" (PDP 11). The results of image analysis are induced on the display 9.In comparison with the known proposed device has a higher accuracy and better performance. The accuracy of the device is increased by increasing the image of the examined area of the object, resulting in the device will be able to analyze smaller (microscopic) offset and spreads survey sites. It is known that by using a microscope can (significantly) reduce the analyzed area (12). In addition, the zoom is inoe research necessary part of the subject. Thus, the application of the microscope and the control unit scale total (cumulative) increase in the device will be
NcNmx NBOOM, (6) where NmNBOOMthe magnification and BOOM, respectively. For example, using a microscope MBS 9 to increase 14 and BOOM with increasing 4 Nc= 56.The accuracy of the device also increases due to the preliminary processing of the read image. Pre-treatment T is performed to remove noise (smoothing, filtering, contrast enhancement, image adjustment.The proposed device has a higher performance compared with the known n times, i.e.n (7) where tFRthe performance of the prototype; tother devicethe performance of the proposed device.The performance of the prototype is based on the following formula:
tFR= ti(8) where tithe time required to activate the laser (typically t10,001); t2the transit time of light from the laser to the object and from object to television cameras; t3the readout time of the image television camera; t4the conversion time of the image interfaceno not be considered because of the small (optical signal from the laser to the camera travels at the speed of light). Time t3t4210-2c (for images of size 256 x 256), and the time t515,0 (time imaging MCFs and the computer and the estimation of the deformation). Substituting the data in (8), we get tFR15,041 C.The performance of the proposed device is found by the formula
tother device= t, (9) where t1' the time required for displacement of the laser microscope and TV camera to the desired location (implemented using block offset); t2' the time required to activate the laser (via the control unit of the laser); t3' time passing light from the laser to the object and from object to television cameras; t4' the time of reading the image by the television camera; t5the time required to set the desired scale; t6pre-processing the image using a preprocessing block; t7the recording time T in the buffer storage device; t8the time information using the GPU; t9the time information processing on microcomputers. These times shall have the following meaning t1' 1,0 c; t2' t1' 0,001 c; t3' t20; t4' t30,02 c; t5' 0,001 c; t6' t7the performance of the proposed device is n 15,041/1,082 14.7 times higher than in the known. A DEVICE FOR DETERMINING STRESSES AND DEFORMATIONS of structural ELEMENTS, containing the laser, optically associated with the object, camera, monitor, interface, computer unit, separate information output of which is connected to the input of the display, characterized in that it introduced the microscope, the preprocessing block, the buffer storage device, a video processor, block offset, the control unit scale and the control unit of the laser and the input of the optical microscope is associated with the object, and the output optically connected to the input of the TV cameras, the block offset is mechanically connected to the laser, microscope and camera, and two data inputs and two relevant informational outputs of the computing unit, the output control unit of the laser is connected to the input of the laser, and the entrance to the first output interface, the input of which is connected with the computing unit and the second output with the control input of the control unit scale, the output of which is connected to the input of the monitor and the information input of the preprocessing block, and the information input information output of the camera, the clock output of which is connected to the clock inputs of the block prior the control unit pre-treatment and synchronou buffer storage device, and the second synchrolift to the second synchronou block pre-processing and synchronou GPU, managing, address and information inputs which are connected respectively with the control, address and data outputs of the buffer storage device and an information input-output information input of the computing unit, the other information input-output is connected to the information input / output buffer of the storage device, controller, and two address input of which is connected with a control and two address outputs of the preprocessing block.
FIELD: the invention refers to control of the state for example of textile materials at their interaction with working parts of technological equipment.
SUBSTANCE: the essence is in scanning the surface of the moving material with the aid of the sensitive element of a piezo-converter. The average value of the current linear sizes of the structural elements are calculated according to the number of the impulses generated by a piezo-converter and defined by the quantity of the elements of the structure (for example by the number of weave units) on the reference length of the part of the moving object. Periodically the received results are compared with the corresponding starting data of the structure of the rigid part of the material.
EFFECT: increases accuracy of the evaluation of the strain-deformed state of the moving easily deformed materials of a grid-type structure with simultaneous simplification of technical realization.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; repair of vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: vehicle with damage body is lifted to preset height relative to floor, and check points on body are chosen. Part of points are arranged of sound part of body. Additional check point is marked on floor under bottom of body. Said point should be located at a distance from bottom not less than one fourth of maximum distance between chosen check points. Distances between all check points are measured, and basing on obtained data, three coordinates of all chosen check points are calculated by computer with determination of distribution of said check points in space. Then, by turning, check points of damage body are registered with similar check points in computer data base belonging to body of standard vehicle. Distribution of check points received in measurement is compared with distribution of check points in standard vehicle and, basing on results of measurement, value and direction of deformations of damaged body are determined.
EFFECT: simplified method at preservation of high accuracy of determination of deformations.
