Hydromechanical transmission vehicle
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in vehicles, mainly cars. The inventive hydromechanical transmission of the vehicle includes a torque Converter comprising a pump, a turbine wheel and of the reactor, as well as torsional vibration damper and clutch. Planetary gear contains three multi-plate clutch, a band brake, freewheel, multi-disc brake and hydraulic control system. The latter consists of a hydraulic pump 6, the pressure reducing valve 23, valve 25 for manual control of the throttle valve 28, valve 30 centrifugal pressure, three valves 22, 26 and 27 of the automatic shift valve 35 lock valves 37 and restrictive valve 36. The control valve 37 allows synchronization on and off multi-disc clutches and band brakes. The invention allows to improve the performance of the vehicle due to the introduction of additional range in third gear. In addition, increases is used in vehicles mainly cars.Known hydromechanical transmission of a vehicle, containing a torque Converter, planetary gear made under the scheme "Ravigneau", with multi-plate clutch, two band brakes the freewheel, hydraulic system including oil pump, valves, automatic gear shifting, and allows you to get four gears forward and one reverse gear. Synchronizing gear is provided with control band brakes 2-nd and 4-th transmission of the two hydraulic cylinders having two cavities is one of the cavities connected with the supply line and one multi-disc clutch, matching the most time on the clutch and turn off the tape brake. A disadvantage of this scheme is the introduction of an additional cylinder and incomplete locking of the torque Converter in 3rd gear, which affects the fuel efficiency of the vehicle.The purpose of the invention to improve a vehicle on the 3rd transmission through a complementary range and improving the reliability of hydro-mechanical transmission by providing work tx2">The aim is achieved in that the actuating cylinder has three control cavity, two of them have the ability to connect via the valve automatically switches 1-2 and 3-4 with a source of fluid pressure, and the third through the distributor valve cavities multi-disc clutches, in addition, by using the valve block has the ability to completely lock the Converter in 3rd gear, when the pump wheel of the torque Converter is connected to drive a hydraulic pump and through a torsional vibration damper with an input shaft of the planetary gear, the turbine wheel of the torque Converter is connected with the turbine shaft of the planetary gear, and the reactor through the freewheel has the ability to connect with the transmission housing, and a turbine shaft of the planetary gear is connected with the leading drives two multi-disc clutches, driven disks which are connected with a sun gear of the planetary gearbox, the input shaft is connected with the leading disk of the third clutch, the driven disks which are connected with the carriage of satellites, planetary gearbox, which has the ability to connect via a freewheel and a multi-disc brake with Carter, while to the characteristics of the claimed technical solution previously used to solve the problem, and distinctive features not previously been used to achieve the goal that gives the basis to consider the claimed technical solution meets the criterion of "significant differences".In Fig.1 shows a kinematic diagram of the hydro-mechanical transmission of Fig. 2 shows a hydraulic control system hydromechanical transmission.Hydromechanical transmission includes a torque Converter comprising a pump wheel 1, the turbine wheel 2, the reactor 3 and the damper 4 torsional vibrations, a driven disk which is connected with the input shaft 5 of the planetary gear. The pump wheel of the torque Converter is connected with the hydraulic pump 6 system management and leading disk damper 4 torsional vibrations, and the reactor 3 through the clutch 7 free running has the ability to connect with the crankcase 8. The turbine wheel 2 through the turbine shaft 2 is connected with the leading disk multi-disk clutches 10 and 11, the slave drives are connected with a sun gear 12 and 13 of the planetary gear. Input shaft 5 is connected with the leading disk multi-disk clutch 14, driven disks which are connected with the carriage 15 satellites, which are connected with the leading element of the clutch 16 Svobodnoye brake discs 17 is connected to the crankcase 8. The Executive cylinder band brakes 18 has three control cavity 19, 20 and 21. The control cavity 19 is connected with an on / off valve 22 automatically switches the hydraulic control system, which includes the hydraulic pump 6, the pressure reducing valve 23, the valve 24 of the feeding of the torque Converter, multi-position valve 25 manual control, three-position valve 22, 26 and 27 automatic switching speeds forward, the sensor engine load throttle valve 28 connected kinematically with foot pedal controls engine speed sensor output shaft 29 of the valve 30 of the centrifugal pressure, batteries, 31-34, ensuring the smooth integration of the clutches and band brakes, the valve 35 of torque Converter lock limiting valve 36, the control valve 37 and the valves 38 and 39. Output torque is removed crown gear 40, which is connected with the output shaft 29.Hydromechanical transmission works as follows:
