Method of cleaning exhaust gases from carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and the method of preparation of the catalyst for its implementation
(57) Abstract:Usage: cleaning of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, as well as in the chemical, gas and petrochemical industry from CO and organic compounds, for example, cyclohexane. The inventive exhaust gases at 160 - 1100oWith contact with a catalyst containing wt.%: PdO 0,06 - 0,12; NiO 1,30 - 3,80; Cr2O31,50 - 4,30; Al2O3the rest of it. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation of the support with an aqueous solution of nitrates of Pd, Ni and Cr. The mass ratio (Pd(NO3)2: Ni (NO3)2: 6 H2O: Cr (NO3)39H2O well 1: (46 - 136) : (35,8 - 312). The media is Al2O3is, or modification, pre-calcined at 500 - 700oC. Nitrate Cr get when you add in the impregnating solution of HNO3and Cr2O3. 2 C and 1 C. p. F.-ly, 2 tab.. The invention relates to processes for cleaning exhaust gases from the impurities of oxides of carbon, hydrocarbons, organic compounds using catalysts and can be used for the decontamination of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, as well as in the chemical, gas and petrochemical industries.Izvestia, in fine condition, and chromium trioxide add the calculated amount of fine aluminum oxide. After stirring to this mixture is added a portion Zola aluminum hydroxide, containing 10% alumina. The resulting mass after mixing is formed into tablets, dried at 100aboutC and calcined at 500aboutC. the Obtained sample is then impregnated with an aqueous solution of palladium nitrate, and then re-dried at 100aboutC and calcined at 500aboutWith on the air. The catalyst contains as the active component of Ni and Cr in the form of oxides in a molar ratio of NiO:Cr2O31 0,5-0,6 and their content of 5-30% and palladium at the content of 0.01-0.2% of the Catalyst was tested in the cleaning process gases formed during hot drying enamels. Combustible gas components are xylene, benzene, butanol, and the naphtha fraction. In the ignition WITH the catalyst is not used 
The main disadvantage of this method is that it is sequential, and so labor - intensive to obtain catalysts. Separate introduction of components (NiO + Cr2O3and Pd is not conducive to the manifestation of the effect of spillover oxygen, as is the case when one is So this catalyst has a high activity and stability.The closest solution to the problem is a known method of purification of exhaust gases of vehicles from CO and hydrocarbons on the catalyst containing PD or other platinum group metal and the oxides of Ni, Cr and Al 
Closest to the proposed method of preparation of the catalyst is known a process comprising impregnation of the carrier of Al2O3the catalytically active substances, followed by drying and calcining. The catalyst contains Pd, NiO, and one or more oxides of Ba, Mo, V, Zr and other elements  the Disadvantage of this method is not sufficiently high catalyst activity.The aim of the invention is to develop a technology method of purification of industrial gas emissions of CO, hydrocarbons and organic compounds and method of producing the catalyst for its implementation, with high activity and stability in a wide temperature range.This is solved by a method of cleaning exhaust gases from the impurities of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, organic compounds, including their contact with the oxide nickelchromium catalyst at elevated campanii, wt. Nickel oxide 1,30-3,80 the chromium Oxide of 1.50-4.30 palladium Oxide 0,06-0,12 alumina Rest, and the contacting is carried out at a temperature of 160 1100aboutC.The task is also solved by a method of producing a catalyst for purification of exhaust gases from the impurities of carbon monoxide and organic compounds comprising the mixture of nitrate and chromium compounds with subsequent drying and calcination, in which the application of a mixture of Nickel nitrate and chromium compounds by impregnation of a pre-calcined to 500-700aboutWith a carrier of alumina -, -, -form a solution containing Nickel nitrate, chromium compound and a palladium nitrate, taken in a mass ratio of Ni(NO3)26H2O chromium compound Pd(NO3)2equal(46-136) (35,8-312) 1, and then re-calcining at 650 1100aboutC. as a carrier of aluminum oxide used exhaust oxide adsorbent purification process of benzene. Furthermore, as compounds of chromium use nitrate or chromic anhydride.The invention consists in the discovery of new properties of palladium oxide with further introduction of the oxide nickelchromium system its sposoben new and unexplored. Typical catalysts characterized by