The method of construction waterproofing of underground structures
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the construction and can be used in the construction of waterproofing lining of underground chambers and tunnels built in an open way. The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the construction of waterproofing includes attachment to the surface of the temporary roof support through hardware cloth, non-woven fabric, a waterproof coating and the construction of the bearing lining, with waterproof coating created from two layers of a polymeric composition, the primary layer is applied directly on the cloth, and after penetration of the composition into a non-woven material to a predetermined thickness, and after polymerization primary secondary layer is applied a layer of polymeric composition. 5 C. p. F.-ly, 3 ill. The invention relates to the construction and can be used in the construction of waterproofing lining of underground chambers and tunnels built by the closed method.A known method of construction waterproofing of underground structures, including fixing to the surface of the temporary roof support through hardware cloth, non-woven fabric create the polymer materials and their welding along the edges and the construction of the lining carrier (1). As a protective smoothing layer between the waterproofing and surface production or use of temporary piles draining cloth, non-woven fabric, and as a waterproofing structure of a rolled material in the form of specially plasticized polymer films (PVC-PVC or polyethylene PE) tensile strength not less than 10 MPa at a relative elongation of at least 300% To ensure reliable dual weld joined films require a special, automatically controlled by an electronic welding equipment, and special equipment for quality control of welds. In the presence of surface irregularities develop or shotcrete lining (i.e., under normal mining conditions) in practice it is difficult to provide a guaranteed quality of welds, which dramatically reduces the reliability of waterproofing and, therefore, is a serious disadvantage of this method.Closest to the present invention is a method of construction waterproofing of underground structures, including fixed to the insulated surface of the nonwoven sheet material and a waterproof on the first material, after its penetration into the non-woven sheet material applied on the second layer resin composition (2).The disadvantage of the prototype method is the low reliability of waterproofing.The purpose of the invention a significant improvement in the integrity of the waterproofing.The aim is achieved in that in the method of construction waterproofing of underground structures, including fixed to the insulated surface of the nonwoven sheet material and a waterproof coating of two layers of polymeric composition, the first layer is applied directly on a non-woven sheet material, and after its penetration into non-woven sheet material applied on the second layer of polymeric composition, the fastening of the non-woven sheet material is produced by means of fixing elements, define the optimal depth of penetration of the first layer resin composition in the non-woven sheet material and the second layer of polymeric composition is applied after the penetration of the first layer resin composition by a specified amount or after the polymerization.In a specific example of the method of the primary and secondary layers can be deposited on a non-woven material in stateforests in the underground workings. It is also possible causing the primary layer on the cloth in a hospital until their suspension in an underground working, and the secondary layer in an underground working after suspension of panels. The primary layer of polymeric compositions perform a contrasting color relative to the color of the secondary layer and the color non-woven material, and as a non-woven fabric using needle-punched fabric weighing not less than 400 g/m2.In Fig. 1 shows a diagram constructed underground structures; Fig.2 node I in Fig.1 (cross-section waterproofing underground structures), and Fig. 3 is a view As in Fig.1 (side view fixed on the cloth, non-woven fabric).The method is as follows.First carry out the driving of the next Zachodni underground tunnels 1, after which erect, if necessary, depending on the technology selected for the construction of underground structures temporary shoring 2 type, for example, from naryzhneva. There are three main variants of the sequence of stages further work.V a R I a n t 1. To create a waterproof coating in stationary conditions on the surface at p is ri as non-woven fabric using needle-punched fabric, for example, waste from chemical plants weighing 400 g/m2or needle-punched fabric of Mylar waste white with a surface density of 600 g/m2.The value of the surface density of the nonwoven material determines the rate of impregnation of the sprayed polymer compositions. Therefore, it is necessary to choose a value of the surface density, which will ensure the penetration of the polymeric composition in non-woven material to a predetermined thickness in order to ensure drainage of water covered by a layer of material and at the same time the waterproofing properties of the material.As practice shows, material weighing less than 400 GM2very loose. Therefore, when it is applied polymer composition, it quickly soaked through. This material may not provide for drainage of water. With the increase in the value of the surface density of the penetration of the polymeric composition inside nonwoven material slows down and on its surface is formed with sealing film. Therefore, the choice of non-woven material is carried out in each case depending on the desired thickness of the sealing film.After the formation of the required thickness of the primary layer 4 (for example, half the thickness of the nonwoven material, but not less than 1 mm) is necessary to sustain this layer prior to its polymerization for the formation of a solid waterproofing film, the surface of which coincides with the surface of the nonwoven material. To ensure the waterproofing properties of the film, the degree of polymerization should be not less than 50%
