Building or structure erected on a heaving soils
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the construction, namely the lung structures buildings and structures for areas of deep seasonal frost and intense swelling soils. The technical result - the reduction of the effects of frost heave forces on the building or structure with sprinkled around the perimeter of the local ground height of not less than the active area of heaving and crest width not less than the depth of freezing. At the bottom of the plane contact sprinkled with a Foundation built airtight screen, and the base of the building has an artificial cushion, made of draining material. The latter is the sole on the planned surface of the construction site and through the volume of the filter is connected to the drainage channel. Moreover, the thickness of the cushion is determined from the relation given in the text description. 1 Il. The invention relates to the construction, namely the lung structures buildings and structures erected on heaving soils.There is a method of protecting foundations from the influence of tangential forces of frost heaving of soils by creating under paving artificial pillows, for example, from slag 
Known also building erected for heaving soils, including the bed of gravel and drainage ditch.His main drawback is the lack of protivoradiolokatsionnoy protection pads, which ultimately leads to the above consequences.Closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is the Foundation of a building for the device in heaving soils, including filling it with soil base height of not less than the active area of heaving and crest width not less than the depth of frost penetration 
In this invention the basis for the proof of stability of the Foundation on the concept, namely, that due to the curvature of the freezing front in the filling (concavity to the Foundation) horizontal frost heaving force transmitted to the Foundation, are very small, and therefore the strength of the freezing soil sprinkled with Foundation insignificant. Thus ndment.The main disadvantage of this technical solution is its low efficiency in the formation of sufficiently strong and stable snow cover around the building at the beginning (in the first half) of winter or at the close occurrence relative to the soles of the groundwater Foundation. The effectiveness of the event is even more reduced when the combination of these conditions.In the first case the snow, being a good heat insulator, will contribute to the alignment of the freezing depth across the width of the surfacing. And then according to the above concept of this development process will lead to the formation of large horizontal and, as a consequence, the tangential forces of frost heave on the side surface of the base. Last, under certain conditions, can take values sufficient to buckling of the entire structure. Verifying the calculations made according to the existing methods (see design Guide bases of buildings and constructions (neisp them. N. P. Gersevanov. M Stroiizdat. 1977 376 S. manual for the design of foundations of buildings and structures) to SNiP 2.02.01 -83. M Stroiizdat. 1986 415 S.) showed that freezing to a depth of 1.3 m sprinkled from slabopuchinistyh ground, made around the building with p is the may be 78 kN. It is 4-5 times more limit values for typical constructions of one-storey wooden houses and almost 1.5 times for a one-story brick buildings with the wall thickness of 0.64 mThus, even when the soil, which is made from the coating, characterized slabopuchinistyh condition, the device sprinkled without additional protivougonnykh events is not a reliable guarantor of the stability of light-weight buildings and structures.The reliability of the above structures is even more reduced at a close position relative to the soles of the Foundation soil or soil ("perched" water. In this case, dramatically increases the migration of water in the liquid phase to the freezing front, which leads to a significant increase in the intensity of the frost heaving of the soil mixtures and, at least to the degree increases the degree of punitory underlying layers, are still in a thawed state. Due to the marked character of the process increases the intensity of the flow of water in the vapor state in the plane of the contact tverdomedove soil layer sprinkled with Foundation. Here it condenses on the concrete and freezes, causing the secondary death is on the rebound, developing on the side surface of the Foundation structure.The invention is directed to solving the problem of improving the reliability of a building or structure by reducing the forces acting on frost heaving of the soil mixtures.This is achieved by the fact that the building or structure, including advancement design and Foundation with sprinkled around the perimeter of the local ground height of not less than the active area of heaving and crest width not less than the depth of freezing, in the lower part of the plane of contact sprinkled with a Foundation built airtight screen, and at the base of the package has an artificial cushion, made of draining material and located sole at the level of the planned surface of the construction site, and the pillow by volume of the filter is connected to the drainage channel, arranged around a building or structure, and its thickness is determined from the relation
tphto+l l where tpthe thickness of the cushion of the draining material;
htothe height of capillary rise of water in the material of the cushion from the water-saturated soil natural reason;
l l the absolute value of the sum of the precisions of the vertical layout surface, the symptoms are
airtight screen in the plane of contact sprinkled with Foundation;
the screen is arranged in the lower plane of contact sprinkled with Foundation;
artificial bed of drainage material at the base sprinkled;
the pillow is sole at the level of the planned surface of the construction site;
the drainage channel;
the channel is arranged around a building or structure;