the decrease in activity with increasing temperature processing, or, at best, its stabilization in a narrow temperature interval. The method of preparation of the catalyst consists of applying the active components of the oxides of Nickel, chromium and palladium by single impregnation finish medium aluminum oxide with various modifications (-, -, -) acidified with nitric acid aqueous solution of nitrates of Ni, Cr and Pd or an aqueous solution of nitrates of Ni, Pd and chromic anhydride and hold thermo-activation of the samples obtained by heat treatment in air in the temperature range of 650-1100aboutC.Experimentally proved, that the introduction of free nitric acid in the impregnating solution containing the nitrates of Ni, Cr and Pd or nitrates of Ni, Pd and chromic anhydride, increases the effect of thermo-activation.Obtaining the catalyst is carried out as follows. Granular alumina -, -, - modifications, pre-calcined in the temperature range 500-700aboutWith, impregnated with a solution containing nitrates of Nickel, chromium and palladium or nitrates of Nickel, palladium and chromium anhydride, dried at 140-200aboutC and calcined in the temperature range of 650-1100aboutaboutC.The technical result of the proposed invention is expressed in a significant increase in catalytic activity and thermal stability of the catalyst for purification of gas emissions of carbon monoxide, a significant simplification of the production technology due to the exclusion of a number of stages, the possibility of its use for the purification of organic compounds. The activity of the catalyst in the oxidation of CO is determined by the temperature of its complete transformation into a CO2in a laboratory setup flow type under atmospheric pressure air mixture containing 1,0%, flow rate 10000 h-1with chromatographic registration components of the gas mixture. The catalyst believe the more active, the lower the temperature the full afterburners.Study of the oxidation mixture (CO + C6H12) on the catalyst, obtained by the proposed method, perform the following way. Through the reaction tube with the catalyst at different temperatures miss gas mixture (CO + C6H12+ O2+ N2). Cyclohexane contribute to the reaction tube by ozonation mixture is Aut chromatographic after mixing with the main gas stream at the inlet of the reactor, the residual amount of output from it.P R I m e R s 1-12 relate to the method of preparation of the catalyst. Example 13 relates to a method of preparation of the catalyst of the prototype. Example 14 relates to a method for cleaning exhaust gases. The invention is illustrated by the following examples.P R I m e R 1. The purpose of the preparation of the catalyst composition, wt. NiO 1,3; Cr2O31,5; Pd 0,06; Al2O3else, 10.0 g of the carrier-shape, calcined at 500aboutWith, placed in a porcelain Cup, which is poured at once under stirring with an aqueous solution (19.3 ml) containing 0.52 g of Ni(NO3)26H2O 0,81 g SG(NO3)39H2O and to 0.011 g of Pd(NO3)2. Palladium in the initial mixture is introduced into the aqueous solution (2.6 ml). The ratio of the components in the solution 46,0:71,7:1. Concentrations of Nickel, chromium and palladium in the initial solution equal 5,4; 5,4; 0,270 g/L. the Contents of the Cup is at room temperature and periodic stirring for 1.5-2.0 hours, then dried at 140-200aboutWith and calcined portions, respectively, at 400, 500, 600, 650, 700, 800, 900, 1000 and 1150aboutC.P R I m m e R 2. To obtain a catalyst containing, by weight. NiO 1,30; Cr2O31,50; PdO 0,12; Al2O3else, 3.0 g novtel the solution, containing 0,158 grams Ni(NO3)26H2O 0,062 g of chromic anhydride and 0.007 g of Pd(NO3)2. The ratio of these salts in solution, respectively, is 22.4: 35,8:1. Concentrations of Nickel, chromium and palladium in the original solution are 16,9, 16.0 and 1.63 g/l, the Catalyst is dried and calcined portions at 500, 650 and 900aboutC.P R I m e R 3. To obtain a catalyst containing, by weight. NiO 2,50; Cr2O32,90; PdO 0,06; Al2O3else, 10.0 g of the carrier-shape, calcined at 700aboutWith, placed in a porcelain Cup, then poured in one go while stirring to 19.3 ml of impregnating solution containing 1.04 g of Ni(NO3)26H2O, 1.63 g Cr(NO3)39H2O and to 0.011 g of Pd(NO3)2. The ratio of these salts in solution, respectively, is 92,0:144, 0mm:1. Concentrations of Nickel, chromium and palladium in the original solution amount to 10.9, 10.9 and 0,270 g/L. Further surgery to obtain a catalyst and their operation is similar to that described in example 1.P R I m e R 4. The catalyst composition, wt. NiO 3,80; Cr2O34,30; PdO 0,06, Al2O3the rest are impregnated with 30 g of carrier-shape, calcined at 700aboutWith that solution (58 ml) containing of 4.75 g of Ni(NO3)26H2O, of 7.36 g of Cr(NO