After polymerization, the nonwoven material with the dissolved his primary layer 4 polymer compositions are applied by spraying or by any other known method secondary layer 5 polymer compositions, painted in a contrasting color relative to the color of the nonwoven material and color of the primary layer to the total thickness of two layers of polymeric composition was not less than 2 mm, the Contrast of these colors due to the convenience of visual inspection. The thus prepared sheets attached to the rock surface generation 1 or to the surface of the temporary roof support 2 (in this case overlap, but can be developed is another option) by means of fixing elements in the form of a steel dowels 6 and washers 7. After fastening is applied by a method of pattern lining. Immediately upon completion of waterproofing works on the length of the concreting zahvatki stack monolithic concrete 8, erected lining carrier 9. This waterproofing is sandwiched between two layers of concrete (or concrete and rocks). This circumstance contributes to long-term preservation waterproofing, has a positive effect on the static behaviour of the structure.V a R I a n t 2. The primary layer 4 polymer compositions are applied to the panels 3 of the nonwoven material in stationary conditions at the free surface. Thus prepared sheets attached to the rock surface generation 1 or to the surface of the temporary roof support 2 by means of fixing elements (anchors 6 and washers 7). On the glued cloth is applied by spraying the secondary layer 5 polymeric composition of contrasting color relative to the color of the primary layer and the color non-woven material, paying special attention to the reliability of the coating of the joints of the panels. At the end of hydroisolation of the work is concreting zahvatki with the construction of the bearing lining.V a R I a n t 3. The primary stage of waterproofing mount raw panels 3 of the nonwoven material to the surface is 4 polymeric composition in the tunnel and keeping up to polymerization. The third stage of applying a secondary layer 5 polymeric composition of contrasting color relative to the color of the primary layer to the color of the nonwoven webs. The fourth stage concreting of the bearing lining.I variant of the method applies to any conditions, including those with abundant water sources in the mines. Characterized by the most favorable in the sanitary-hygienic and ecological relations operating mode.II variant of the method under conditions of limited water sources. Operating mode requires a greater volume of activities to ensure the safety of workers and environmental protection.III variant of the method is used in the absence of water seepage in the underground workings. Requires the most attention to ensure safety of workers and environmental safety. But his undoubted advantage is the uniform technology of waterproofing works at penetration workings without having the organization of a workshop for pre-treatment of non-woven panels on the surface.Thanks to the draining properties of panels of non-woven material, the hydrostatic pressure of the filter array in the production of sakralen, increases its reliability. Additionally, the application of a waterproof coating of the polymer composition directly on the ground in the form of panels of non-woven material provides better adhesion of the waterproof layer with the specified material and allows you to remove the requirement that special surface treatment is working or temporary piles. 1. The METHOD of CONSTRUCTION waterproofing of UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES, including fixed to the insulated surface of the nonwoven sheet material and a waterproof coating of two layers of polymeric composition, the first layer is applied directly on a non-woven sheet material, and after its penetration into non-woven sheet material applied on the second layer of the polymer composition, characterized in that the fastening of the non-woven sheet material is produced by means of fixing elements, define the optimal depth of penetration of the first layer resin composition in the non-woven sheet material and the second layer of polymeric composition is applied after the penetration of the first layer resin composition by a specified amount or after the polymerization.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the primary and second is CLASS="ptx2">3. The method according to p. 1, wherein the primary layer is applied to the nonwoven material in stationary conditions to the suspension of panels in an underground working, and the secondary layer is applied in an underground working after suspension of panels coated with a primary layer.4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the primary and secondary layers are applied directly to the underground development on previously suspended cloth.5. The method according to p. 1, wherein the primary layer of polymeric compositions perform a contrasting color relative to the color of the nonwoven material in relation to the color of the secondary layer of the polymer composition.6. The method according to PP.1 to 5, characterized in that a nonwoven fabric using needle-punched fabric weighing not less than 400 g/m2.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to protect mine workings against underground water ingress.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling injection wells along pit shaft perimeter; widening cracks by supplying high-pressure water and injecting grouting mortar in the cracks; additionally boring vertical preparation well in pit shaft center. Cracks are widened by feeding water and then air or only water in vertical preparation well. Water and air are supplied under pressure lesser than pressure of hydraulic rock fracturing. Grouting mortar is injected in cracks by forcing thereof through injection wells immediately after finishing of feeding water or air in vertical preparation well. Cryogenic gel is used as the grouting mortar. Cryogenic gel is foamed before injecting thereof in wells and foamed cryogenic gel is forced into cracks beyond the pit shaft perimeter by supplying compressed air in vertical preparation well. After leaving pit shaft as it is for grouting mortar setting time wells are sunk for the next grouting step depth and above operations are repeated up to reaching the lower boundary of pit shaft interval, wherein injection is performed under pressure exceeding that on previous step.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and material consumption along with increased efficiency of water suppression.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, particularly elimination of emergency situations.
SUBSTANCE: method involves closing borehole cross-section with extendable means; arranging predetermined volume of non-combustible material above the means, wherein the volume is determined from a given relation; discharging all non-combustible material in the borehole at a time and further distributing portions of non-combustible material having volumes of not less than volume of incoming water. Non-combustible material includes clay and pourable components which are laid in layers above the means, wherein clay volume is equal to pore volume of pourable component.
EFFECT: increased reliability of borehole sealing and water burst liquidation.
