The way to determine the quality of the skin
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a method of determining the quality of the skin. The essence of the method is that the processing of hanging skin is implemented by simultaneous exposure to the skin layers by the forces of gravity and friction. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 1 Il. The invention relates to light industry, in particular to a method of determining the quality of the skin.There is a method of determining the quality of the skin, consisting in processing a sample of the skin and subsequent determination of the concentration of fat in the skin, including comparison of the values obtained from reference 
The disadvantage of this method is the high duration of operations to determine the quality of the skin.The technical result of this proposal is to increase the efficiency of the method for determining quality of the skin while reducing time operations.This is achieved by the fact that the processing of hanging skin is implemented by simultaneous exposure to skin layer forces of gravity and friction, and determining the concentration of fat in the skin is carried out by measuring the magnitude of the response effort, obtained from the forces of gravity and friction.The drawing shows a device for implementing this method.A portion 1 of a particular variety of skin fixed volume is placed on a horizontal surface and placed her cargo 2, interacting with the free end of the elastic console 3 fixed motionless in the support 4. On the console 3 is installed strain gauge 5, displayed on the recording device 6. There is a mechanism 7 moves.Functions the device is as follows.Hitch 1 skin is driven by a mechanism 7. On the border between sample 1 skin and cargo 2, a force of friction, the value of which depends on the concentration of fat on the surface of the sample 1. At the same time bending elastic console 3, which is strain sensor 5, and its readings are recorded by the device 6. Unit 6 pre tarinoita on the hanging skin known varieties with known fat. The reference value may be represented as a graph (not shown).The invention increases the efficiency of the method to define the DIVISION of QUALITY LEATHER, namely, in the processing of hanging skin and subsequent determination of the concentration of fat in the skin, including the comparison of the obtained value with a reference, wherein processing the sample of the skin effect on the skin layer is implemented by simultaneous exposure to skin layer forces of gravity and friction, and determining the concentration of fat in the skin is carried out by measuring the magnitude of the response effort, obtained from the forces of gravity and friction.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the formation of gravity is realized by means of the goods with elastic console, education friction force is realized by means of the longitudinal displacement of the hanging skin regarding contact with her load, and the magnitude of the response efforts, obtained from the forces of gravity and friction, by measuring the amount of bending of the cantilever.
FIELD: tannery or furry production.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of tannery or furry production and may be used for a piece by piece treatment of a tanning, furry semi-finished product with emulsions of "water in oil" type. The device for impregnation of sheets contains a mounted on the frame bath with a working compound, in which a corrugated roller is dipped, and also a feeding and auxiliary conveyers and a smoothing roller, a supporting means with a resilient counterbody, an actuator, a tool for removal of a finished semi-product, a device for creation of a hydrodynamic wedge and a pinch roller for engagement of the ribbed roller with the feeding conveyor. The problem of the presented invention is - development of the device simple in its servicing with a high reliability allowing to realize the process of impregnation more efficiently with a possibility of its installation in an automatic production line.
EFFECT: the invention presents a device simple in its servicing, having a high reliability, more efficient realization of the process of impregnation, a possibility of its usage in an automatic production line.
FIELD: chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to greasing and emulsifying substances used in fur, leather and other branches of industry. Invention describes a method for deep sulfonation of oxidized vegetable oils, fats and their mixtures, and oxidized mixtures with the nominal viscosity value in the range 33-75 by viscosimeter VZ-4 at 20°C in their treatment with sodium sulfite. The process is carried out in system consisting of oxidized component or mixture of oxidized components, sodium sulfite, water and soap additives, carboxylic acid, phenol and copper (II) salt as a catalyst in bead mill of vertical type at temperature of environment up to practically complete ceasing or quantitative consumption of sodium sulfite and charge of the latter is calculated by the following formula: mNA2SO3 = 0.006 x mOX x (I.N.)OX wherein mOX and (I.N.)OX mean mass and iodine number of oxidized component or mixture of oxidized components, respectively. The mass ratio of oxidized component and water varies in the range from 1:4 to 1:2.5. Dosing additives with respect to oxidized component are following: soap, 2%; carboxylic acid, 4%; phenol, 2.5%. Oxidized flax, sunflower, soybean and cotton oils, oxidized fish oil and mixtures of vegetable oils with fish oil or pig fat are subjected for sulfonation reaction with air in regimen of intensive bubble bubbling at 105 ± 5°. Soaps in indicated system are represented by sodium stearate and sodium oleate and by reaction mixtures of practically quantitative alkaline hydrolysis of fats and vegetable oils also. Benzoic, oxalic, malonic and citric acids are used as acid, and sulfate, acetate and other water-soluble salts of copper (II) are sued as a catalyst dosed in the amount (2-7.5) x 10-4 mole/kg of the parent charge. The sulfonation reaction degree is 33-40%.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: tanning industry.