high degree of purification of exhaust gases from the impurities of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons;
high activity and thermal stability of the catalyst;
the simplicity and reliability of the method of producing a catalyst;
the utilization of waste upon receipt of the catalyst. 1. Method of cleaning exhaust gases from carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, including their contact with the catalyst containing palladium and oxides of Nickel, chromium and aluminum at an elevated temperature, characterized in that the used catalyst after heat treatment at 650 - 1100oWith containing palladium in the form of its oxide, when sled - 1,50 - 4,30
Alumina - Rest
and the contacting is carried out at 160 - 1100oC.2. A method of producing a catalyst for purification of exhaust gases from carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, including the application on alumina, palladium, Nickel oxide and the oxide of the second transition metal impregnation of the carrier with an aqueous solution of compounds of palladium, Nickel and the second transition metal, followed by drying and calcining, characterized in that the use of alumina -, or modification, pre-calcined at 500 - 700oWith, palladium is applied in the form of oxide, impregnating the solution as compounds of palladium, Nickel and the second transition metal is used, respectively nitrates when the mass ratio of Pd(NO3)2: Ni(NO3)26H2O : Cr(NO3)39H2O= 1 : (46 - 136) : (35,8 - 312), and after calcination are heat-treated in air at 650 - 1100oC.3.The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the chromium nitrate in the impregnating solution used in the form of a solution of chromium trioxide in nitric acid.
FIELD: gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to adsorption separation of gases and provides carbon dioxide absorbent, which is prepared by impregnating porous alumina with potassium carbonate, alumina having been preliminarily treated with alkali solution, in particular solution of alkali metal hydroxides and/or carbonates. Alkali treatment is carried out at temperature above 40оС. Method of removing carbon dioxide from gas mixture, including adsorption separation of carbon dioxide from atmospheric air in cyclic processes under thermal regeneration or short-cycle heating-free adsorption conditions, is characterized by that process is conducted at 20 to 200оС with above indicated absorber.
EFFECT: increased dynamic capacity of absorber and increased carbon dioxide absorption velocity.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 9 ex
FIELD: gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for fine purification of gases with removal of carbon dioxide at elevated pressures, in particular in hydrogen or ammonia production processes. Absorbent is an aqueous solution containing N-methyldiethanolamine, piperazine, potassium carbonate, and morpholine. Invention achieves reduced equilibrium pressure and increased carbon dioxide absorption at low degrees of carbonization (as low as 0.1 mole CO2 per mole tertiary amine) without appreciable N-methyldiethanolamine degradation rate.
EFFECT: enhanced carbon dioxide absorption efficiency.
2 dwg, 6 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: chemical refining of waste gasses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with a method of purification of waste gasses of heating and power stations from carbon dioxide by introduction in the waste gas stream of products of incineration of hydrocarbon fuel of an alkaline solution. At that the alkaline solution is fed in a dispersed form into the upstream of the waste gasses moving in a turbulent mode in the space of the stalk of the heating and power station. In the capacity of the alkaline solution they use circulating water of ash removal of the heating and power station. A dispersed alkaline solution is fed into the base part of the stalk of the heating and power station. Before use of the circulating water of ash removal increase its alkalinity by mixing it with the ash from consequent separation of the solution and the ash residue by settling and filtration. At that alkali is extracted from ash into the water. The invention ensures increased completeness and speed of interaction of the components at the expense of use of energy of the purified stream of the waste gasses.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased completeness and speed of interaction of the components due to use of energy of the purified stream of the waste gasses.