When installing the valve 25 to the position D, the fluid supplied by the hydraulic pump 6, goes to the throttle valve 28, valve 30 centrifugal pressure, through the valve 27 automatic pereklyuchanie, connecting the control cavity 21 band brakes 18 with the cavity of the clutch 14. Multi-plate clutch 11 transmits the torque of the turbine 2 to the sun gear 13 of the planetary mechanism, the carriage 15 satellites which is blocked by the clutch 16 is free running. To turn on 1-th transmission, the valve 22 of the automatic shifting "1-2" act upon the signals from the throttle valve 28 and valve 30 centrifugal pressure. For a given ratio of centrifugal pressure and the throttle pressure switch valve 22, causing the fluid supplied by a pump 6 is supplied to the control cavity 19 band brakes 18. Happen blocking the sun gear 12 and unlocking the carriage satellites 15, resulting in the activated second downshift. With further increase of the speed of rotation of the output valve 29 is further increased centrifugal pressure, resulting in a ratio of centrifugal and throttle pressure switch valve 26 automatically switch to "2-3". While the liquid flows through the control valve 37 to the control cavity 21 band brakes 18 and cavity megadisk the necessary smoothness of the switching process. In addition, the fluid is supplied to one of the control chambers of the distribution valve 37, and as the pressure increases until a certain value is the switching valves 37, while the control cavity 21 of the tape brake 18 is connected with the control cavity of the clutch 11. Multi-plate clutch 14 is connected through the input shaft 5 and the damper 4 with the pump wheel of the torque Converter 1, so when it is turned on at the same time there is a partial locking of the torque Converter and the planetary mechanism, i.e., the input torque is transmitted in two streams. The first thread has the following path of the pump wheel 1, the damper 4, the input shaft 5, the clutch 14 and the carriage satellites 15. The second stream from the pump wheel 1 through the hydraulic connection to the turbine impeller 2, from him through the turbine shaft 9, the clutch 11 to the sun gear 13. Kinematic gear ratio hydromechanical transmission is close to 1 and differs from it only by slippage of the turbine wheel relative to the pump. With further increase speed switches restrictive valve 36 and it is possible to switch "3-4". In the switching valve is of MH are connected to the drain, as an additional control cavity 20 of the tape brake 18 through the valve 27 with a hydraulic pump. The result is to lock the sun gear 12, i.e., turns on the fourth gear transmissions. The inclusion of band brakes and the inclusion of the multi-plate clutch 11 is synchronously due to the fact that their control cavity are connected with drain through a common line. When the reverse switch "4-3" again, there is a perfect synchronization enable clutch 11 and tape off the brake 18 by simultaneously supplying pressure from the hydraulic pump.When installing the valve 25 manual control to position "3", designed to move in an urban environment, the valve 27 automatic gear shift is blocked by fluid pressure from the valve 25 manual shift. In this range, the third transmission, full locking torque Converter due to the inclusion of the clutch 10. This happens in third gear at a speed slightly greater than the switching speed "2-3". The valve 35 of the lock under the action of centrifugal pressure switches and connects the control cavity clutch 10 through the valve 38 and the valve 25 manual control Matichenkov control and valve 35 locks the torque Converter is locked, making it impossible to enable 3rd gear.When installing the valve 25 in position "1" is blocked by the valve 22 automatic switching, thereby making impossible the inclusion of any transfer, except the first. In addition, pressure from the hydraulic pump 6 is supplied to the disk brake 17, which blocks the free running clutch 16, which allows engine braking.When installing the valve 25 to the position R of the fluid supplied by the hydraulic pump 6 passes through the valve 39 to the disk brake 17 and through the valve 38 to the multi-plate coupling 10. When this occurs, the lock carriage satellites 15 and the coupling 10 connects the turbine wheel of the torque Converter with a sun gear 12, which is trying satellites planetary series about a fixed carriage 15 satellites, drives the crown gear 40. Thus there is an inclusion reversing.The table below shows the sequence for switching the clutches and brakes. HYDROMECHANICAL TRANSMISSION of a VEHICLE, containing a torque Converter comprising a pump and turbine wheels, reactor, freewheel, planetary gearbox, located in CT is than two multi-plate clutch with one hand connected via a turbine shaft with a turbine wheel, on the other hand - with the sun gear of the planetary gear, the third clutch is connected with the carriage of satellites, planetary gearbox, made with the possibility of connection with the case, the crown gear connected with the output shaft, and a hydraulic control system includes a hydraulic pump, a pressure line which is communicated with the manual valve switch provided with three valves automatic gear shifting, and through one of them with the Executive brake cylinder, and valve centrifugal pressure, characterized in that the torque Converter is made with a torsional vibration damper, one of the brakes is made multi-drive, and hydraulic control system is equipped with a spring-loaded two-position three-way with two cavities of the control valve block, a spring-loaded dip with two cavities of the control valve, a spring-loaded two-position three-way with one cavity control limiting