Method of disposal of toxic chemicals and chemical weapons


(57) Abstract:

Usage: the destruction of toxic chemicals and chemical weapons. Essence: in the rock salt Buryats charging the well to a depth of not less than 700 m, undermine the nuclear charge to create a cavity, after lowering the temperature in the cavity to less than 100oIn her place, destroy objects and nuclear projectile, after sealing the borehole nuclear charge undermine.

The invention relates to the use of the energy of a nuclear explosion for thermal decomposition of chemical warfare agents, biologically hazardous waste industry, pesticides and biological weapons.

Known methods of destruction of toxic substances and other biologically harmful objects implemented in industrial enterprises, through combustion and chemical reactions, in which the named object is converted into non-hazardous compounds [1]

There is a method of destruction of toxic chemicals and chemical weapons by burning at the factory, including the layers of molten salts of alkali metals [2] the disadvantages of this method is limited loading destroy chemical in the case of unforeseen accidents cannot be ruled out leaks, be destroyed substances on the territory of the plant.

Solved technical problem of the invention is the creation of conditions in which the biologically harmful objects placed near the field of nuclear energy charge, are long enough for their assured destruction to high temperatures, obviously higher than the temperature of decomposition.

The expected technical result of environmentally clean and reliable way to destroy ammunition with poisonous substances.

The method is as follows. In a selected area of rock salt (salt dome) Buryats charging well at a depth of 700-1500 m, in which lower nuclear charge, and erected in the borehole sealing clogging. After detonation of the charge and of the cooling cavity to a temperature of about 50-100aboutWith the charging well razvarivat. Resulting from a nuclear explosion and the cooled cavity in rock salt load shells and containers with biologically harmful objects to be destroyed, dropped a second nuclear charge in the well again construct the sealing complex and produce erosion.

In the first four V 12800W1 - m3Here W is the energy of the nuclear charge in kilotons,

N depth charge, m In practice were obtained cavity capacity up to 220 thousand m3.

The cooling cavity to a temperature below 100aboutWith occurs naturally due to molecular thermal conductivity during the six months of the year. This process is well modeled estimated theoretically and indirectly has been repeatedly verified in full-scale experiments, both domestic and United States (nuclear blast "salmon").

The destruction of chemical munitions and other biologically harmful objects is based on the fact that when forming and re-explosions in the cavity for a long time held a high temperature, due to the presence of a large number of melt rock salt, the melting point of which 800aboutC. When forming the explosion produces about 500-1000 ton of melt at 1 kt of energy when you Bang melt to produce more, as in this case, a large proportion of the energy of the explosion remains in the cavity and then spent on melting salt.

About the duration of the existence of high temperature in the cavity can be judged by the results of our numerical calculation of the cavity. According to these calculations, after the second explosion 11 kt in the cavity volume 200000 m3temperatures above 800aboutSince there were 21 h, and at the level of 800aboutWith 11 days. When you release 13 CT volume 33500 m3the duration of temperature above 800aboutWith was 70 h, and the temperature of 800aboutSince he was held for 27 days. From the relation above numbers, it follows that the duration of high temperature in the cavity is approximately inversely proportional to the cavity surface, which determines the rate of formation of the melt and the rate of maintenance of heat in the surrounding salt array.

If oral chemical munitions or containers with biohazard objects duration high temperatures will be much smaller, because the loaded objects create a developed surface, which absorbs thermal energy, including thermal processes large mass of the substance. The surface of the munition casing and containers will melt and heat at the melting point (660aboutFor aluminum hulls up to 1500aboutFor steel) to be transmitted inside otravlyayuscikh substance. Regardless of whether the building destroyed at the biologically dangerous objects will be heated to a temperature higher than the temperature of decomposition. If we assume that the surface of the heat sink when uploading into the cavity munitions and containers have increased ten times, then it can be expected that the duration of high temperature to be reduced by no more than 10-20 times. Then the lifetime temperature above 800aboutWith will be about 1 h, and the level 800aboutWith will persist during the day. This is sufficient for decomposition of toxic substances and hazardous biological objects. Selection of cavity size and energy destroys nuclear charge can be done with the help of calculations.

P R I m m e R. Explosion energy release 10 kt in the salt array at a depth of 1000 m, the cavity is created. The volume of the cavity 34000 m3diameter 40 m Into the cavity through the hole down chemical munitions that must be destroyed. Placing the ammunition in the cavity is assumed irregular, which uses 40% of the useful volume of the cavity. Considering that the proportion of toxic substances in the order of 1 g/cm3and structural materials at an average rate of 7 g/cm3and assuming that the weight of toxic substances in the composition of the ammunition is 25% will receive an average share of aggregate floor is ü styling, we assume the average specific weight of the weight of ammunition, filling the lower part of the cavity equal to 1.2 g/cm3. Under these assumptions the cavity is loaded 16,000 t of chemical munitions. Specific heat capacity of structural materials that comprise 75% of the weight of ammunition, on average, 0.15 cal/g deg; specific heat of decomposition of toxic substances of the same order. We believe that the decomposition occurs during heating of ammunition up to 400-450aboutC. Heating to these temperatures requires spending 60 cal/g deg and respectively to heat the entire mass in 16,000 t want 0,96109kcal, i.e. of the order of 1 kt of energy. The explosion in dry cavity up to 70% of the explosion energy is used for heating air. Over time, this heat engine heat is transferred to the mountain range. It takes some time, depending on the volume of the cavity and the energy charge. For our example it is enough to produce an explosion energy release 5 CT 1 CT is required on the relationship between the warm-up shells of chemical munitions and decay fills their toxic substances. To ensure you can produce an explosion 10-kiloton charge. Seismic effect in these cases will not exceed the action celico the partial decoupling, that is, attenuation of seismic effects in the explosion in the cavity compared to Tselikov explosion.

METHOD of disposal of TOXIC CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS, characterized in that the rock salt Buryats Sardou the well to a depth of not less than 700 m, which undermine the nuclear charge to create a cavity, after lowering the temperature in the cavity to less than 100oIn her place, destroy objects and nuclear charge, after sealing the borehole nuclear charge undermine.


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