Device for controlling the surface shape

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to techniques for measuring variations of the shape and radius of curvature of complex surfaces and, in particular, to devices for automatic measurement of the shape of the parabolic microwave antennas-range contactless method. The aim of the invention is to increase the measurement accuracy, noise immunity, the extension of the measuring range and resolution enhancement when the control deviation of the profile is controlled from the reference antenna. The device contains a laser, modulator, the intensity of the laser beam generator sweep generator linearly varying voltage sweep generator, collimator actuators for the control of optical gain, aryabhatta actuators control the focal length, the deflection of the laser beam, driven from the drive of the receiver, mixer, delay, hits, inverter, digital speed meter, digital unit, an information controller, digital to analog converters. 4 Il.

The invention relates to a measurement technique, namely the measurement of form deviations and the radius of curvature of complex surfaces, and, in particular, to devices automatically eusto is designed to control the shape of mirror antennas in the form of paraboloids of rotation and a parabolic cylinder.

The closest technical solution in its essence and the achieved effect is the device [1] the Known device comprises an optical sensor (laser), the mechanism of the rotation angle of the laser with two degrees of freedom, the drive mechanism for three-dimensional movement of the laser, the controller, the controller to control movement. In this unit amplitude principle of control of the surface shape of the reflection from her laser beam.

However, the known device has insufficient accuracy, noise and the measurement range of the profile deviations. This is due to the nature of the amplitude method. The level, composition and range information of the optical signal in the prototype depends on the stability of the laser, an external optical interference, the accuracy of setting of the optical sensor, the field distribution in the cross section of the laser beam. These fluctuations may be considered, involving statistical and correlation principles for the detection and measurement of the signal.

The aim of the invention is to improve the accuracy and noise immunity, the extension of the measuring range deviation of the profile and increase the spatial resolution of the position deviations of the profile paraboli the spatial displacement of the laser beam, the photodetector, the processor and controller for motion control, the following functional units:

the modulator (M) the intensity of the laser (L) of the beam, an electrical input connected to the output of the generator sweep (GCC), the input specified GCC connected to the output of the ramp generator voltage (CLAYS), and the entrance of CLAYS is connected to the output of the sweep generator (G); standard parabolic antenna (EA), installed coaxially with controlled antenna (KA) and facing concave surface to the concave surface of the SPACECRAFT; between M and the axial hole in the AC series and coaxially installed first collimator with controllable optical amplification using the drive movement of the movable elements of the afocal attachment lens and the first lens with controllable focal length with a drive moving parts of the optical system, so that the size of the focal spot on the surface of the SPACECRAFT is kept constant for any coordinates of the surface of the SPACECRAFT; laser beam deflectors placed in the tricks of the AC and EA and synchronously driven in two orthogonal planes from the shared drive; between the axial hole in the EA and the photodetector sequentially and coaxially ustasha optical system and the second collimator with controllable optical amplification using the drive movement of the movable elements of the afocal attachment lens; the photodetector, the output of which is connected to the first input of the mixer, the second input of the mixer is connected through the delay line to the output GCC, and the output of the mixer is connected to the first input of the differential overlap (SS), the second input of the SS is connected through an inverter to the output of the GR; digital speed meter (ICH), an information input connected to the output of the SS, and the entrance gate with inverter output; a digital processor (WED) to calculate the variance and the polar radius profile AC, input data bus which is connected to the output of the ICH, and its control input connected to the output of the inverter; information controller (IR) to form a digital code control commands spatial position of the laser beam, the optical gain of the collimators and the focal length of aryabhatta, the output data bus which is connected to respective actuators through digital to analog converters (DAC), the control input IR is connected to the output of GR and bus external synchronization.

The basis of operation of the proposed device is put frequency principle of measuring the differential time delay between the laser beam intensity modulated frequency modulated signal (FM), passed between CA and EA, and those who Preobrazhenka in the mixer in the difference frequency between the modulation frequency of the detainee in LA and modulation frequency of the measuring laser beam. This difference frequency is linearly related to the local deviation of the profile KA from EA. Further, this frequency is converted into a digital code ICH and is fed to the input of the digital processor (CF), calculates the deviation profile in the local surface point KA. To control the laser beam between the AC and EA in their tricks posted by two-dimensional deflection. For the permanence of the spot size of the laser beam on the surface of the SPACECRAFT between the optical modulator and the axial hole in KA coaxially and sequentially placed collimator with controllable optical gain and a zoom lens with controllable focal length, and for the permanence of the size of the receptor spots between the axial hole in the EA and the photodetector coaxially and sequentially placed zoom lens with controllable focal length and a collimator with a controlled optical amplification.

