The method of thermal processing of solid and pasty waste paint and varnish materials
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the processing of organic waste, in particular to methods of thermal processing of paints, and can be used in the chemical, machine-building industries, as well as in the automobile and tractor industry. The method of waste processing, including drying, thermal decomposition of the waste and the oxidation of the organic component, is that the waste is dried at 105 - 120oC for 1 to 2 h, and then lead thermal decomposition at 500 - 600oWith before the end of the selection combustible gas of the dry weight of the waste, and the oxidation of the organic component of dry mass of waste are in excess of oxygen of 1 - 1.5 m3/ kg at 500 - 600oSince, moreover, thermal decomposition of waste in the temperature range 300 - 350oTo make the shutter speed for 1 to 2 h, while exhaust gases flow through the cooling system. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 1 table. The invention relates to the disposal of organic wastes by thermal methods and can be used in chemical industry, machinery, automobile and tractor industry in the processing of pasty, in particular lacarra what is that pasty waste, deposited on a perforated surface with a stream of compressed air with a temperature of 20-50aboutWith pressure 4000-6000 mm century. tbsp. at a speed of 50-70 m/s, is injected into the furnace in a swirling flow of the combustion products of natural gas, having a temperature of 1600-1800aboutWith, and when the natural gas consumption of 150 nm3/h, used for drying the waste. Precipitation heat treatment process he is neutralized by oxidation of its organic and mineral trapping part. The organic part is oxidized to non-toxic gases, CO2and H2Oh, which are combustion products at 950-1000aboutC.This method has the following disadvantages:
1. Drying of the waste produced in the combustion of natural gas at 1600-1800aboutC and a flow rate of 50-70 m/s, which results in excessive fluid and 184 is here/kg or 1.5 kWh/kg Feed material for drying requires significant costs to create such pressure 4000 - 6000 mm century Art. requires the use of centrifugal compressors type C-91-1 a power consumption of 500 kWh/kg2. High process temperature (950-1000aboutC) leads to the vapor of heavy metals in the gas phase, so it needs today and apparatus (wet cleaning foam apparatus, scrubbers or dry cleaning in electrostatic precipitators) does not allow to achieve the norms and MPE, if the original gas phase before cleaning the quantities of heavy metals exceeded the MAC for more than 1%
3. High flow speed of the gas phase lead to discharge into the atmosphere of fine dust, including heavy metals and hydrocarbon compounds.4. Generated from waste incineration ash contains char and soot particles and represents a spectrum with a particle size of from 0.5 to 5 mm, which does not allow to produce commercial products and require subsequent disposal.5. Thermal waste treatment in an oxidizing atmosphere forms a gas phase in the form of flue gases from which it is impossible to condense light medium temperature hydrocarbon fraction contained in certain types of wastes, which consequently eliminates the possibility of obtaining marketable products.6. The high cost of coolants on the recycling process.The technical challenge is to improve environmental conditions in the process of neutralization pasty waste, in particular paints, obtaining marketable products and reducing the consumption of tepano.1. The improvement of environmental conditions.1.1. Excludes the allocation of heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Zn, Cd) in the gas phase.1.2. No in the flue gas hydrocarbon fraction and WITH.2. Obtaining marketable products.3. Reducing energy consumption in 4-7 times.This object is achieved in that in the method of thermal neutralization pasty waste, in particular paints, including drying, thermal decomposition of the waste and the oxidation of the organic component of dry waste at 105-120aboutC for 1-2 h, and then are thermally decomposed at 500-600aboutWith before the end of the selection combustible gas of the dry weight of the waste, and the oxidation of the organic component of dry mass of waste are in excess of oxygen in 1-1,5 m3/kg 500-600aboutSince, moreover, thermal decomposition of waste in the temperature range 300-350aboutTo make the shutter speed for 1-2 h, and the exhaust gases are passed through the condensing system.Distinctive features of the prototype and sufficient in all cases to which the requested scope of legal protection, the following are the essential features of the invention:
suoneria allocation of combustible gases from the dry weight of the waste;