valve to the actuating cylinder is made with three control cavities, the pump wheel of the torque Converter through a torsional vibration damper is connected with one of the multi-Foy side with Carter, the first line of the valve lock hydraulically communicated with a multi-disk clutch, the second - with the sink, and the third is communicated through the valve manual control with the hydraulic pump, the first cavity is in communication with the control valve centrifugal pressure, the second valve manual control, the first line valves communicated with one of the cavities of the Executive brake cylinder, the second with the first cavity of the control valve automatic control modes of the second and third gear and multi-disk clutch, the third is in communication with the second cavity of the control valve automatic control modes of the third and fourth gears and multi-disk clutch, the first line of the bounding valve communicated with valve automatic control modes of the third and fourth gear, the second drain, the third valve centrifugal pressure and cavity control, and in the first position of the valve lock first line communicated with the second, and in the second position the first line is in communication with the third, in the first position of the distribution valve of the first line is communicated with the second, in the second position from the third, and in the first position of the bounding valve first line
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle contains frame 1 with cab 9, front and rear steerable wheels 4, 6 and middle wheels 5, engine placed behind the cab along vehicle and covered by hood 11. hydrostatic transmission contains pumping station 21 consisting of matching reduction gear driven by engine placed behind the cab, and three pumps connected by pipelines with hydraulic motors providing separate drives of wheels. Hydraulic motors are arranged along frame 1 between sidemembers on solid brackets made in form of boxes with flanges connected with wall of side member between its webs. Invention makes it possible to create ecologically clean and reliable multipurpose all-wheel-drive vehicle of high cross-country capacity with hydrostatic transmission to drive all wheels.
EFFECT: provision of convenient mounting and servicing of transmission units.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.
FIELD: transport engineering; automobiles with positive displacement hydraulic drive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission includes constant-capacity guided-vane hydraulic pump mechanically connected with vehicle engine communicating through pressure, drain and suction hydraulic lines through hydraulic distributor enclosing pressure and drain hydraulic lines and playing the part of reversor with at least one constant-capacity reversible guide-vane hydraulic motor to transmit torque to one or two driving wheels of automobile. Spaces of suction and drain hydraulic lines communicate with space of hydraulic tank. Suction hydraulic line passes through adjustable hydraulic restrictor whose control lever is mechanically coupled with automobile accelerator pedal.
EFFECT: simplified design of transmission, reduced fuel consumption and weight of transmission and its cost, and increased efficiency of automobile.
18 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; machine building hydraulics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used on vehicles and machine-and-tractor units operating under unsteady conditions of movement. Proposed device contains planetary train 1, reactive link 3 connected with drive gear of oil pump 5. Planetary train is connected through carrier shaft with gearbox 9 and is set into operation by engine 11. Two-step adjustable restrictor 12 is installed in pressure main line of pump. Safety valve 14 and control cock 15 are connected to input of adjustable restrictor, being also installed in pressure main line of pump pneumohydraulic accumulator, being end member of pressure main line, is provided with three spaces. It consists of hydraulic cylinder, free piston, piston with rod, piston position regulator, oil line and oil channel. Space between pistons is filled with oil which regulates volume.
EFFECT: reduced influence of vibrations of external traction load onto functioning of machine-and-tractor unit.
FIELD: transport engineering; hydrostatic transmissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrostatic transmission contains pumping unit consisting of main and makeup pumps driven by vehicle engine, hydraulic motors connected by main hydraulic lines with pumping unit and forming circulating hydraulic circuit, and electrically driven self-contained pump whose delivery space is connected with hydraulic circuit formed by main hydraulic lines. Hydrostatic transmission is furnished additionally with sealed hydraulic tank with device for charging its air space with compressed air from vehicle pneumatic system and containing shutoff cock, compressed air pressure regulator in sealed hydraulic tank with safety valve and vacuum manual control valve to discharge compressed air from sealed hydraulic tank, two-position manual control valve for alternate hydraulic coupling of suction space of self-contained electrically-driven pump with hydraulic tank and with device for charging the tank with working liquid, check valve arranged in drain hydraulic line at inlet of sealed hydraulic tank, and manually controlled shutoff valve in suction hydraulic line at outlet of sealed hydraulic tank.