Control signals for the actuators of the deflectors, collimators and aryabhatta forms at the given coordinate (X, Y KA information controller (IR), the output data bus which is connected to the actuators through the corresponding DAC and the input of an external control IR is connected to the input of GR.

The frequency principle allows a higher t is ka spot of the measuring beam on the SPACECRAFT and the receptor spots on EA can significantly increase the noise immunity, to increase the spatial resolution of the position deviation on the surface of the AC.

In Fig. 1 presents a diagram of the device with block opto-electronic processing of information signals; Fig. 2 shows the calculated geometric diagram of a paraboloid of rotation; Fig. 3 illustrates the course of the rays when reflected from deformed parabolic surface; Fig. 4 shows timing diagrams of the control and information signals in the block opto-electronic processing.

The device (Fig. 1) to control the shape of the parabolic antenna includes a laser 1, a modulator (M) 2 the intensity of the laser beam, electric entrance of this M connection with the generator output oscillating frequency (GCC) 3, input specified GCC connected to the output of CLAYS 4, and CLAY connected to the output of the sweep generator (G), in the course of the laser beam sequentially and coaxially mounted collimator 6 with the drive (PR-1) 7 control of the optical gain and the lens 8 with the drive (PR-2) 9 control focal length. Measuring the laser beam passes through the axial hole of the controlled antenna (KA) on the reflector of the two-dimensional deflector 10, placed in the focus of the parabolic KA 11; coaxially with AC and with facing concave surface to wny reflective deflector 13. These deflectors are operated by actuator (PR-3) 14 in two orthogonal planes; respectively in the plane XOZ-driven PR-3, in the plane YOZ-driven PR-3U; between the axial hole in the EA and the photodetector in series along the laser beam and coaxially installed the zoom lens 15 to the actuator (PR-4) 16 control the focal length and the collimator 17 with the drive (PR-5) 18 control optical amplification; the photodetector 19, the output of which is connected to the first input of the mixer 20, the second input of the mixer is connected via line 21 to delay the output GCC, and the output of the mixer is connected to the first input of the differential overlap (SS) 22, the second input of the SS is connected through an inverter 23 to the output of the GR; digital speed meter (ICH) 24, an information input connected to the output of the SS, and the entrance gate with inverter output; a digital processor (WED) 25 to calculate the deflection profile of the mirror along the normal, the polar radius and the radius of curvature of the profile of the antenna, the input data bus which is connected to the output of ICH, and its control input connected to the output of the inverter; an information controller (IR) 26 for forming a digital code control commands spatial position of the laser beam, the optical gain of the collimators and focus the first Converter (DAC) (D/A1) 27 with the drive (PR-1) control optical amplification collimators, through (DAC) (D/A2) 28 driven PR-2 control the focal length of aryabhatta through DAC (D/Ash and D/ABC) 29 and 30 actuators (PR-3 and PR-3U) two-dimensional deflection unit and to the input of a digital processor, and the control input IR connected with GR and bus external synchronization.

It is evident from Fig. 2, 3 and properties of a parabolic surface (see Drabkin, A. L. et al. Antenna-feeder devices. M. the Soviet radio, 1974) derived the basic calculation formulas necessary to explain the principle and algorithms of the proposed device for decorative set of coordinates X, Y, Z parabolic antenna (KA) on the input tyres IR.

The polar radius of the surface points of the antenna with the center focus of the mirror

, (1) where f is the focal length of the paraboloid.

The polar angle of the surface points of the antenna

arctan (2)

Polar radiustopoints controlled antenna taking into account the deviation from the reference form

to=e. (3)

Deviation of the normal profile from the reference antenna

h= cos / 2 (4)

The polar anglesxandypoint the antenna in the orthogonal planes, respectively, in the plane XOZ

x= arctan (5) in the plane YOZ

y= arctan (6)
R (8)

arctgX/Y; (9)

r cos (10)

The angle between the normal to the mirror surface and the polar radius is equal to /2.