the oxidation of the organic component of waste are in excess of oxygen, equal to 1-1 .5 m3/kg, with 500-600aboutC.The essential feature characterizing the invention in the particular case, namely in the case of thermal treatment of waste, in particular paints and varnishes containing solvents is that when thermal decomposition of waste in the temperature range 300-350aboutTo make the shutter speed for 1-2 h, and the exhaust gases are passed through the condensing system.Drying of waste, in particular paints, carried out at 105-120aboutC. the Lower temperature limit provides maximum moisture evaporation when supported by the negative pressure in the closed volume of 2-5 mm century Art. and the upper limit restricts intensive selection medium fractions in the gas phase. This condition is necessary to ensure that waste treatment, in particular paints, to carry out the condensation temperature of fractions with obtaining ingredients for cooking solvents.Thermal decomposition pasty waste lead up to 500-600aboutC. the Lower temperature limit is determined by the boiling point of the heavy hydrocarbon Fracci (zinc, the lead) and their oxides with a low temperature of sublimation. When conducting the process with a temperature below 500aboutWith increasing carbon content in the pigment, i.e., degrades the quality of the product. The upper limit of the temperature is limited by the increase in the vapor pressure of heavy metals and their oxides and the possibility of their separation.Cleaning the gas phase from heavy metals is extremely difficult technically. The purification system in the form of electrostatic precipitator or wet gas cleaning is expensive and can ensure the achievement of maximum permissible concentrations and emission limit values set in the present time, only with careful dosage of waste and reliable operation of thermal and gas-cleaning equipment. Set the same standards for maximum allowable concentrations and emissions in their absolute values exceed the performance of international standards. Thus, keeping the temperature during thermal decomposition of 500-600aboutTo exclude the selection in gas phase oxides of heavy metals and elemental heavy metals, thereby improving the ecology in the area. The oxidation of the organic component of dry mass of waste are in excess of atmospheric oxygen, cookilaria at temperatures below 500aboutWith the dry part of the waste is not fully oxidized coke residue, which does not ensure the quality of the product, and at temperatures above 600aboutWith the sublimation starts fumes of oxides of heavy metals.The lower limit of the excess of oxygen is determined by the temperature in the furnace. The temperature of the air supplied to the furnace, 18-25aboutC. At a flow rate of oxygen below 1 nm31 mg waste in the furnace temperature rises above 600aboutC. Increase excess oxygen above 1.5 nm31 kg of waste leads to waste of energy, lowering the temperature in the furnace below 500aboutC.During thermal decomposition in the temperature range 300-350aboutTo make the shutter speed for 1-2 h, and the exhaust gases can pass through the condensing system.When 300-350aboutTo end the selection medium organic fractions, condensation provides obtaining intermediates for the preparation of solvents. The upper temperature limit equal to 350aboutC, limited by the fact that above him begins the evolution of high-temperature fractions, the condensation of which are formed of resin, which adheres to the walls of the device and impair the process of condensa the time sloanii waste at lower temperatures is not allocated primary medium fraction, increasing the carbon content in the solid residue, i.e., degrades the quality of the product. Maintaining the temperature above 350aboutSince it is not economically feasible, as related to the additional energy consumption. Exposure time 1-2 hours due to waste. In the processing of pasty waste in the form of lumps, the exposure time is not less than 1 h, and in the processing of pasty waste in the form of a homogeneous mixed mass to 2 hours, allowing full allocation in the gas phase medium fractions and obtaining maximum yield intermediates.Pasty wastes loaded in the form of a sticky mass, the selection from which the gas phase goes from the surface with the formation of pores, and gradually the channels, which are derived gases reach of the center of mass. By the time the process is longer than the selection of the gas phase of the individual clumps.P R I m e R 1. In a container made in the form of a cylinder with a diameter of 850 mm and a height of 1350 mm stainless steel mesh, load pasty waste enamel SA-182 in the amount of 250 kg in the form of lumps.The composition of the enamel SA-182, wt.The organic part (Napoli-
marinovannaya resin AC-1033) 63,9
CZK lead yellow 23,8
calcium oxide 1,8
