The mechanical processing of leather and fur raw materials and device for its implementation


C14B17/02 - Blading cylinders or other working cylinders, e.g. slicking or scraping cylinders

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a method of machining leather and fur raw materials and device for its implementation. Essence: when placing skins provide rigid fixation of one edge of the skin when applying exercise throwing the free end of the skins on the working body for the formation of the forces from the weight of the skins and the friction in the interaction of the skin with a working body, the proposed device has set the table for the layout skins tool for rigid fixing the edges of the skins. 2 S. and 3 C. p. F.-ly, 4 Il., table 1.

The invention relates to leather and fur industry, and in particular to methods of mechanical processing of leather and fur raw materials and constructions machinery for their implementation.

A known method of mechanical processing of leather and fur raw materials, which consists in placing the skin in front of the screed, the filing of the skin in the treatment area and the subsequent impact on her working body for the implementation of meskene, split, stretch, replubic and tangle free hair. The device for carrying out the method comprises mounted on the frame supports are placed with a working body, made in the knitted with the drive and a table for layout skins, located parallel to the axis of the cylindrical core (ed.St. N 1588766, CL 14 In 15/00, 1987).

The technical result of the invention is to improve the quality of leather and fur raw materials and simplification of processing.

In Fig. 1 shows a device for processing Assembly of Fig. 2 screw the knife; Fig. 3, 4 the same options.

The device comprises a frame 1 has mounted on it on the supports 2 blade shaft 3. Knife shaft is connected with the actuator 4. Parallel to the axis of the knife shaft 3 is a table for layout skins 5, the edge of which is in conjunction with the stop 6 form a rigid fixation device, which is actuated by the pedal 7 and the detent is created by spring 8.

The device operates as follows.

In operation meskene edge skins rigidly fixed parallel to the axis of the knife shaft 3, and its free area throw mezdrovyj side to the rotary shaft. Under the action of its own weight, the skin fits the knife shaft and the contact is formed, the angle between the knife with the treated surface, the value of which is less than the 90aboutthat provides the shear stress at the edge of the knife needed to udaleniya on the knife shaft, which ensures a certain contact pressure her to the knife shaft. Because the leather has a more elastic properties than mezdrovyj, after removal of the membrane from an area, the knife starts at his passing to make a single pass since the shear stress at the edge of the knife is not enough to damage the leather, while continuing to remove the flesh from the remaining sites. The proposed method allows to avoid damaging the leather even with its defects, such as fistula, various scars that occur during the life of the animal from insect bites or other lifetime trauma. In the process of meskene skin on the whole treated area is subjected to stretching in the longitudinal-transverse direction, under the action of the knives is a high-frequency moving some areas relative to others, as well as frictional heat. As a result, along with the removal mezdrovyj layer is loosening of the collagen fibers of the leather, which facilitates the removal of the interfiber space fats, which are becoming more mobile with increasing temperature. This facilitates the diffusion in the thickness of the leather chemicals (acids, tannins) in the process of chemical treatment is the reception method does not require additional preparation prior to cutting hair to a certain length or adjust the equipment from the raw batch to batch. The method allows without any difficulty to mettiti skins of deer and reindeer, which ensures losing hair by liming and respectively receiving of them leather semi-finished products of high quality, which significantly expands the resource base of the leather industry.

The operation of splitting and stretching is carried out similarly to the operation of meskene. In the process of splitting and stretching is the Erasure of the leather from the remnants of the membrane, eliminated various roughness encountered in chemical processing, semi-finished product in its area in contact with the blade shaft is subjected to high-frequency dynamic action of the knives that provides an effective loosening of the collagen fibers knife tissue and simultaneous stretching it in the longitudinal-transverse direction. Since the breakdown and stretching is performed simultaneously over a large area, and when exposed to frictional heating, the efficiency of the process increases, the semi-finished product is obtained in the form of a flat layer, which eliminates the operation of Ironing when you finish.