In Fig. 4 shows timing diagrams of control signals and information signals in optical-electronic unit of the device.

In Fig. 4A shows the external synchronization signal SYN durationc.

In Fig. 4B pulses Uggenerator sweep durationpand the interval Tp, and Fig. 4B is inverted by the pulse generator sweep.

In Fig. 4G voltage CLAYS controlling the frequency GCC with the period

Tmp+ Tp. (11)

In Fig. 4D shows the law of variation of the frequency GCC with a deviation of fmfp. maxfp. minthe output of the delay line

fp= fp. min+ (t-tD) (12) and (dashed) the law of change of the modulating frequency fLcarrying laser beam elapsed between the controlled and reference antennas

fL= fp. min+ (t-tL) (13)

Signals of frequencies fnand fLthe input mixer with a lag of fL< / BR>
tLtLtD, (14) where tLthe delay time of the signal between antennas;

tDthe delay signal is 15)

where LoGf + H the optical beam path between the antennas with a reference profile;

N. the distance between the foci of the antenna;

With the speed of wave propagation 3108m/s

The delay time of the signal between the antennas

(16)

In Fig. 4E shows a graph of the difference frequency output of mixer: upper difference frequency time interval tL< / BR>
FRV= fL-fn(tD-tL) (17) of the lower difference frequency time interval TmtL< / BR>
FpH= fn-fL(tL-tD) (18)

In Fig. I shows a time chart of the lower difference frequency FpHFpat the entrance ICH time interval Tp.

In Fig. S presented at the output CF the digital code and the sign of the deviation profile h controlled antenna from the reference positive and negative values ( h) normal to the profile. From expressions(13)-(16), (18) it is easy to set the lower difference frequency at the output of ICH.

Difference frequency at the output of ICH

Fp= t-t+ (19) Where Tmthe period of the signals CLAYS. From (19) we obtain the estimated algorithm h

h (20) where Fm1/Tmfrequency modulation GCC;

FofmFm(tLotD),/SUB> > Fo, h > 0; Fp< Fo; h < 0; FpFo, h= 0.

The deviation of the profile of the antenna along the polar radius is computed by algorithm

h/cos /2 (21)

The absolute value of the polar radius of the antenna is determined by the relation (3).

The proposed device operates as follows. The beam from the laser 1 is modulated by the intensity modulator 2, the input of which is applied an electrical signal with linear frequency modulation (chirp) from GCC 3, management is made from CLAY 4, Tmmodulation which specifies GR 5. Next, the modulated laser beam collyriums collimator 6 is focused by the lens 8 and through an axial hole in a controlled mirror antenna is directed by the deflector 10 to the surface 11 KA. The spot diameter dplaser beam on the mirror surface, from the viewpoint of resolution and accuracy must have a minimum value. This is achieved by focusing the beam on the mirror surface of the lens 8.

The spot diameter on the surface 11 KA equal

dptofin, (22) wheretothe angular divergence of the beam at the exit of the collimator 6E;

finthe focal length of the lens 8. In his acereda;

G optical amplification of the collimator.

To ensure equality OF1And rays to the focal length finlens 8 for any point of the mirror 11 with coordinates X, Y, Z, you must perform the following condition:

finf + . (24)

Then the spot diameter on the mirror 11

dp= (f+) (25)

From (25) it follows that, in order to perform conditions of dpconst for all surface points KA with coordinates X, Y, Z, you must change to change the gain of the collimator according to the following algorithm:

Gl(f + )/dp. (26)

Technical implementation for the condition dpconst on the mirror KA is achieved by placing between the modulator and the axial hole 11 KA collimator 6 drive 7 for the control of optical gain and lens 8 drive 9 control focal length.