The container is installed in the drum-type induction furnace, and then tightly close the lid, serves the voltage on the inductor and start warming up due to the energy generated in the drum, placed in the electromagnetic field of the inductor. Simultaneously with the supply voltage on the inductor include exhaust fan.The drying process is conducted at 110aboutWith within 1.5 hours of the End of the drying process is controlled by the content of water vapor in the gas phase. After drying, the temperature was raised to 550aboutWith and lead the process of thermal decomposition of heavy organic fractions. In the gas phase are distinguished CO, CO2WITH2H2WITH2H5WITH3H6WITH4H10and a couple of heavier organic compounds. The allocation of hydrocarbon products is due to thermal degradation of the organic component of the waste (mainly derived radicals WITH17H34). Flammable gases pass into the secondary combustion chamber, where burned at 1000-1200aboutC. monitoring the completion of the process of thermal decomposition is carried out on the contents of CO and hydrocarbons. If no in the gas phase after the furnace thermal process razlozheny is remaining in the container dry weight. To do this in the oven on the pipeline serving the air in the amount of 1.25 nm31 kg of waste by dry weight. The combustion process is at 550aboutAnd the end is controlled by the presence in the gas phase only nitrogen and oxygen. The flue gases after the afterburner diluted with air to 80-100aboutWith and act on a bag filter to remove dust, and then discharged into the atmosphere.The result is a commercial product that meets the technical requirements of the pigment; flue gases emitted into the atmosphere, does not contain CO, hydrocarbons, fumes, heavy metals and their oxides; flow of fluids is 1.3 kWh/kgP R I m m e R 2. Pasty waste (in the form of sticky smooth) coatings, in this case enamel SA-182, loaded into a container, set in the oven, served voltage on the inductor and lead the process of drying. The water vapor and volatile fractions come into the burning chamber. Drying is carried out at 110aboutC for 1.5 h and supervise the completion of drying on outstay water vapor in the exhaust gas after the furnace. After drying produce switching of the exhaust gases flow in a refrigeration unit that represents the shell & tube, sadanaga through the heat exchanger, partially condensed, and the condensate, representing the components of the solvent is collected in the tank. Nscontainerframe flammable gases pass into the secondary combustion chamber, where it is burned at 1000-1200aboutC. the Process is carried out for 1.5 h, and then produce a shutdown of the refrigeration unit, and the gas flow is directed into the secondary combustion chamber, bypassing a refrigeration unit. This operation allows to retrieve the components of the solvent to be used as commercial products.The table shows the results of experimental research on various modes for each of the stages of the process to determine optimal values.When drying pasty wet waste coatings in an oven at 100aboutS, i.e. below the lower limit (example No. 1), the residual moisture content is quite high and is 10 wt. which leads to the ingress of water in the solvent during the subsequent cooling stage of combustible gases. When drying the same waste at 130aboutS, i.e. above the upper limit (example No. 5) increased energy consumption and there is a partial distillation of the hydrocarbon content of organic compounds is 42% i.e. 4% (compared with sample No. 1) is the removal of hydrocarbons, Ari drying waste for 0.5 h, i.e. below the lower limit (sample No. 6) moisture completely no time to leave.When drying waste within 2.5 h (sample No. 10) is a waste of energy. However, depending on the type of waste (pasty or solid) the drying time is selected respectively from 1 to 2 o'clockThermal decomposition at a temperature below 500about(450aboutWith the example N 11) does not completely remove the liquid heavy hydrocarbon fraction, and at temperatures above 600about(700aboutWith the example N 15) in the gas phase starts to separate the oxides of lead and chromium and, in addition, rising costs of electricity.The process of oxidation (combustion) of solid coke residue in dry weight of waste in the supply of oxygen is less than 1 nm3/kg (0.5 nm3/kg, example N 16) dry part of the waste does not completely remove organics from pigment and at the same time, there has been a growth temperature in the furnace and the transition into the gas phase oxides of the heavy metals lead and chromium. At a flow rate of oxygen of more than 1.5 nm3/kg (2.0 nm3/kg, sample No. 20) there is a decrease of the temperature in the furnace and there is a need to include electric heating, which leads to waste of energy. When conducting the process of the Oka products impossible.If 700aboutWith is the vapor of heavy metal oxides in the gas phase. 1. The METHOD of THERMAL processing of SOLID AND PASTY WASTE PAINT and varnish MATERIALS, including drying, thermal decomposition of the waste and the oxidation of the organic component of the coke residue waste, wherein the waste is dried at 105 120oC for 1 to 2 h, then subjected to thermal decomposition by raising the temperature up to 500 - 600oWith the end of the selection combustible gas of the dry weight of the waste, and the oxidation of the organic component of the coke residue waste are in excess of oxygen of 1 to 1.5 m3/kg 500 600oC.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that when termicheskom waste decomposition in the temperature range 300 350oTo make the shutter speed for 1 to 2 h, and the exhaust gases are passed through the condensing system.