On the operations replubic and tangle free hair edge skins rigidly fixed parallel to the axis of the knife shaft 3 and the free uchet knife shaft, and under the action of shear stresses arising from the interaction of the blades with the hair, pulled on the knife shaft, thus achieving the necessary force interaction. When this hair hides under the effect of shock loads cleared from Burr and mud, matted and tangled hairs are separated. As cleaning and brushing the hair hides the knives have the opportunity of deeper infiltration, resulting in increased shear stress, tightening the skin on the blade shaft and correspondingly increases the force of interaction between the knives and scalp. This eliminates the possibility of dehairing very dirty and matted sections of hair.

The operation of combing hair similar operations replubic. The skin of operations meskene, breakdown and banners placed on the table 5 mestranol side up, and operations replubic and sharpen hair and mestranol side down. Then press the pedal 7, the edge of the skin is placed between the edge of the table and the stop 6, and then put the pedal, thereby rigidly locking the edge of the skin. Free site skins throw to the rotary shaft 3, includes elektroprivodiv off, after stopping knife shaft skin removed. The pedal 7 release, the skin expand, placing it processed region between the edge of the table and the stop 6. The operation is repeated. It should be noted that to compensate for wear of the knives of the knife shaft, and also when changing from one size of processed hides and skins to another, if necessary, adjust the mutual position of the table 5 and the knife shaft 3 of their movement in the bearings.

For the operation of meskene knife shaft 3 of the device for the mechanical processing of leather and fur raw materials made in the form of a cylindrical core to host different directions from the center to the periphery of the helical blades, the angle of elevation which is 15-30aboutand the angle of the knife with the treated surface of the skin 80-85about.

In Fig. 2 schematically illustrates the knife shaft for maskania.

The angle of elevation of the knives 15-30aboutdue to their working conditions: at an angle of rise less than 15aboutthere is the possibility of cutting the leather, while increasing the elevation angle of more than 30aboutknives lose their ability to cut mestranol fabric due to lock their cutting edges are already separated fragments mezdrovyj tissue, resulting in about the points the user directly with the diameter of the knife shaft and the distance between the knives: the angle increases, approaching 90aboutby decreasing the distance between the knives: the distance between the knives depending on the diameter of the knife shaft, the angle of elevation of the knife and the angle of the processed surface is determined by the ratio l=P Cos Sin , (1) where l is the distance between the knives,

D the diameter of the knife shaft,

angle climbs knives,

the angle between the knife with the treated surface. With decreasing angle between the lower 80aboutthe shear stress at the edge of the knife rises above the permissible value, which leads to the gusts of the leather, and when increased above 85aboutdecreases and becomes insufficient to remove the membrane.

For the operation of splitting and stretching leather and fur semi-finished blade shaft of the device (Fig. 3) is made in the form of a cylindrical core to host different directions from the center to the periphery of the helical blades 2, the elevation of which is 30-60aboutand the angle of the processed surface 70-80about.

The angle of elevation of the knives due to their working conditions: with decreasing elevation angle of less than 30aboutthere is the possibility of cutting the leather, and stretch leather and fur semi-finished product is preimushestvenno ozewai tissue residues from the membrane and various roughnesses, encountered during chemical processing and semi-finished product is subjected to stretching mainly in the transverse direction.

The angle between the knife with the treated surface depends on the thickness of the leather processed semi-finished product for large thicknesses (of the skins of cattle, red deer, reindeer) 70-75aboutand for the average thickness (skins of sheep, calves) 75-80about. With decreasing angle less than the value of 70aboutthe tangent of the shear stress increases so that it is able to cause rupture of the leather processed semi-finished product, and when you increase the angle over 80aboutshear stress becomes insufficient, which significantly reduces the productivity and quality of processing.

For operations replubic and sharpen hair cutter shaft of the device (Fig. 4) made in the form of a cylindrical core to host different directions from the center to the periphery of the helical blades 2, climbing angle which mostly 45aboutand the angle of the processed surface 75-80aboutand knives of constant cross-section alternate with toothed, the teeth of which are formed by dividing the transverse cuts of the blade of a knife permanent