1 ex, 3 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: deformation detecting element with dispersion structures consists of piezoelectric plates on whose surface there is at least one interdigital converter and at least two dispersion reflecting structures, which uses the response lag time of the deformation detecting element as an information signal. The reflecting structures are on two sides of the interdigital transducers. The information signal can also be in form of the wave form or central frequency of a frequency-modulated probing signal, which ensures maximum amplitude response value of the deformation detecting element with dispersion structures.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measuring deformation owing to use of information on the central frequency of the device.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus consists of a basic direction selector (BDS), sighting targets (ST), radiator control devices (RCD), a preprocessing unit (PPU) a unit interfacing device (UID) and a processing unit (PU), whose first inputs and outputs are connected to the RCD. The second output is connected to a display, the second, third and fourth inputs are connected to a keyboard, a temperature sensor and a reference temperature sensor mounted on the housing of the BDS, respectively. The fifth input of the PU is connected to a BDS amplifier through series connected PPU and UID, and the third input of the PU is connected through the UID to the second input of the PPU. The BDS includes series-arranged power supply and control unit (PCU), optical image coordinate receiver (OICR), which is in form of a matrix-type photosensitive charge-coupled device, the output of which is connected to an amplifier, a lens, which is optically interfaced through a prism block with sighting targets which are located at the controlled points of the object within the field of vision of the lens in corresponding optical channels formed by said prism block. Each sighting target is placed on the perimeter of the object, wherein the number of sighting targets is not less than the number of points determining the geometric shape of the object, and has a radiator connected to the first output of the corresponding RCD, and an air temperature sensor whose output is connected to the second input of the corresponding RCD. Special cases of the design of the apparatus are characterised by that, each radiator is in form of a semiconductor emitting diode; the processing unit, the keyboard and the display are merged into a unit which is in form of a portable computer; the lens, OICR, PCU and amplifier merged into a unit which is in form of a television camera.
EFFECT: providing the possibility of controlling the deformation profile of an elongated object, maximum angle of torque of the structure, as well as high accuracy of measurements while maintaining high speed of operation of the system.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: digital multi-component motion sensor comprising a body, a recording unit, a sensitive element with motion sensors, connected into an electric circuit, differing by the fact that the elastic body of the sensor is made in the form of a monoblock from a composite material by winding of a tape of a thermoplastic material with further polymerisation of layers, with placement of deformation strain sensors in its layers, current-conducting elements and contact groups, mounted in layers of the body, the above monoblock of the body has the following structure of the layers differing according to performed functions within the body, counting from outside to inside, a protective layer, which protects elements of the sensor against environmental impact, a layer that levels thickness, comprising holes and grooves for protruding parts of the next layer, an instrumental layer comprising strain sensors, current-conducting elements and contact groups, a support layer that perceives load during writing of a handwritten text, an element of transfer of axial pressure of the writing unit is made in the form of a hollow rod with a writing unit installed in it and connected by the end with the sensitive element, made in the form of an elastic membrane jammed in the in the sensor's body, besides, the element of transfer of the axial movement of the writing unit is made in the form of a ball, contacting with a piezoelement, such as a piezoelement of direct effect of movements, besides, the axis of sensitivity of the piezoelement matches with the longitudinal axis of the sensor.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of a device due to selective measurement of static or smoothly changing movements along all directions of space with their subsequent digitisation, in particular, development of a small-size device in the form of a pen; rating of the movement of the writing unit during writing of a handwritten text for subsequent statistic treatment; obtaining higher reliability, since in solid multi-layer body the sensors are protected against unfavourable conditions of environment, besides, during manufacturing of the body an excessive quantity of sensors may be installed in its layers, which, whenever necessary, may be readjusted.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes, at depth h of the medium, performing deformation thereof with pressure p through a hard flat die, determining the modulus of overall and elastic deformation of the medium E0 (kG/cm2), Eel (kG/cm2), measuring the uniform thickness of the medium under the die with a width w (cm) or diameter d (cm), wherein the method includes, at the depth h of the structured medium, determining its internal friction angle and specific cohesion cstr (kG/cm2), calculating the internal friction angle of a medium with a disturbed structure as and specific cohesion thereof determining the value of the actively compressed thickness of the material medium under the die using the relationship - for an elastic structured medium and - for a medium with a disturbed structure, where d (cm) is the diameter of a circular die equivalent to a rectangular die w×l (cm×cm) with a side w<l; the value of elastic deformation of the decompressed medium under die pressure is calculated using the relationship and the value of active collapse of the material medium under excess die pressure p (kG/cm2) in the medium is determined from the relationship
EFFECT: simple method of determining elastic and overall deformation of a compressible material medium.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in defining module Eo (MPa) of general deformation and modulus of elasticity Eelast (MPa), internal friction angle of structured medium and its specific adhesion Ctcs (MPa), setting value of external pressure p (MPa) on deformable medium at preliminary calculated values of gravity (domestic) pressure at specified depth h of medium mass analysis total deformation compressed by die elastoviscoplastic (ground) material medium is defined by relationship where Stcs (cm) is elastic draught medium , SH (cm) is sludge medium with deformed structure, B (cm) is width of flat die, is diameter of circular die equivalent to rectangular with side B, Fd (cm2) is area of round stamp, νtcs and νH are values of coefficients of relative transverse deformation of deformable medium in structured and disturbed condition, defined by relationship: in a medium as and in walls of vertical mine and under conditions of compressive compression - and and - is strength parameters of medium with deformed structure and deformation of elastic flexible peat medium is determined from relationship where is peat modulus of elasticity (MPa).
EFFECT: disclosed is method for determining deformation of material medium under pressure.