Method of disposal of toxic chemicals and chemical weapons
(57) Abstract:Usage: the destruction of toxic chemicals and chemical weapons. Essence: in the rock salt Buryats charging the well to a depth of not less than 700 m, undermine the nuclear charge to create a cavity, after lowering the temperature in the cavity to less than 100oIn her place, destroy objects and nuclear projectile, after sealing the borehole nuclear charge undermine. The invention relates to the use of the energy of a nuclear explosion for thermal decomposition of chemical warfare agents, biologically hazardous waste industry, pesticides and biological weapons.Known methods of destruction of toxic substances and other biologically harmful objects implemented in industrial enterprises, through combustion and chemical reactions, in which the named object is converted into non-hazardous compounds 
There is a method of destruction of toxic chemicals and chemical weapons by burning at the factory, including the layers of molten salts of alkali metals  the disadvantages of this method is limited loading destroy chemical in the case of unforeseen accidents cannot be ruled out leaks, be destroyed substances on the territory of the plant.Solved technical problem of the invention is the creation of conditions in which the biologically harmful objects placed near the field of nuclear energy charge, are long enough for their assured destruction to high temperatures, obviously higher than the temperature of decomposition.The expected technical result of environmentally clean and reliable way to destroy ammunition with poisonous substances.The method is as follows. In a selected area of rock salt (salt dome) Buryats charging well at a depth of 700-1500 m, in which lower nuclear charge, and erected in the borehole sealing clogging. After detonation of the charge and of the cooling cavity to a temperature of about 50-100aboutWith the charging well razvarivat. Resulting from a nuclear explosion and the cooled cavity in rock salt load shells and containers with biologically harmful objects to be destroyed, dropped a second nuclear charge in the well again construct the sealing complex and produce erosion.In the first four V 12800W1 - m3Here W is the energy of the nuclear charge in kilotons,
N depth charge, m In practice were obtained cavity capacity up to 220 thousand m3.The cooling cavity to a temperature below 100aboutWith occurs naturally due to molecular thermal conductivity during the six months of the year. This process is well modeled estimated theoretically and indirectly has been repeatedly verified in full-scale experiments, both domestic and United States (nuclear blast "salmon").The destruction of chemical munitions and other biologically harmful objects is based on the fact that when forming and re-explosions in the cavity for a long time held a high temperature, due to the presence of a large number of melt rock salt, the melting point of which 800aboutC. When forming the explosion produces about 500-1000 ton of melt at 1 kt of energy when you Bang melt to produce more, as in this case, a large proportion of the energy of the explosion remains in the cavity and then spent on melting salt.About the duration of the existence of high temperature in the cavity can be judged by the results of our numerical calculation of the cavity. According to these calculations, after the second explosion 11 kt in the cavity volume 200000 m3temperatures above 800aboutSince there were 21 h, and at the level of 800aboutWith 11 days. When you release 13 CT volume 33500 m3the duration of temperature above 800aboutWith was 70 h, and the temperature of 800aboutSince he was held for 27 days. From the relation above numbers, it follows that the duration of high temperature in the cavity is approximately inversely proportional to the cavity surface, which determines the rate of formation of the melt and the rate of maintenance of heat in the surrounding salt array.If oral chemical munitions or containers with biohazard objects duration high temperatures will be much smaller, because the loaded objects create a developed surface, which absorbs thermal energy, including thermal processes large mass of the substance. The surface of the munition casing and containers will melt and heat at the melting point (660aboutFor aluminum hulls up to 1500aboutFor steel) to be transmitted inside otravlyayuscikh substance. Regardless of whether the building destroyed at the biologically dangerous objects will be heated to a temperature higher than the temperature of decomposition. If we assume that the surface of the heat sink when uploading into the cavity munitions and containers have increased ten times, then it can be expected that the duration of high temperature to be reduced by no more than 10-20 times. Then the lifetime temperature above 800aboutWith will be about 1 h, and the level 800aboutWith will persist during the day. This is sufficient for decomposition of toxic substances and hazardous biological objects. Selection of cavity size and energy destroys nuclear charge can be done with the help of calculations.P R I m m e R. Explosion energy release 10 kt in the salt array at a depth of 1000 m, the cavity is created. The volume of the cavity 34000 m3diameter 40 m Into the cavity through the hole down chemical munitions that must be destroyed. Placing the ammunition in the cavity is assumed irregular, which uses 40% of the useful volume of the cavity. Considering that the proportion of toxic substances in the order of 1 g/cm3and structural materials at an average rate of 7 g/cm3and assuming that the weight of toxic substances in the composition of the ammunition is 25% will receive an average share of aggregate floor is ü styling, we assume the average specific weight of the weight of ammunition, filling the lower part of the cavity equal to 1.2 g/cm3. Under these assumptions the cavity is loaded 16,000 t of chemical munitions. Specific heat capacity of structural materials that comprise 75% of the weight of ammunition, on average, 0.15 cal/g deg; specific heat of decomposition of toxic substances of the same order. We believe that the decomposition occurs during heating of ammunition up to 400-450aboutC. Heating to these temperatures requires spending 60 cal/g deg and respectively to heat the entire mass in 16,000 t want 0,96109kcal, i.e. of the order of 1 kt of energy. The explosion in dry cavity up to 70% of the explosion energy is used for heating air. Over time, this heat engine heat is transferred to the mountain range. It takes some time, depending on the volume of the cavity and the energy charge. For our example it is enough to produce an explosion energy release 5 CT 1 CT is required on the relationship between the warm-up shells of chemical munitions and decay fills their toxic substances. To ensure you can produce an explosion 10-kiloton charge. Seismic effect in these cases will not exceed the action celico the partial decoupling, that is, attenuation of seismic effects in the explosion in the cavity compared to Tselikov explosion. METHOD of disposal of TOXIC CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS, characterized in that the rock salt Buryats Sardou the well to a depth of not less than 700 m, which undermine the nuclear charge to create a cavity, after lowering the temperature in the cavity to less than 100oIn her place, destroy objects and nuclear charge, after sealing the borehole nuclear charge undermine.