The angle of elevation of the knives due to their working conditions, serrated knife makes combing and styling hair parallel to the transverse axis of the knife shaft, followed by the knife of constant cross-section, dynamically affecting the hair, vspuchivaet him and lay at an angle to the transverse axis of the knife shaft, corresponding to the angle of elevation of the knife. This process is repeated many times. When increasing the angle of the blades is increased and the angle between the direction of the hair and the transverse axis of the knife shaft, and therefore the angle at which the interaction of the hair with the teeth of the knife. Excessive increase of this angle causes the crease of hair on the teeth, resulting in the hair secede or vybiraetsya of the leather, while excessive reduction of corner teeth slide along hair, weakly interacting with him, which reduces the quality of processing. The optimum angle of elevation of the knives close 45about. The angle between the knife with the treated surface determines the magnitude of the shear stress arising from the interaction of the knife from the scalp skin, which she pulled on the knife shaft. When increasing the angle between the above values 80aboutthe value of the tangent angle reduction less than the value of the 75aboutshear stress becomes excessive, resulting in the knife plunged into the thick hair in layers not as combing, and immediately on the depth, which leads to obessolivaniju areas of the skin with stringy hair. The claimed interval value of an angle between the knives with the treated surface 75-80aboutis optimal.

The shape of the teeth of the knife with one hand ensures that the process is heavily matted sections of hair, and on the other removal of Burr and dirt. The Burr and large particles of dirt are removed when the contact between the teeth and cleaning directly to the hair is in contact with the three edges of the tooth in the screening process. The width of the tooth corresponding to 3-5 thicknesses, provides for brushing Ironing matted hair, his straightening and prevents tangling of the hair after the passage of the tooth. Reducing the width of the tooth reduces the effectiveness of scratching, and the increase of its thickness more than 5 thicknesses additional effect does not produce, but increases processing time, as serrated knife becomes too rare.

Thus, the inventive design of the device for machining to the led operation replubic, meskene, split and stretch, sharpen hair.

The invention is illustrated by the following examples of specific performance.

P R I m e R 1. Sheepskin dry-salted conservation method is subjected to replubic. Replubic, and all subsequent operations carried out on a universal device for the mechanical processing of leather and fur raw materials of the claimed design. The skin is placed on the table fur up, the edge of the skin is fixed to the rigid fixation device, after which open area throw her on the knife shaft, start the drive. The treatment is carried out while rotating knife shaft speed 360-400 rpm for 15-20 seconds, and then drive off, release the edges of the skins, fix the treated region, and the process is repeated. Knife shaft for replubic made in the form of a cylindrical core with a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 1500 mm, which is fixed to different directions from the center to the periphery of the spiral knives with a height of 50 mm, i.e., the diameter of the knife shaft corresponds to 400 mm, the Angle of elevation of the knives 45aboutthe angle of their meeting with the machined surface 78aboutthe distance between the knives 95 mm Blades of constant cross-section alternate with gear teeth formed psina knife 3 mm) and then turn parallel to the transverse axis of the knife shaft.

After replubic skins subjected to soaking, by known techniques, press and serves on the operation meskene.

The skin is placed on the table by mestranol side up, the edge of the skin is fixed to the rigid fixation device, its free area throw on the knife shaft, and then start the drive. The treatment is carried out while rotating knife shaft speed 360-400 rpm for 10-15 seconds, and then drive off, the skin is removed with a knife shaft, release the edges of the skins, fix it processed region, and the process repeated.

Knife shaft for meskene made in the form of a cylindrical core with a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 1500 mm, which is fixed to different directions from the center to the periphery of the spiral knives with a height of 40 mm (diameter blade shaft corresponds to 400 mm, the Angle of elevation of the knives is the 20aboutthe angle of the processed surface 82aboutthe distance between the knives 60 mm).

After surgery meskene skin is chemically treated by known techniques, dried, and serves on the operation of splitting and stretching.

The skin is placed on the table mezdrovyj side up, the edge of the skins fixed with rigid fixation device, its free chastnogo shaft 360-400 rpm, within 15-20 seconds, and then drive off, release the skin off with a knife shaft, fix it processed region, and the process repeated.