FIELD: reworking silicon-containing vegetable raw materials, including rice and oats.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes carbonization of initial raw material performed in vortex flow of oxidizing gas-heat carrier followed by separation of intermediate solid product and gaseous combustion products removed from roasting zone; proposed method includes also oxidizing roasting of carbonized intermediate product by passing the oxidizing gas through layer of product at rate ensuring "filtering layer" mode. Plant proposed for realization of this method includes two cylindrical furnaces interconnected through separation unit. First cylindrical furnace has branch pipe in its upper part for loading the raw material and pipe mounted inside furnace and used for tangential delivery of oxidizing gas-heat carrier through branch pipe fitted in lower part of said pipe. Second cylindrical furnace is provided with adjustable external heating system and oxidizing gas supply unit mounted in lower part and final product unloading unit mounted at its outlet. Separation unit includes device for removal of gaseous combustion products; initial raw material supply branch pipe, cylindrical furnaces, inner pipe and separation unit are located coaxially. Proposed method is used for production of silicon from vegetable raw material due to continuity of process at preset physico-chemical properties: purity, structure, specific furnace.
EFFECT: optimization and intensification of process.
10 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: incineration of waste.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises charging device, working chamber with plasma heaters, system for purifying combustion products and removing decomposition products, and system for automatic control. The working chamber is made of two plasma heaters which form reaction and combustion chambers which form flowing cylindrical passage. The passage receives the charging device provided with sealed valve and batcher for supplying waste. The system for purifying and removing decomposition products is made of liquid emulsifying device of vortex type provided with heat exchanger, settler, and smoke exhauster. The automatic control system is provided with indicating unit, control unit, unit for control of parameters of the plasma heaters, and system unit on the base of a computer. The decomposition process is performed with oxygen deficiency in the first reaction chamber in the plasma flow. The flow is generated by injecting electric-arc plasma from the external zone of the chamber. The air jets are set in rotation around their axes, whereas the plasma charge is set in rotation about the central electrode. The decomposition products are burnt up in the second chamber, expanded, cooled, and purified. The flow rates of waste, ejecting air, and purifying emulsifying liquid as well as the power of the arcs of the plasma generators are controlled in such a way to provide a given value of pH in the settler.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and ecological safety of the process.
12 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed installation contains accumulating reservoir, dust trap and adsorber, all connected with engine nozzle by gas lines and arranged in technological sequence. Dust trap is made in form of hermetically sealed chamber provided with upper and lower rows of plates arranged at tilting at equal angle. Plates of upper and lower rows alternate, and their outer edges overlap each other. Coarse and fine filters are installed between dust trap and adsorber. Said filters made in one housing are arranged on wire skeleton. Adsorber is made in form of vertical cylinder whose lower part is filled with crushed stone, and upper part, with activated charcoal.
EFFECT: provision of ecologically safe combustion of solid-propellant charges of small-size rocket engine in the air.
FIELD: recovery of plastics or other constituents of waste materials.
SUBSTANCE: method includes heat processing of used tires and industrial rubber articles in recirculating pyrolysis gases in a reactor at 200-500°C and separating the pyrolysis products in a separation apparatus. The pyrolysis products, C1-C4 hydrocarbons, are fed to the bottom section of the reactor from the separation apparatus. The flue gases outflow from the furnace of the reactor, flow through the heat exchanger mounted inside the reactor in order to heat the recirculating gases and material to be processed, and are fed to the hopper for heating grinded material.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: burning waste gases of pyrolysis furnaces in reworking solid domestic wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed combustion chamber includes mixing chamber with active and passive nozzles mounted at its inlet; active and passive nozzles are connected respectively to compressed air source and to waste gas source; mixing chamber is made in form of diffuser at aperture angle of 10-18 deg; ratio of diameters of active and passive nozzles is equal to: Dact:Dpas=0.35-0.4.
EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency of use of vapor-and-gas cycle.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: furnace comprises front, back , and side shields on the corresponding furnace walls. In its top part, the back shield forms a narrow section which divides the furnace into the bottom and top chambers. Within the bottom chamber, the front wall of the furnace is provided with a slopping fuel supplying device which points downward. The bottom chamber receives nozzles for air blowing. The bottom part of the back shield goes into a hearth shield which has an elevation from the front to the back shield. In the bottom section of the hearth shield between pipes there are interrupted clearances. The ash bin underlies the hearth shield in the zone of the clearances. The nozzles for air blowing are arranged in longitudinal rows in series between the pipes of the front hearth, and back shields and are directed along the hearth and back shields off the frontal shield toward the furnace exit. The nozzles of each longitudinal row are arranged in a single vertical plane. The sides of the furnace in the zone of the boundary between the bottom and top chambers are provided with additional blowing nozzles for the complete combustion.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to apparatus of regenerative thermal oxidation with multi pass valves.
SUBSTANCE: the apparatus for regenerative thermal oxidation for gas processing has a combustion zone, the first heat exchanging layer keeping heat exchanging surroundings and connecting with the combustion zone; the second heat exchanging layer keeping heat exchanging surroundings and connecting with the combustion zone; a valve for alternate direction of the gas flow between the first and the second heat exchanging layers. At that the valve has the first valve passage and the second valve passage separated from the first valve passage; a flow distributor having an admission passage communicates with the help of fluid medium with the admission opening of the surroundings and an exhaust passage communicates with the help of fluid medium with exhaust opening of fluid surroundings. At that the distributor is fulfilled with possibilities of its the first and the second valve passages between the first position in which the first valve passage communicates with the help of liquid with the admission passage and the second valve passage communicates with the help of liquid surroundings with exhaust passage and the second position in which the indicated the first valve passage communicates with the help of the fluid surrounding with exhaust passage and the second passage of the entry of the valve with the help of liquid surroundings communicates with the admission passage. At that the distributor of flow has a blocking surface which blocks the flow through the first part of the first valve passage and through the second part of the second valve passage when the distributor of the flow is between the first and the second positions and is fulfilled with possibility of its turning to 180o between the first and thesecond positions. At that valve passage is divided as the first so is the second at least into two chambers and the first and the second parts of the valve passages are congruous.
EFFECT: simplifies the construction, provides comfort of controlling and exploitation and deep removal of volatile organic combinations.
22 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: thermal processing of domestic, industrial and other sorts of waste.
SUBSTANCE: assembly for hydrocarbon waste thermal decomposition has thermal reactor and thermal decomposition gases discharge system. Thermal reactor is mounted in vertical and is made to have vertical loading. Layer of electroconductive coal and layer of insulator are disposed at exit area of thermal reactor. The layers make the reactor gas-proof. Gas-discharge tube is mounted inside the thermal reactor. Casing is put on the top part of the tube in such a way that lower part casing is submerged into electroconductive coal. Filter-catalyst is located in area between gas-discharge tube and casing. Case of the thermal reactor is provided with heat-protective envelope. Case of reactor and gas-discharge tube are connected to corresponding terminals for feeding power voltage. Gas-discharge tube is connected with thermal decomposing gases discharge system through rectifier.
EFFECT: complete processing of components.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: burning separated oil-containing wastes formed during operation of ships.
SUBSTANCE: proposed incinerator burner includes several injectors for delivery of oil and diesel fuel wastes sprayed by air. Air injector equipped with swirler is located in front of oil and diesel fuel waste injectors; oil waste injector is located closer and distance of both fuel injectors may be changed relative to air injector whose axis lies at right angle relative to axes of fuel injectors; mounted in front of fuel injectors are jets whose orifices have diameter lesser than that of injectors.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of burning fuel; reduction of toxic emissions from reactor.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises grinding organic agents, heating without air access first in the chamber for removing moisture and then in the chamber for pyrolysis, and condensing portion of vapor phase to provide liquid fuel. The device comprise grinder, charging-batching device, chamber for removing moisture, chamber for heat treatment (pyrolysis), separating device and condensing device. The charging-batching device is provided with a pickup detecting the moisture of organic agent. The pickup is mounted upstream of the chamber for removing moisture and is connected with the signal converter.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
4 cl, 6 dwg