FIELD: gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst contains alumina-supported palladium oxide, 0.80-2.54%, copper salt, 3.09-11.79%, promoter represented by phthalocyanine complex with iron or cobalt, 0.10-1.00%, and 0.50-3.00% of polyatomic alcohol.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of removing carbon monoxide as well as accompanying sulfur-containing impurities.
1 tbl, 21 ex
FIELD: gas treatment catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst preparation method comprises depositing initially liquid soda glass onto metallic or glass-cloth surface, after which transition metal oxide mixture is sputtered onto wet surface, said transition metal oxide mixture containing, wt %: chromium (III) oxide 18-35, manganese (IV) oxide 18-35, alumina - the rest; or cupric oxide 5-15, chromium (III) oxide 10-15, alumina - the rest; or cupric oxide 12-35 and alumina - the rest. Resulting coating is dried in air during 1 day and then molded through stepwise heat treatment to temperature 400°C, which temperature is maintained for 2-2.5 h.
EFFECT: prolonged lifetime at the same catalytic efficiency.
FIELD: oxidation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts for deep oxidation of carbon monoxide and can be used to treat industrial enterprise mission gases and motor car exhaust. Catalyst of invention is intermetallide of general formula Al3M, where M is Ca or V.
EFFECT: increased catalytic activity.
FIELD: reduction-oxidation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts for deep oxidation of carbon monoxide that can be used to treat industrial emission gases and motor transport exhaust gases. Aluminum-based oxidation catalyst contains 1.3-5.1% of rare-earth and/or alkali-earth element and represents ultradisperse powder.
EFFECT: increased catalytic activity.
FIELD: different branches of economy; the systems for purification of the biogas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the chemisorptive-catalytic purification of the biogas, in particular, to the chemisorptive-catalytic system for purification of the biogas. The system consists of: the stirring device (1)of the source biogas with the air and the part of the biogas purified from sulfur; the heater of the produced gas mixture (2); the reactor of oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (3); the heat exchanger for cooling of the gas mixture and condensation of the vapors of the formed elemental sulfur (5); the pipeline (8) for recirculation of the part of the biogas purified from sulfur; and, at least two parallel chemisorbers (6) with the fixed layers of the solid granular chemisorbent of the hydrogen sulfide (7). The reactor contains the fixed layer of the solid granular catalyst (4) for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide by oxygen up to the elemental sulfur. The device stirring device contains the control system of the air consumption and the part of the biogas purified from sulfur made with the capability to maintain the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the produced gas mixture of no more than 1.2 volumetric % and the concentrations of oxygen within the range of 60-100 % from the indicated concentration of the hydrogen sulfide. The invention allows to reduce consumption of the chemisorbent and the volume of formation of the secondary wastes, to utilize the biogas with production of power and commercial products - the elemental sulfur, the high-quality carbon dioxide and to increase efficiency of purification of the biogas at the minimal capital expenditure and the operational costs.
EFFECT: the invention ensures: the reduced consumption of the chemisorbent and the volume of formation of the secondary wastes;, utilization of the biogas with production of power and commercial products - the elemental sulfur, the high- quality carbon dioxide; the increase efficiency of purification of the biogas at the minimal capital expenditures and the operational costs.
5 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: complex cleaning of various industrial gaseous emissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method may used for complete entrapping of toxic gases, such as NOx, SO2 and CO from flue gases of fuel burning units and gaseous emissions from production units. Proposed method includes pumping of gas flow to be cleaned through reservoir filled with reaction fluid followed by settling, separation of reaction products in form of sediment and their utilization. Used as reaction fluid is trifluoroacetic acid saturated with oxygen. In the course of cleaning, composition of cleaned gases is monitored continuously. In case of penetration of contaminants, flow of gases being cleaned is directed to second reservoir filled with new portion of trifluoroacetic acid saturated with oxygen. Used trifluoroacetic acid is regenerated by saturating it with oxygen and is directed to re-cycle.
EFFECT: efficiency close to 100%.