FIELD: means for protecting against harmful chemical agents.
SUBSTANCE: method for degassing army outfit materials polluted with organophosphorus physiologically active substance, namely O-(3,3-dimethylfluorobutyl)- methylfluorophosphonate involves treating outfit within 30 min. in electrochemically activated water-salt solution of sodium chloride - soda catholyte with pH value of 12.0 - 12.5 under temperature of 50oC, with liquid value of 8.0 l/kg under the action of ultrasonic field with frequency of 18.6 kHz and intensity of 0.76 W/sm2; drying thereof in hot air under temperature of 80oC within 15 min.
EFFECT: reduced treatment time, increased output, simplified system of army provision with degassing solutions and components for preparation thereof.
FIELD: detoxification and disinfection.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to detoxification of chemical weapons and disinfection of bacteriologic weapons as well as elimination of chemical weapon application consequences. Bifunctional formulation according to invention contains aqueous solution potassium fluoride peroxosolvate as inorganic oxidant, organic solvent, and (additionally) high-molecular weight compounds of cellulose ethers, preferably hydroxyethylcellulose, with surfactant additives. Following proportions of components are used, wt %: potassium fluoride peroxosolvate 20-21, hydroxyethylcellulose 2.5-3.5, surfactant 0.0085-0.01, organic solvent 5-8, and water - the rest. Upon evaporation of water from formulation on treated surface, not permeable for poisons and bacteriologic substances strong film is formed considerably decreasing harmful effects.
EFFECT: increased protection effect.
1 dwg, 12 tbl
FIELD: chemical composition against chemical toxic agents.
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention includes addition of water-absorbing polymer in form of fine dispersed dust in 7 mass % aqueous foam-forming agent solution in amount of 0.050-0.075 mass %. It causes to improved foam stability by 18.0-18.2 times due to forming in aqueous solution structure of fine dispersed polymer particles. Said particles in process of foam formation transfer into foam films and prevent dehydration thereof. Increased foam stability is also caused by dissolution of acrylamide polymer in small amount in water followed by forming of mixed adsorption layer on phase interface with increased structural characteristics.
EFFECT: composition against chemical toxic agents of improved properties.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: environmental pollution control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial process of detoxifying sea and lagoon sediments or grounds polluted by stable organic trace pollutants (e.g., dioxins and furans, polychlorobiphenyls, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons) and inorganic trace pollutants (e.g., Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, etc.). Detoxification process comprises following stages: (i) thermal desorption of organic pollutants in trace amounts from mud or ground and removal of volatile metals from furnace operated at 300 to 700єC to form first gaseous stream containing removed organic pollutants and volatile metals and stream consisting of remaining solids; and (ii) extracting heavy metals from the stream of remaining solids with the aid of inorganic acids or chelating compounds, in one or more steps, to produce chemically dissolved above-indicated heavy metals and essentially detoxified mud or ground having characteristics allowing thus treated mud or ground to be returned to their original place.
EFFECT: achieved complete detoxification with minimum environmental harm.
16 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: decontamination of technological spillage of liquids containing highly toxic component of rocket propellant-1,1 dimethyl hydrozine.
SUBSTANCE: layer of schungite material is poured on floor or site where spillage is expected to occur. Used as schungite material is material obtained from schungite rock of III kind at mass content of carbon of 25-35% and dispersity of 0.5-5.0 mm; schungite material is poured in layer of 10-25 cm.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of decontamination; facilitated procedure.