These actuators are connected respectively to the DAC 27 and 28 with the output data bus IR, which forms at the given coordinate (X, Y, Z and the parameters fldpcommand codes control the focal length of the zoom lens 8 and the strengthening of the collimator 6 in the following algorithms:

fin= f+ (27)

G fin(28)

The deflector 10 is designed for precision Dujardin armorum 26 IR algorithms (5) and (6). Weekend busxandyIR 26 is connected to the actuator 14 through the DAC 29 and 30. For scanning the laser beam can be used, for example, the scanning vibrating unit, developed by the research center "Vibrodevices" Kaunas Polytechnic Institute. Snieckus.

Reflected from 11 KA laser beam passes parallel to the axis of the system to the surface 12 EA, Bouncing off him, falling on the reflector baffle 13 driven by the actuator 14 synchronously with the deflector 10, and then is directed through the axial hole in the EA on sequentially and coaxially mounted lens 15 and the collimator 17.

The introduction of the EA, mounted coaxially with the AC and facing concave surface to the concave surface of the AC ensures the constancy of the rays for any point on the SPACECRAFT with coordinates X, Y, Z, which is a fundamental basis for the construction of the proposed system based on the frequency method ranging, high potential which the accuracy and range of measurement is well known.

During the propagation of the laser beam between the mirrors because of its divergence size of the cross section of the beam on the EA increases. Essentially, this beam represents the angular range of flat LCD.

After detection at the photodetector at the output will provide a wide range of frequencies, which is transferred after conversion in the mixer in the region of the difference frequency.

A wide range of difference frequencies reduces noise, clarity, resolution and measurement range, and therefore, reduces ultimately the accuracy of the measurements.

To improve resolution, noise immunity and range measurements between the axial hole in the EA and the photodetector sequentially and coaxially installed the zoom lens 15 to the actuator 16 and the collimator 17 to the actuator 18 for the control of optical amplification, so the size of the receptor spots on the surface of the EA remains constant for any contact surface EA. The actuators 16 and 18 are controlled synchronously with the actuators 9 and 7 signals from the DAC 28 and 27. Essentially, consistent and aligned placement of the zoom lens 15 and the collimator 17 with a variable optical amplification is a tunable narrow-band spatial-angular filter, ensuring the constancy of the size of the receptor (perceiving) stains on the surface of the EA and emit only the light beam of the measuring beam between CA and EA, which allows narrowing sidenote and ultimately the accuracy of the measurements.

The spot size at EA is determined by the formula (24), and the control algorithm is the focal length of the zoom lens 15 and the optical gain of the collimator 17 is described by expressions (27) and (28). In addition, ensuring the constancy of the size of the receptor spots on EA allows to provide a constant signal level at the output of the photodetector 19, i.e. at the input of the mixer 20, which eliminates the occurrence of Raman frequencies when converting that lead to a blurring of the spectrum signal of the difference frequency, and consequently, to reduce measurement accuracy.

The signal from LMC output of the photodetector, delayed between CA and EA at time tLand the signal with the chirp output GCC detained in line 21 of the delay time tDmix in the mixer 20. The instantaneous frequency of these signals are determined respectively by the expressions (13) and (12).

Fundamentally at the output of mixer 20 is allocated spectra of the upper (17) and bottom (18) of the difference frequency. To expand the measurement range, improved noise immunity and resolution of the measured deflection profile, and thus ultimately increase the accuracy of the scheme matches (SS) 22 output signal only the lower difference frequency defined in the Naya frequency Fpclearly connected with the deviation of the profile h in accordance with the algorithm (20) is converted into a digital code by measuring the frequency (ICH) 24, strobing in time inverted pulses G from the output of the inverter 23.

Gating ICH on the time dimension of the lower difference frequency increases immunity, ICH can be made for the analog-to-digital Converter frequency (see hares, F. and other electronic automatic control system high precision. Kyiv: Tekhnika, 1988, S. 23).

Code difference frequency Fpintroduced in the digital processor (WED) 25, where the entered angle , FofmFmand S. WED 25 calculates h algorithm (20), the algorithm (3), the angle value is calculated at 26 IR algorithm (2).

Control input WED 26 is connected to the output of the inverter 22, which allows strobirovat the work of the CF at the time of measurement of the difference frequency and thereby improves the reliability and robustness of the system.