Knife shaft to break and stretch marks made in the form of a cylindrical core with a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 1500 mm, which is fixed to different directions from the center to the periphery of the spiral knives with a height of 40 mm, i.e., the diameter of the knife shaft is 400 mm, the Angle of elevation of the knives 45aboutthe angle of the processed surface is 75aboutthe distance between the knives 100 mm

After splitting and stretching spend brushing hair. The operation of scratching is similar operations replubic using the same knife shaft. It should be noted that the operation replubic can be produced with the same success as on dry skin and on the skin, past the soaking, which is one of the advantages of the proposed method and device for its realization. Conducting replubic before soaking, can significantly reduce water consumption and wastewater pollution.

When processing the skins on any of the operations described above, the edges of the skins, and especially parts of her taken down, can "slam" Nerevarine processing press to the knife shaft wooden pravilnoy.

To determine the effect of the proposed method mechanical processing of leather and fur raw materials (in comparison with the known) on the quality of the finished semi-finished product in Novosibirsk leather and fur factory comparative trials for the dressing fur sheepskin. Fifty sheep were cut on spine line, each half of the skins numbered and became part of one of the two parties. For the dressing first batch was used industrial technology using known methods of mechanical and chemical processing of raw materials. In particular, mestena was conducted on madrilenos car MMP-1800-K, breakdown and stretching on the car TMP-2. When dressing the second party fur sheepskin machining was carried out using the proposed method, as shown in example 1, and the chemical treatment was carried out by known methods, similar to the processing of the first batch.

The averaged results of the comparative tests are given in table.

The temperature increase weldability and strength tensile fur sheepskin, tanned by using the proposed method, obviously, due to the higher quality meskene feedstock. In pravlenie, under the action of the knives is a high-frequency moving some of its sections relative to the other, accompanied by frictional heating. The result will dress up with the removal of the membrane is loosening of the collagen fibers of the leather, which facilitates the removal of the interfiber space fats, mobility which increases with increasing temperature. This facilitates the diffusion in the thickness of the leather chemicals during chemical treatment of the skin and improves the quality of the finished cake mix.

The increase in the output area of the finished semi-finished product due to the lack of defects in meskene and high quality splitting and stretching.

Using the proposed method mechanical processing of leather and fur raw materials and device for its implementation at tanning hides and skins of deer skin with the use of known methods have provided for the accomplishing of hair liming and getting the leather of the semifinished product corresponding to the state standard.

Thus, the proposed method of mechanical processing of leather and fur raw materials and device for its implementation allow to obtain the following technical result:

to simplify technology is lifebreath;

to expand the raw material base of the leather industry;

to simplify and unify the equipment for mechanical processing of leather and mechanical materials.

The invention can be used in the leather and fur industry.

1. The mechanical processing of leather and fur raw materials, which consists in placing the skin in front of the screed, the filing of the skin in the treatment area and the subsequent impact on her working body for the implementation of meskene, split, stretch, replubic and combing of the hair, characterized in that provide rigid fixation of one edge of the skin when applying exercise throwing the free end of the skins on the working body for the formation of the forces from the weight of the skins and the friction in the interaction of the skin with a working body, and the impact of the working body for meskene, splitting and stretching exercise from the side of the membrane, and replubic and combing the hair from the fur, while after exposure to the working body on the free end skins provide rigid fixation of the latter to process the previous edge skins.

2. Device for the mechanical processing of leather and fur raw materials, containing set napravlenie from the center to the periphery of the screw blades, kinematic svjazanno drive, and a table for layout skins, located parallel to the axis of the cylindrical core, characterized in that it contains the set on a table for layout skins tool for rigid fixation of the edge of the skin, while table with means rigid fixation and the cylindrical core is installed with the possibility of parallel movement of one relative to another in horizontal and vertical planes.

3. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the angle of elevation of the screw blades for meskene is 15 - 30oto enable the formation of an angle between the knife with the surface of the skin, is 80 - 85o.

4. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the angle of elevation of the screw blades to break and stretch marks is 30 - 60oto enable the formation of an angle between the knife with the surface of the skin, is 70 - 80o.

5. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the angle of elevation of the screw blades for replubic and brushing the hair is 45oto enable the formation of an angle between the knife with the surface of the skin, 75 - 80oand screw knives contain alternating between the knives p is

 

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EFFECT: increased physical-mechanical properties of dressed bird skin as compared to skins of fur animals dressed by way of standard processes.

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FIELD: personal effects.

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