3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: water-proofing sheet comprises three layers. The first layer provides mechanical strength of the sheet and is made of elastometer polyethylene of high strength and flexibility. The second layer is intermediate one, represents the connection between the first and second layers, and is made of foam plastic with closed pores. The third layer is made of a impermeable plastic material which possesses high resistance to breaking. The tensile strength, breaking elongation, and thickness of the sheet range from 24 MPa to 39 Mpa, from 550% to 900%, and 3 mm to 50 mm, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: backfill fibrosolution consists of concrete, argil, fibers and water, as fibers solution contains synthetic filaments with diameter 0,1-0,15 mm and length 10-20 mm in amount of 10-20 kg for 1m3 of argil-cement mixture, subjected to electrification with induction of static electric charge.
EFFECT: possible backfill of extensive fractured systems with active influx of water, increased hardness of backfill material, decreased material costs of reinforcement of fractured rocks, removal of water influxes in mines.
FIELD: mining, particularly mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.
SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and performing explosions through regular system from pit bottom to create joined subvertical annular and subhorizontal rock fissured zones which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.
EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.
FIELD: mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.
SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and from pit bottom; performing explosions in wells surrounding kimberlite pipe perimeter and carrying-out hydraulic fracturing from wells drilled from pit bottom to create jointed subvertical and subhorizontal rock fissured zones, which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.
EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises leaving of massifs of minerals 14 between chambers 7-13, driven at extraction of potassium salt bed 1, and filling chambers with backfill material. Bores 6 are drilled from ground surface 5 to chambers; the bores are cased with tubes. Not soluble in water backfill material is supplied into chambers via bores 6 till chambers are filled for their complete height at a point of backfill material supply. The first to be filled are chambers 7 located at proximity to the underground water inrush zone 4 from the side of the bed rise 1 of potassium salt; thereafter filling of chambers 8-10 located below underground water inrush 4 is carried out. Not solved in water, hardening, backfill materials are supplied into chambers 7-13 via bores 6. If filed chambers driven along the course of bed chambers have considerable length, the distance between bores is determined from a calculated expression.
EFFECT: invention facilitates prevention of flooding of potassium mine and hazardous deformation of the earth surface at breaks of water protective strata and underground water inrushes into mine through water permeable cracks generated in water protective strata in areas of geological disturbances.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to strengthening of the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel and may be employed for strengthening of bases of buildings and constructions. Method includes feeding of mortar with filling agents. A shaft is drilled in the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel above the detected emptiness for feeding of filling material and a second shaft for feeding of consolidating mortar. Feeding device is installed and filling material is supplied through it in the form of balls of waterproof material, density whereof equals or is greater than water density. Balls are compressed by means of a vibrations generator; entrained water is pressed out from the emptiness by balls either through holes in the rock or through the consolidating mortar feeding shaft. Having filled the emptiness with balls, feeding device is taken away and the shaft is sealed, consolidating mortar is supplied into the second shaft and having filled all the emptiness the shaft is sealed. Should there be no water in the emptiness one shaft is drilled in the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel; where through emptiness are filled with balls compressed by a vibration generator, after that feeding device is taken away and consolidating mortar is supplied through the shaft. Emptiness been filled the shaft is sealed.
EFFECT: cost reduction of elimination of emptiness.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and is designed for elimination of hazardous situation at instantaneous inrush of water. Massif of rock is bored around with bore holes and outpost blast holes in vicinity of a groove head. Clay material is stacked inside the contour. Explosive substances are inserted in bore and blast holes; and explosion is initiated.
EFFECT: reduced time and material costs for preparation of non-combustible material to simultaneous discharge.
1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device consists of panels, supports and water intake chute. The panels have U-shaped flanged cross sections. The flanges and ribs of panels are different with regard to the required width and height along the corresponding sides of U-shaped cross section. The upper support to the bearing lining fastener assembly and lower panels to support fastener assembly are spatially distanced and implemented so that canopy panels and effective canopy hanger can be remotely adjusted to the bearing tunnel lining regardless canopy panels width and lining elements width dimensions. The upper fastener assembly is provided with supporting element for assembling pin, for example, pivot block, with one end being fixed to the bearing lining by means of fastening element, for example, bolt and/or threaded pin and/or anchor. The other end is coupled with the assembling pin, by means of, for example, a pair of nuts with spherical surface and beveled washers. The lower panel to support fastener assembly is made from the supporting element and clamping element for panels and installed on the assembling pin. The panels are installed and fastened to ensure the required architectural geometry of arch and overflow conditions in the lower panel fastener assembly for water penetrating through the lining. The position of the lower fastener assembly is adjusted by the upper fastener assembly. The invention provides for different structural implementation of the upper fastener assembly and specific features of U-shaped panel profiles and lower fastener assembly for the includes tunnel and horizontal tunnel.
EFFECT: possibility of spatial assembling pin position adjustment and installation of canopy panels in designed position regardless arch configuration inaccuracies in underground structure; more effective, reliable and simplified hanger for canopy to be attached to bearing lining notwithstanding canopy panel width and lining width ensuring conditions of penetrating through lining water.
15 cl, 20 dwg