EFFECT: improved reliability of hydrostatic transmission of vehicle designed for operation under various road conditions.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in different vehicles and in devices and mechanisms for clashless engagement of driven shafts. Proposed torque converter contains drive and driven units of converter. Drive unit is made in form of disks 2-5 with slots freely fitted on splined shaft 1. Movable blades are fitted in said slots. Driven unit of converter is made in form of cylindrical housing 7 with driven shaft 16 and rings 11 and 12 fitted on shaft. Disks 2-5 with blades 6 of drive unit of converter are arranged inside rings. Slots in disks 2-5 of drive unit of converter are made through being arranged tangentially. Each of rings 11, 12 in cylindrical housing 7 of converter driven unit is installed for rolling on guide 13, being connected with axle-shaft 14 flush-fitted in cradle of step bearing 15 whose body is in rigid engagement with cylindrical housing 7. With drive unit rotating, summary driven torque is formed from its hydraulic and inertia components. Formulas for calculating the torque are given in description of invention.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of hydraulic - inertia converter, its control system, gearbox of converter and method of torque conversion.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle hydraulic drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed recuperative reversible stepless hydraulic transmission of wheeled vehicle contains drive engine 5, recuperator 20 with overrunning clutch 24, controllable reversible hydraulic machine 18 with pressure and suction and control plunger 8 communicating with hydraulic control system through pipelines, follow-up hydraulic booster with variable-capacity pump 12 of reverse capacity, four non-controllable hydraulic machines 29-32. Each of said hydraulic machines has vehicle wheel, and wheels of vehicle are in contact with road pavement. Recuperator 20 is made in form of planetary reduction gear whose carrier 19 is connected with pump 12 and with hydraulic machine 18 provided with two diametric pressure and two diametric suction spaces and connected with hydraulic machines 29-32 by pipelines. Hydraulic machine 18 contains "floating" plunger 33 with two cylindrical grooves between two end face spaces and "polar" plunger by channels of which end face spaces of floating plunger 33 are communicated, overlapped or reversed with pressure and suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Cylindrical grooves of floating plunger 33 synchronously overlap or hydraulically communicate two pressure and two suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Lever 6 of polar plunger is mechanically connected with corresponding slot of plate 3 of vehicle speed and reverse control member.
EFFECT: reduced number of control members, dispensing with brake system improved cross-country capacity of vehicle, reduced fuel consumption, reduced acceleration time, increased efficiency.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: public building structures, particularly drives for showcase rotation.
SUBSTANCE: drive to rotate showcase substantially formed as superimposed disc 4 installed on pin 5 provides force transmission from drive 12 to disc 4 by means of flexible tie having tensioning means. Flexible tie is formed as closed loop of chain 10 having rigid links. The chain passes around the disc 4 along disc surface generator. Drive has sprocket 11 of driving means. The sprocket 11 is installed on shaft of hydraulic drive 12. Hydraulic drive 12 is mounted on plate 13 moving in radial direction relative disc 4 by hydraulic power cylinder 16.
EFFECT: increased safety of the drive, improved disc position adjustment, reduced size, simplified mounting and enhanced maintainability.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises electric means for measuring working volume of pumps and hydraulic motors and pickup (60) for measuring the speed of rotation of the shaft of the pump station. The electric circuits are provided with threshold control members (67) and (80) interconnected between pickup (6) and the electric means. Between threshold control members (67) and (80) and electric means for changing working volume of pumps (67) and (80) and hydraulic motors (13), (14), (17), and (18) of the drive of end wheels are variable resistors (77), (78), (86), and (87) that are controlled by pickups (89) and (89) of pressure difference in hydraulic circuits of the drive of the intermediate wheels and the drive of each pair of end wheels.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering and may be used in production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles. The self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission contains: an input shaft 9 and an output shaft 6, a centrifugal type nonadjustable hydraulic pump 3, a gear differential unit 2 with two output shafts 5, 6 and a nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4. The hydraulic pump 3 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 5. The nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 6, which is an output shaft of the gear differential unit output shaft. Self-regulation of a torque of the output shaft is depending on a load by changing the number of revolutions per a minute of the centrifugal pump using the differential gear of the he self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission. The technical result is an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.