the cushion is connected to the drainage channel;
the cushion is connected to the drainage channel through the volume of the filter;
the thickness of the cushion is greater than or equal to the sum of the height of capillary rise of water in the cushion material with the absolute value of the sum of the precisions of the vertical planning of the surfaces of the construction site and pillows, taken with the same characters.The above indicates that the invention conforms to the criterion "novelty".Declare a set of distinctive features can reduce the effects of frost heave of the soil sprinkled on the building or structure. This is achieved by performing the above signs following.Airtight screen in the warm period from Johann Kolm, who, inevimy, etc., water) in the plane of the contact sprinkled with Foundation. In winter time the screen located at the bottom of this plane, protects it from water penetration in the form of vapour from ground water and thereby reduces the chance of re-freezing tverdomedove soil layer sprinkled with Foundation.Artificial bed of drainage material at the thickness of it is greater than or equal to the sum of the height of capillary rise of water in the material of which it is composed, with the absolute value of the sum of the precisions of the vertical planning of the surfaces of the construction site and pillows, taken with the same signs, prevents migration of ground water in the liquid phase to the freezing front. As a result, the process of frost heaving of the soil sprinkled acquires decaying nature, i.e., the swelling occurs in conditions similar to the closed macrozoobenthos system.The location of the soles cushion at the level of the planned surface of the construction site eliminates the possibility of clogging clay particles coming from the surface water in the drainage channel, and provides a reliable drainage mixtures, as well as intensive drainage of ground and bytów is placestogo removal (sufoziya) soil particles, from which it is composed. This ensures safe and durable operation pillows as breaker migration of water in the liquid phase to the freezing front from groundwater.Thus, the invention meets the criterion of "positive effect".The search, conducted by patent documents and published sources that discuss the design of buildings and structures for heaving soils, allows you to set the following distinctive features:
airtight screen in the plane of contact sprinkled with Foundation;
the screen is arranged in the lower part of the plane of contact sprinkled with Foundation;
artificial bed of drainage material located sole at the level of the planned surface of the construction site;
the cushion is connected to the drainage channel through the volume of the filter;
the thickness of the cushion tpdetermined from the relation
tphto+l l where htothe height of capillary rise of water in the material of the cushion from the water-saturated soil natural reason;
l l the absolute value of the sum of the precisions of the vertical planning of the surfaces of building super is of gives it in addition to the previously known new property breaker migration of water in the liquid phase from ground water to the freezing front ground sprinkled in.The above allows us to conclude that the proposed solution meets the criterion of "substantial differences".The drawing schematically shows a fragment of the building cross section.The building includes residential 1 and production 2 rooms (floors), filling 3 of the local ground mount on top (e.g., formation) made on the perimeter of the building, the drainage channel 4, arranged around the building Foundation 5, airtight screen 6 (preferably from hydrophobic elastic material, plastic film, rubber, etc), artificial cushion 7 of the draining material, surround the filter 8.The coating 3 of the building is local, i.e., heaving soil taken from the reserves resulting from the construction of the drainage channel 4 and production (cisterns, cellars, etc.,) and kulturnoistorijskog (e.g. swimming pools) purpose.The building operates as follows.In the warm season surface water flow on fixed (e.g., formation) surface sprinkled 3 in the drainage channel 4 and removed outside the building. Some of them entering the plane to 7. Groundwater, domestic and other water coming into the cushion 7, drained it, and through volume filter 8 is disposed in the channel 4, not podkapovas from the last.In winter, the cushion 7, made in compliance with the stated ratio, prevents migration of ground water in the liquid phase to the freezing front. The process of frost heaving of the soil sprinkled 3 acquires a decaying nature with the formation of the active zone and, therefore, takes place in conditions that are close to the closed macrozoobenthos system. Airtight screen 6 prevents penetration of water in the vapor state from groundwater in the plane of the contact sprinkled 3 base 5, thus reducing the strength of the freezing of the latter with tegmentum layer of soil sprinkled 3.Practical use of the invention allows to increase the reliability (stability) of a building or structure for heaving soils, and in some cases successfully combine two functions housing and manufacturing. BUILDING OR STRUCTURE ERECTED ON a HEAVING SOILS, including advancement design and Foundation with sprinkled around the perimeter of the local ground height of not less than the active zone PU is sprinkled with a Foundation built airtight screen, and in the basement of the building artificial bed of drainage material, which is available on the planned surface of the construction site and connected by volume of the filter with the drainage channel, placed around a building or structure, and the thickness of the cushion is determined from the relation
< / BR>where tnthe thickness of drainage material;
htothe height of capillary rise of water in the material of the pillow;
the absolute value of the sum of the precisions of the vertical planning of the surfaces of the construction site and pillows, taken with the same signs.