To evaluate the accuracy and range of measurements of the deviation of the profile in the proposed system. From the expression (20) it follows that the minimal resolution of (h) is

(h) for Example, if FpFo1 kHz; C3 1014µm/C; fm1000 MHz; FM 1 MG will be less than 0.1 μm, what better order than in the prototype.

The measurement range is determined as follows from (20), the maximum value of Fowhen Fp0.

For example, if fm1000 MHz = 90aboutFm1 MHz and the difference between tLotLotD10-8C; Fo10310610610-810 MHz

h 2106μm

In the prototype, the maximum value of h is 150 μm.

Thus, the range of D hmax/ hminmeasurements in the prototype will be Dp150, in the proposed system, Dp107, i.e. the measurement range in the proposed system is expanded more than 104time. To eliminate the ambiguity of reference hpin the proposed system, the duration ofppulse GR must be at least two times greater than tLo, i.e.

p2 tLo. In the above example

p> 20 NS.

The deviation tolerance profile microwave parabolic antennas is /16, where is the operating wavelength of the antenna (see Dorokhov A. P. Calculation and design of antenna. Kharkov, 1960), for Example, 0.8 mm; hSS50 μm, hence the relative measurement error of the proposed system is

(hp) 0.2% in the known system
ldpformed by the information controller 26, the output data bus which is connected to respective actuators through DAC 27-30, and its control input IR is connected to the output of GR and bus external synchronization.

Hardware implementation 26 IR and SR 25 can be executed on the microprocessor sets, for example, a series To 1801 To 1810 (see the Reference. Microprocessors and microprocessor sets the IP. Edited Sakhnova, so 2. M. Chapman and hall, 1988).

In comparison with the known technical solution proposed system for controlling the shape of a parabolic antenna provides improved noise immunity due to the use of collimators with controllable optical amplification and aryabhatta managed a focal length that allows you to get a minimal and constant size of the laser beam on the surface of CA and EA and to perform spatial-angular filtering of the axial rays of the beam by introducing into the processing device schema matching and Gating ICH and myCitadel (CF) only at the time of selection of the lower difference frequency; the increase in spatial resolution due to dynamic focusing of the measuring spot on the surface is the surface will be in accordance with (22) dp500 2 10-510310 μm. This spatial resolution is unattainable contact methods, and prototype implementation of such a permission is associated with avoidance of precision actuators move the laser to keep the spot of the touch on the surface of the mirror. In addition, the dynamic focusing of the beams on the AC and EA allows to maintain a constant signal level at the input of the photodetector; the expansion of the dynamic range into three or more order than in the prototype, by introducing into the system an optical modulator driven GCC, for example linearly, the photodetector, mixer and delay lines.

DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING the SHAPE of the SURFACE containing the laser, the two deflector mechanism of the spatial displacement of the laser beam, a photodetector, a computing unit, a controller, motion control, characterized in that, to improve measurement accuracy, noise immunity, the extension of the measurement range and resolution enhancement techniques, it is equipped with a ramp generator voltage and generator sweep, sequentially and coaxially mounted along the laser beam optical modulator, electric entrance through which generativism collimator with a controlled optical amplification to drive movement of the movable elements of the afocal attachment lens of the collimator, the first zoom lens with a controlled focal distance driven moving parts of the optical system of the zoom lens, the reference parabolic antenna, please reflecting surface for reflecting the surface of the inspected antenna, the second zoom lens with controllable focal length of the second actuator moving the component parts of the optical system of the zoom lens, the second collimator with controllable optical amplification with the second actuator moving the movable elements of the afocal attachment lens of the collimator, delay line, generator sweep, schema matching, digital speed meter, inverter, four d / a converters, computer unit made digital, the output of the photodetector is connected to the first input of the mixer, the second input is through the delay line is connected to the generator output oscillating frequency, and the mixer output is connected to the first input of the circuit matches the second input of which is connected through an inverter to the output of the sweep generator, the information input of the digital speed meter is connected to the output of the circuit matches, and the entrance gate is connected to the output of the inverter, the input data bus, the course of the inverter, the output data bus of the controller through a digital to analogue Converter is connected to the control, and the control input of the controller is connected to the input of the sweep generator and the bus of the external synchronization mechanism of the spatial movement is made in the form of a drive connected to the deflectors placed in focus parabolic antennas.

 

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