2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: detoxification methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to detoxifying polychlorinated organic wastes containing toxic high-boiling substances. For this aim, wastes are hydrogenised on supported palladium catalyst at 60-130°C and pressure 10-50 atm in presence of 10-20% sodium hydroxide solution in biphasic water/hydrocarbon system. According to invention, hydrocarbon solution of waste, prior to be subjected to hydrogenation, is filtered at 70-100°C through filter of nonwoven polymeric material allowing waste particles at least 1 μm in size to be retained, after which reaction mixture is charged with lower aliphatic alcohol in amount 1 to 20 wt %.
EFFECT: essentially increased waste processing productivity with minimum formation of secondary toxic substances.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 12 ex
FIELD: isolation and neutralization of burial of hazardous matters on the bottom of water basins.
SUBSTANCE: method is based upon limiting contact of hazardous matters with water by means of covering them with loose material. Accumulations of hazardous matters washed out at bottom ground from metal tanks are neutralized by means of covering with crushed shale. Preferably the hazardous matters on the bottom which matters accumulate in metal vessels, missiles, bombs and in cases of sunken vessels should be covered with crushed aluminosilicate before being covered with crushed shale.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of neutralization.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: continuous operation ejection installations.
SUBSTANCE: ejection installation can be used for destroying arms provided with chemical poisoning matters, namely poisoning gases. Installation has system for storing and feeding neutralizing solutions, system for supplying matter to be processed, ejector provided with mixing chamber, diffuser and branches for supplying main working stream and matter to be processed, flow-through reactor connected in series with diffuser, container for storing products of reaction and gas cleaning system. Installation is provided with system for supplying matters under pressure to reactor, namely, neutral gas, and system for checking seal-proof of connections. System for supplying neutral gas to flow-through reactor has at least one nozzle apparatus and lock-adjusting and control equipment which are connected together and with source of neutral gas under pressure. Systems for supplying and storing neutralizing solutions and feeding processed matter are connected with branches for supplying main working flow and processed matter of ejector. Flow-through reactor is made in form of pipeline with at least one axial turbine mixer, disposed inside reactor, for activating chemical reactions. Nozzle apparatus of system for supplying neutral gas into flow-through reactor is mounted in front of axial turbine mixer. System of checking connections for seal-tightness is made in form of at least one ring-shaped chamber embracing item to be inspected, aids for creating excess pressure of inert medium and test equipment. All the units of system are connected together and are filled with inert medium. Conditions of processes of chemical conversion of poisoning matters in ejector are improved and level of inspection of parameters of operation is increased.
EFFECT: improved ecological cleanness; improved safety of detoxication process.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: methods of treatment of halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products of a fume gas clearing process.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to a method of treatment of halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products of a process of clearing of a fume gas. The solid or semisolid wastes are comminuted. Then they are exposed to the first stage of extraction by preparation of a water suspension having pH at least equal to 10. The solid and liquid materials separate from each other. The process is conducted one or more times. The produced halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products dry. The solution produced at the stage of separation regenerate and treat with acid composition to obtain pH between 7 and 10, preferably between 9.25 and 9.75. The method allows to transform the halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products into one or more useful products, for example, a road salt free of heavy metals. The method is simple and cost-saving.
EFFECT: the method allows to transform the halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products into useful products and the process is simple and cost-saving.
26 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 7 tbl
FIELD: methods of treatment of fluocarbon raw.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of treatment of fluocarbon raw. The method of treatment of fluocarbon raw provides for heating by means of high frequency induction of a heating zone of a reaction chamber up to the temperature of no more than 950°C, heating in the heating zone of fluocarbon raw, which contains at least one fluocarbon compound, so, that the fluocarbon compound dissociates with production of at least one predecessor of fluocarbon or its reactive kinds; and refrigerating of the predecessor of fluocarbon or its reactive kinds, in the result of which from the predecessor of fluocarbon or its reactive kinds forms at least one more desirable fluocarbon compound. The technical result is conversion of the fluocarbon raw into the useful products by the low-cost reliable non-polluting environment universal and easily controlled method.
EFFECT: the invention ensures conversion of the fluocarbon raw into the useful products by the low-cost reliable non-polluting environment universal and easily controlled method.
12 cl, 10 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: atomic physics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of conducting an explosive reaction, including a nuclear or thermonuclear reaction. An explosive reaction is carried out in the disclosed method by periodically blowing up an explosive device (7) in a mass of molten metal (2) or heated steam inside a pressure-resistant housing (1), through which heat accumulated in the said mass of molten metal or heated steam is collected. The explosive device is fed into the said mass through a channel with valve devices (4, 5, 6) which open when the explosive device passes inside the mass and close after the passage thereof until the moment of explosion of the explosive device. In the present method, the material used in the mass which accumulates the heat energy of the periodic explosions of explosive devices can be any substance except a metal or heated steam, suitable for the necessary heating in a molten state or steam; an explosive device in the form of a projectile is fired into the mass of each type of the said material or a mixture of the said materials, while fixing the explosion thereof in the required zone of the inner space of the said mass.
EFFECT: high efficiency of accumulating heat energy released from an explosion.
2 cl, 13 dwg