FIELD: building, particularly for erecting pile-plate foundations for industrial buildings and structures, for instance for main buildings of heat power plants.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging drilled cast-in-place pile, grouting plate grillage and installing antivibration mounts. Anchorage reinforcement is placed in pile heads and arranged along marked building axes. Anchorage reinforcement is then grouted and resilient antivibration mounts are installed at pile heads. Resilient antivibration mounts are fixed in plane on anchorage reinforcement with the use of fasteners so that antivibration mounts may perform restricted movement. Installed on antivibration mounts is rigid metal foundation frame of upper building in which anchoring reinforcement for securing skeleton of building to be erected is installed. Reinforcement rods and supply lines are inserted in process orifices formed in foundation frame beams and frame is grouted to form panel grillage.
EFFECT: reduced work content, increased simplicity and speed of bearing grillage frame erection; improved building stability.
9 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly frame structures for civil and industrial buildings to be erected mainly on sinking territories or territories to be developed.
SUBSTANCE: method for connecting eccentrically loaded column with foundation by fixing thereof in orifice formed in foundation involves forming composite multi-stepped foundation having central, medium and outer steps and through wedge-like orifices made in each step, wherein orifices taper downwards with cone angle of 1/10 to 1/5 (5.7 - 11.3o) and each step and lower column end are also wedge-like and have cone angles of 1/12 - 1/6 (4.8 - 9.5o), steps are inserted one into another and wedge-like column end extends into central orifice of central foundation step; tightly installing pair of force mounting wedges in gap between wedge-like column end and foundation, wherein each mounting wedge comprises two levers pivotally connected by the first ends to change cone angle of wedge and to regulate column verticality; securing jack communicating with hydraulic pulsing pumping plant to one lever; filling gap between foundation steps and gap between wedge-like column end and foundation with solid powder material, particularly with crushed granite with particle dimensions of 5 - 10 mm; covering upper part of central orifice of central step with concrete plug of 40 - 50 mm thickness along column perimeter; arranging centering pads on concrete plug symmetrically about eccentrically loaded column; installing pair of jacks on centering pads; securing mounting device formed as split terminal including L-shaper rests pressed to column and connected one to another by means of two bars and pins with stressing nuts, wherein jack pistons cooperate with L-shaped rests from below to maintain design position of eccentrically loaded column and to solidify powder material in gap between column tip and foundation orifice wall.
EFFECT: provision of straightening column position relative foundation without connection unit damage; increased reliability of anchoring eccentrically loaded column in foundation.
FIELD: anti-seismic protective units for buildings and structures.
SUBSTANCE: proposed protective unit includes many modules laying in one plane at contact with each other; each module consists of two identical parts made from rigid plastic material and connected in center by means of silent-block; used automobile tire is placed between them, thus forming deformable elastic chamber filled with granule-like elements made from plastic material; granule-like elements possess hydraulic properties.
EFFECT: possibility of weakening, dissipating and dampening seismic wave.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly to construct buildings and structures in earthquake zones or special-purpose objects.
SUBSTANCE: multistory earthquake resistant building includes upper spatially stiff stories defined by columns, crossbars, floor panels and well panels; ground or the first floor formed of kinematical posts with rounded upper and lower edges so that posts may perform stable swinging during earthquake along groves. The grooves are formed in upper framing members created as a part of floor panel or ground floor and in lower framing members made as a part of foundation bearers. Rounded post edges have variable curvature acting as lockable and releasable links and limiting large horizontal movement along with retaining post capacity to reduce seismic forces affecting on buildings and structures during earthquake. Kinematical posts are monolithic or composed of several parts without embedded members. Horizontal cross-section of each kinematical post define star with 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 … n points, wherein unrestricted number n of star points create stiffening ribs.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, strength and stability of the support under broad earthquake frequency spectrum.