SUBSTANCE: process is conducted in vertical mill to which soot, induline, kerosene and diesel fuel are introduced. Then components are mixed and slow heating the apparatus and its content is started after which mixing is switched off and slow heating of mill content is continued. Upon expiration of said time, acids or their compositions, white spirit and fatty additive are introduced and chemical mass-exchange process is performed at spontaneously fixed temperature due to thermal effects of this process and natural cooling at the beginning and at the end, as well as due to forced cooling at intermediate stage characterized by high rates of temperature at maximum of 140-150°C. At the moment when forced cooling is discontinued, 0.5-1.5 h before discontinuation of mixing and beginning of withdrawal at temperature of 80-115°C, 43-52-% solution of aluminum salts and C10-C20 of carboxylic acids is introduced into product being prepared.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure; increased amount of product.
1 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: preparation of composition is conducted on vertical-type bead mill. Induline, kerosene, and diesel fuel are consecutively charged into mill before stirring mechanism is energized, after which apparatus and contents thereof are slowly heated. Stirring is then stopped for 1 h while slow heating of mill contents is continued. When specified time expires, carboxylic acid or acid mixture, white spirit, fat additive, and aluminum oxide or hydroxide are added. Mechanic stirring is then switched on and contents of the bead mill are ground and the process is carried out at spontaneously fixed temperature caused by heat effects of the processes and natural cooling. When temperature is lowered to 85-120°C, desired product is discharged.
EFFECT: simplified process and increased product discharge degree.
1 tbl, 19 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: oil, fat or polymer is applied on leather in amount of less that 20%, preferably, less than 15%, particularly preferably less than 10%, per leather weight. Then leather is treated by compressed air. Carbon dioxide is used as compressed air, treatment if carried out at pressure below 70 bar and temperature below 25°C. Leather is processed by compressed air unless leather weight is at least 1% smaller than its weight prior to applying oil, fat or polymer.
EFFECT: improved leather structure due to increased non-blocking property of molecules.
SUBSTANCE: method involves chrome tanning and post-tanning a semi-finished product through chrome tanning in the presence of a product of reaction of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and glycidylmethacrylate in molar ratio of 1:2 and consumption of the chrome tanning agent and reaction product of 3-4% and 2-3% of the weight of the semi-finished product respectively. Neutralisation and hydrophobisation with a polymer tanning agent are then carried out for 30-40 minutes with consumption of the tanning agent equal to 8-10% of the weight of the semi-finished product. After that dyeing is carried out in the presence of a synthetic tanning agent in amount of 3-4% of the weight of the semi-finished product. Post-tanning is carried out with a plant-material tanning agent and the semi-finished product is also treated for 20-30 minutes with a product of reacting hexamethylenediamine with phosphoric acid and urea in the presence of glycerin in molar ratio of 1:3:3:0.5 respectively, in amount of 3-4% of the weight of the semi-finished product and for 20-30 minutes with organic acid in amount of 0.5-1.0% of the weight of the semi-finished product. Further, the semi-finished product undergoes greasing and re-treated for 40-50 minutes with a product of reacting hexamethylenediamine with phosphoric acid and urea in the presence of glycerin in molar ratio of 1:3:3:0.5 and consumption of 7-8% of the weight of the semi-finished product, volume ratio of 0.8-1.0 and temperature of 20-22°C. Hydrophobisation with a polymer tanning agent, dyeing in the presence of a synthetic tanning agent, post-tanning with a plant-material tanning agent, further treatment with a product of reacting hexamethylenediamine with phoshoric acid and urea in the presence of glycerin in the said molar ratio and with organic acid is carried out in one bath. Separation and drying are carried out after all operations.
EFFECT: higher water-, fungus- and heat-resistance of leather under high moisture and temperature conditions, and wide range of special types of leather.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves tanning a semi-finished product with a chrome tanning agent, neutralisation, washing, dyeing and tanning with organic tanning agents twice. The first tanning is carried out with a polymeric tanning agent, while the second is carried out with a mixture of synthetic and vegetable tanning agents. Hydrophobicising greasing, treatment with an organic acid and re-tanning with a chrome tanning agent are then carried out. Additional washing is carried out before neutralisation. Dyeing is carried out after the second tanning. Neutralisation, tanning twice and dyeing are carried out at water-to-goods ratio of 0.5-0.7. Hydrophobicising greasing is carried out in the presence of a 20% solution of the product of reacting amino alcohol with fatty acids of vegetable oils of the C12-C22 fraction and boric acid in molar ratio of 2:1:1 in mineral oil in amount of 0.5-1.5% of the weight of the semi-finished product.
EFFECT: good hygienic properties of hydrophobic leather and prolonged fungus resistance of the leather in high humidity and temperature conditions.
2 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to leather industry in production of leather of various assortment, in particular, to methods of drumming leather in presence of fungicide, and can be used in skin processing for improving operational properties. Method of drumming leather is implemented with drumming composition in presence of an effective antifungal inhibitor, the latter is represented by 6.0 % solution of N1-chloro-methylbenzimidazole fungicide. Fungicide is dissolved in ethyl alcohol taken in the amount of 0.2-0.5 % of squeezed leather weight at the drumming composition consumption of 20-22 % of the squeezed leather weight in terms of 100 % fat. Drumming time is 1.5-2.5 hours at the temperature of 70-80 °C.
EFFECT: proposed method of drumming leather provides effective antifungal inhibition at high quality of finished skin.
1 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex