The converter of thermal energy into mechanical work
(57) Abstract:Usage: in mechanical engineering, for converting the chemical energy of fuel, and solar energy into mechanical energy of rotation of the shaft. The inventive Converter of thermal energy into mechanical work comprises a sealed housing 1 in the form of a truncated cone, partially filled with coolant. Case contains 2 evaporative and condensing 3 zones, and the adiabatic section. In the case contains insulating ring 4, which is the element housing and rigidly fastened as with evaporative section 5 and the condensing section 6 of the housing. By insulating ring rigidly secures the impeller 7 of the turbine with the rotor blades 8, covered by the rim 9, with the formation of the annular gap 10 between the insulating ring and the rim of the impeller. Turbine wheel provided with a pin 11, which has the second wheel 12 of the turbine with guide vanes 13 covered by the rim 14 with the formation of the annular gap 15. The rim of the second turbine wheel is an inner ring magnet. Over the inner ring magnet has an external annular magnet 16, is rigidly associated with fundamental the s side of the evaporation zone is equipped with extra blades. 2 C. p. F.-ly, 6 ill. The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used, for example, as the engine of the aircraft.A device for converting thermal energy into mechanical work of the Stirling engine.The disadvantages of the known device should include a complex structure, due to the presence of rhombic mechanism for transmitting the movement of two pistons with complex kinematics of the mutual motion of the shaft of the PTO.As a prototype of the selected heat pipe, which converts thermal energy into electrical energy.The disadvantages of the devices of the prototype should include the complexity of the design, due to the presence of the pump for pumping fluid from the condensation zone to the evaporation zone.A second disadvantage of the known device is a long chain of transformations of one kind of energy into another, at the end of which is thermo-EMF. This fact characterizes the extremely low efficiency of the installation as a whole.The aim of the invention is to simplify the construction and increase the efficiency of the Converter of thermal energy.This is achieved by the fact that p is tensator, thermal machine, located between the condenser and the evaporator, and a pump for pumping condensate in the liquid phase from the condenser to the evaporator.According to the invention the Converter of thermal energy into mechanical work comprises a sealed enclosure filled with fluid from the evaporation zone, transport and condensation, a multi-stage turbine rotor blades mounted on the disk, rigidly associated with the area of transport, and the guide device, rim, two annular magnet, the journal of the turbine, Foundation and additional blades, and the rim is firmly attached to the rotor blades, between the outer surface of the rim and inner surface of the housing is formed of a gap, the vanes of the guide vane installed on the disk mounted on the axle of the turbine to rotate, one of the ring magnets covers vanes of the guide vane and installed with a clearance relative to the housing, and the second ring magnet mounted coaxially with the first gap relative to the outer surface of the casing and secured to the Foundation, while the body is made in the shape of a truncated cone, the base of which is a zone of evaporation, and is mounted for rotation.On the phenomena of thermal conductivity of the area of transport, which includes a turbine, made of insulating material.At the Converter fluid in the evaporation zone under the action of continuously applied heat evaporates and enters the rotor blades of the turbine, resulting in the transducer housing receives rotary motion. Passing through the vanes of the guide vane, the coolant is cooled in the condensation zone, transformed into a liquid phase and deposited on the walls of the casing of the Converter of thermal energy.Due to the rotation of the housing of the transducer, and also taking into account the fact that the transducer housing is made in the shape of a truncated cone, on the particle-liquid mass m acting axial force F2that is directed to the evaporation zone, which can be defined by the formula
F2m2r sin where F is the axial force;
m the mass of the particles of the heat carrier in the liquid phase, the angular velocity of the transmitter;
r the radius of the transmitter in the area of transport;
the angle of taper of the body of preobrazovatelya.In the area of transport in the gap between the transducer housing and the rim of the impeller of the turbine, and the rim of the guiding apparatus in which densely, and the coolant in the liquid phase from the condensation zone to the evaporation zone. When this liquid coolant in the form of a film attached to the casing of the transducer and the fluid in the vapor state is located between the film and the rim of the impeller and the rim of the guide vane.To create a gas-dynamic resistance to the flow of the heat carrier in the form of vapour from the evaporation zone to the condensation zone according to the invention the rim of the impeller of the turbine and the rims of the guiding device is made of an annular groove that functions labyrinth seal.To create a local depression in the zone of inflow of the liquid coolant in the evaporator according to the invention on the rim of rotor blades from the base are made extra blades.The purpose of the two ring magnets to transmit protivotumanki from the rotation of the impeller of the turbine and the transmitter of the base or body of the aircraft.In Fig.1 shows a Converter of thermal energy into mechanical work, General view; Fig.2 insulating ring, which is part of the transmitter, the fragments of the turbine blades and guide apparaten Fig.1 (turbine wheel with blades, pin and insulating ring; Fig.4 cross-section B-B in Fig.1; Fig.5 is a view along arrow b of Fig.1; Fig.6 the vectors of the forces acting on a particle of fluid transferred from the condensation zone to the evaporation zone.As an example, presents a Converter of thermal energy into mechanical work with a single-stage turbine.The Converter of thermal energy into mechanical work comprises a sealed housing 1 in the form of a truncated cone, partially filled with the heat carrier mounted for rotation around the longitudinal axis. The transducer housing contains 2 evaporative and condensing 3 zones. In the case contains insulating ring 4, which is the element housing and rigidly fixed with evaporative section 5 and the condensing section 6 of the housing.By insulating ring rigidly secures the impeller 7 of the turbine with the rotor blades 8, covered by the rim 9, with the formation of the annular gap 10 between the insulating ring and the rim of the impeller. Turbine wheel provided with a pin 11, which has the second wheel 12 of the turbine with guide vanes 13 covered by the rim 14 with the formation of the annular gap 15. P magnet installed external ring magnet 16, rigidly associated with the base 17. In the rim of the impeller and an additional turbine wheel includes an annular groove 18. The rim of the impeller of the turbine from the evaporation zone is equipped with extra blades 19.The Converter of thermal energy into mechanical work is as follows.When applying heat to the evaporating section 5 and the heat from the condensing section 6 of the housing 1, the fluid in the evaporation zone 2 goes from a liquid to a vapor state and under pressure enters the rotor blades 8 of the impeller 7 of the turbine. After that, the coolant passes through the guide vanes 13 of the second wheel 12 of the turbine and enters the condensing zone 3 of the Converter. Giving some of the heat in the condenser 6, the coolant passes into the liquid phase and deposited on the inner wall of the housing 1 of the Converter. Since the second turbine wheel 12 by means of two annular magnets 14 and 16 are fixed against rotation relative to the base 17, the rotation gets the impeller 7 together with the housing 1 of the Converter.The coolant in the liquid phase deposited on the walls of the condensation section 6, under the action of the axial component of F2force napravle the La, where it evaporates again.In order to avoid disrupting the flow of the coolant in the liquid phase on the transport section of the ring groove 18 rims 9 and 14 of the wheels 7 and 12 provide additional hydrodynamic resistance to movement of the counter-flow of the coolant in the vapor state through the annular gaps 10 and 15, and the additional vanes 19 generate a vacuum at the entrance point of the fluid in the evaporation zone 2.In the proposed technical solution, all four elements of a heat engine, i.e., the evaporator, the condenser, the energy Converter (turbine and pump are enclosed in a single sealed housing, which results in simplicity of construction and reliability of operation of the proposed Converter.Thermal energy Converter can operate in any orientation in space.Energy source Converter can serve almost any fuel, including solar energy.The application of the transducer: side power source in space vehicles; engine aircraft; stationary engines of great power.In real conditions the turbine of the Converter must be performed multistage 3-5 stupen is partially filled with fluid, with zones of evaporation, transport and condensation, steam turbine with the rotor blades fixed to the disc, rigidly associated with the area of transport, and the guide apparatus, characterized in that it further comprises a rim, two annular magnet, the journal of the turbine, Foundation, and rim is rigidly connected with the rotor blades, between the outer surface of the rim and inner surface of the housing is formed of a gap, the vanes of the guide vane installed on the disk mounted on the axle of the turbine for rotation, one of the ring magnets covers vanes of the guide vane and installed with a clearance relative to the housing, and the second ring magnet mounted coaxially with the first gap relative to the outer surface of the casing and secured to the Foundation, while the body is made in the shape of a truncated cone, the base of which is a zone of evaporation, and is mounted for rotation, a portion of the area of transport, which includes turbine, made of insulating material.2. The Converter according to p. 1, characterized in that the rim of rotor blades of the turbine from the evaporation zone installed additional blades.3. The Converter under item 1, the best of the preparations, circular grooves are made.
FIELD: power engineering; steam turbines.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at mounting of heavy-weight condensers of steam turbines connected with several exhaust ports of steam turbine low-pressure cylinders. Invention can be used also at servicing and subsequent adjusting of steam turbines especially, high-power ones. Invention improves reliability and increases economy of turbine in operation owing to decreasing excess loads on exhaust parts of low-pressure cylinders and support foundation plates of exhaust parts from side of condenser, decreasing friction forces along support surfaces of low-pressure cylinders, deformation of supports, formation of cracks and increasing vibration stability of turboset at different loads and modes of operation. According to proposed method of mounting of steam turbine condenser connected with several exhaust ports of low-pressure cylinders including assembling, preliminary truing, welding of connecting branch pipes and fixing in space by means of calibrated setting strips under springs. After operation of turboset under load, position of condenser in space is corrected to reduce load on support belt of low-pressure cylinders by disconnecting exhaust branch pipes of turbine and condenser, filling condenser with water of designed mass, placing inserts between upper and lower branch pipes of designed mass, placing inserts between upper and lower branch pipes and subsequent connection of branch pipes of turbine and condenser. Disconnected condenser is filled with water whose mass corresponds to designed load ΔG taken from low-pressure cylinder which is determined by value of compression Δh of spring unit under each support of condenser, basing on its rigidity characteristic K. ΔG removed from low-pressure cylinder is =ΣΔh x K. Estimation of loads on support belt of low-pressure cylinders in process of complex tests is carried out by displacement pickups checking compression of spring under all supports of condenser, and grade pickups on built-in supports of low-pressure cylinders operating at continuous monitoring by means of processor-based devices.
EFFECT: improved reliability end economy of turbine.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of heating engineering namely to power installations.
SUBSTANCE: According to the first variant the engine of boiling has a furnace chamber, a drum, a batcher, a collector switched to the drum. At that the furnace chamber with the drum are united in a common metallic body fulfilled with one removable wall, at that the axis of the drum is located horizontally, inside the drum there is a working member in the shape of a shaft leaning with its ends on the bearings installed in the center of each wall of the body from the inner side along the horizontal axis, on the shaft there are firmly fastened in parallel with the axis the planes of blades and a cog-wheel, at that the blades are fulfilled in the shape of metallic plates between which there are mounted metallic partitions forming a ring capacity filled with air and symmetrical to the axis, the steam collector is located outside of the drum. According to the second variant the engine of boiling has a furnace chamber, a drum, a batcher switched to the drum, a collector, at that the furnace chamber with the drum are united in a common metallic body, at that the axis of the drum is located vertically in the center of the bottom and bearings are installed from the inner side of the lid, inside the drum there is a working member in the shape of a shaft whose ends lean on the bearings, on the shaft axis there firmly fastened under an angle to the axis the plates of the blades in the shape of a screw, around the shaft symmetrically to its axis there is a ring capacity filled with air. near the drum there is a hot water collector communicating with it through a launder in the upper part and through the collector in the low part. The working medium in the engine of boiling is water-steam mixture.
EFFECT: the invention allows use kinetic energy of boiling water for fulfillment of mechanical work.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the field of industry and ship power engineering, predominantly to transport and stationary steam-turbine plants. The design layout of turbine sets and exhausted steam condensing plant includes the main turbine, isolated generator turbines, transonic jet condensing plants of mixing type - condensate transonic jet pimps built in housings of devices for exhaust stem bleeding from turbine sets, and combined remote condensate collector.
EFFECT: invention makes possible, while keeping constant steam turbine power, to exclude conventional stem components of the main condenser with piping for turbine sets exhaust stem condensing from design layout, to lower weight of unit equipment, reduce its volume by (36÷50) % and to improve reliability of exhaust stem condensing system.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric energy generation system using ecologically clean energy-solar and external steam hybrid electric energy generation system. System comprises solar steam generator outlet end of which is connected to inlet (3) of high pressure steam of turbine (2) through first control valve (18), steam outlet end of external controller (15) of steam is connected to inlet (3) of high pressure steam of turbine (2) through second control valve (20) and second switching valve (19), outlet (4) of low pressure steam turbine unit (2) is connected to inlet end of condensation device (5), while its outlet end is connected to inlet end of deaerator (6), its outlet end is connected to inlet end of pump (7) for supply of water, its outlet end is connected to inlet end of return water of solar steam generator through first switching valve (16), and the outlet end of pump (7) is additionally connected with bypass (11) of return water of external steam through fourth switching valve (23). System further includes tank (9) for storage of soft water.
EFFECT: invention enables using waste heat of industrial production for elimination of dependence on weather and unstable and intermittent concentration of heat solar radiation.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: cooling equipment, particularly heat exchange apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: device to remove heat from heat-generation component includes coolant stored in liquid coolant storage part, heat absorbing part including at least one the first microchannel and installed near heat-generation component. Heat absorbing part communicates with storage part. Liquid coolant partly fills microchannel due to surface tension force and evaporates into above microchannel with gaseous coolant generation during absorbing heat from heat generation component. Device has coolant condensing part including at least one the second microchannel connected to above coolant storage part separately from the first microchannel, gaseous coolant movement part located near heat-absorbing part and condensing part and used for gaseous coolant movement from the first microchannel to the second one. Device has case in which at least heat-absorbing part is placed and heat-insulation part adjoining heat absorbing part to prevent heat absorbed by above part from migration to another device parts.
EFFECT: reduced size, increased refrigeration capacity, prevention of gravity and equipment position influence on device operation.
22 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat pipe comprises vertical housing with evaporation and condensation zones and partially filled with heat-transfer agent and coaxial hollow insert in the evaporation zone which defines a ring space with the housing and is provided with outer fining. An additional hollow cylindrical insert of variable radius made of a non-heat-conducting material is interposed between the condensation zone and coaxial hollow insert. The outer side of the additional insert and inner side of the housing of the heat pipe define a closed space.
EFFECT: reduced metal consumption.
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger comprises housing separated into chambers of evaporation and condensation with a baffle provided with heat pipes which are arranged in both of the chambers. The zones of evaporation of the pipes are positioned inside the evaporation chamber, and zones of the condensation of the pipes are positioned inside the condensation chamber. The heat pipes inside the evaporation chamber are made of wound pipes of oval cross-section. The zones of condensation of heat pipes are also made of wound pipes of oval cross-section .
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
1 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: heating engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat pipe can be used for heat transmission and temperature control procedures. Heat pipe has evaporator provided with capillary-porous nozzle and capacitor. Evaporator and nozzle are connected by vapor line and condensate pipeline. Nozzle is made of electric-insulating material, for example, of ceramics. Grid-shaped electrode is mounted at the inner side of nozzle. The electrode is connected with rod electrode, which is mounted inside airtight isolator at edge part of evaporator.
EFFECT: improved heat power; prolonged length of heat pipe.
FIELD: heat-power engineering; utilization of low-potential heat, heat of soil inclusive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed thermosiphon includes heat pump with thermosiphon containing working medium capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it includes evaporation and condensation parts; thermosiphon is provided with hermetic thermal tube whose working medium is capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it also has evaporation and condensation parts; condensation part of thermal tube bounds cavity of heat pump evaporator together with outer housing, cover and lower platform; said cavity is provided with branch pipes for delivery of liquid phase of heat pump working medium and discharge of gaseous phase of heat pump working medium in such way that condensation part of thermal tube forms inner housing of heat pump evaporator; mounted in between of outer and inner housings of heat pump evaporator is intermediate housing which is provided with holes in lower part for passage of liquid or gaseous phase of heat pump working medium circulating inside its evaporator; tubes-nozzles mounted between inner and intermediate housings are directed vertically upward for admitting liquid phase of heat pump working medium under pressure; heat pump evaporator has inner surfaces. Besides that, outer, inner and intermediate housings of heat pump evaporator are taper in shape and are so located that have common vertical axis of symmetry; inner surfaces of heat pump evaporator and inner housing are finned.
EFFECT: considerable reduction of thermal head between soil and working medium in heat pump evaporator; reduced overall dimensions; possibility of utilization of energy of compressed liquid fed from heat pump condenser to evaporator.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heat transfer equipment, particularly to carry heat for long distances, for instance refrigerators.
SUBSTANCE: heat-exchanging system comprises closed loop including main heat-exchanging channel, heat carrier agent pumping device, additional heat-exchanging channel and heat-carrier supply channel connecting the main and additional heat-exchanging channels. Heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw heat carrier agent in vapor or vapor-and-liquid state from one heat-exchanging channel and supply above vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent under elevated pressure into another heat-exchanging channel. Heat carrier agent supply channel is formed as channel with capillary partition closing the channel. During heat-exchanging system operation the capillary partition obstructs vapor penetration or vapor-and-liquid flow. The vapor penetration obstruction is defined by cooperation between meniscuses and inner surfaces of capillary channels formed in the partition. The vapor-and-liquid flow obstruction is defined by bubble meniscuses cooperation with inner surfaces of capillary channels of the partition. The heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent from any heat-exchanging channel and pump above heat carrier agent under elevated pressure in another heat-exchanging channel.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-exchanging system.
14 dwg, 18 cl