The electrolyte for the chemical current source

 

(57) Abstract:

Use: manufacture of chemical current sources. The inventive electrolyte consists of an ionic component dissolved in heavy water. In the chemical current source using this electrolyte reduces gassing and improve the efficiency of charge. 1 Il.

The invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used in the manufacture of chemical current sources (CCS), namely in the preparation of electrolytes.

Known electrolyte to HIT containing sulfuric acid as ionogenic components and water as solvent. The specified electrolyte is widely used in lead-acid batteries [1]

The lack of electrolyte associated with a low hydrogen evolution overpotential on the lead electrode of the battery, which leads to excessive gassing during charge and wasteful expenditure of energy on the release.

Known electrolyte to HIT containing a hydroxide of an alkali metal as the ionic components and water as solvent. The specified electrolyte is widely used in alkaline batteries [2]

The lack Selous, have it low hydrogen evolution overpotential. This leads to excessive gassing in the electrolyte and the low efficiency of charge.

Known electrolytes are the closest to the essential features is (acidic, alkaline or neutral) electrolyte with a water solvent. To reduce hydrogen evolution during charge the electrolyte further comprises an additive amide of nicotinic acid. This additive increases the overpotential of hydrogen, which reduces its emission at the cathode [3]

The disadvantage of the electrolyte is the presence of additional additives, not participating in tatoobrazialan process and complicating the process of preparation of the electrolyte, as well as influencing the structure of the double layer and the behavior of the electrodes.

The aim of the invention is the creation of the electrolyte for the HIT, which is characterized by the increased value of the overvoltage release of hydrogen, which reduces the emission and increases the efficiency of the charge, especially for alkaline batteries.

The objective is achieved by using as a solvent of heavy water.

The use of heavy water as a solvent Electrol, for heavy water the hydrogen evolution overpotential at the cathode in 0.1 V higher than for the normal water. Increasing the overvoltage of hydrogen is especially true for alkaline batteries with cobalt, iron and Nickel electrodes. This is due to the fact that these electrodes in a traditional electrolyte, with plain water as a solvent, has a low hydrogen evolution overpotential, which leads to excessive gassing and low efficiency of charge.

Heavy water, as follows from the analysis of the prior art, is used in nuclear engineering as a neutron moderator or raw material for production of gaseous steps [4] the Use of heavy water in the electrolyte composition for a HIT from the prior art is not known, which allows to conclude that the criterion of "novelty."

The claimed invention meets inventive step, since the whole set of essential features affect the achievement of the technical result is associated with the reduction of gas emission and increase the efficiency of the charge current sources.

The drawing shows the dependence of the potential outgassing from the type of the charge electrode in a conventional alkaline electrolyte and in electromotively two solution (25 wt.) alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide as the ionic components and ordinary and heavy water as a solvent. In these electrolytes under the same conditions held the charge of the iron electrode at various currents of charge until gas evolution. Potential gas release was measured relative to the zinc electrode.

Comparative results are shown in the drawing. As follows from the experimental dependencies, potential outgassing on the electrode in the electrolyte with heavy water is higher by 50-100 mV than in the electrolyte with plain water. This circumstance allows in heavy water electrolyte to produce the charge of the iron electrode, ceteris paribus, without gassing, as the electrode potential in the heavy water under the conditions below potential outgassing, for example, when the charge current electrode 300 mA the potential of gas emission in heavy water electrolyte at 50 mV higher than in conventional electrolyte (points a and b on the curve). I.e. under the same conditions charge in heavy water electrolyte on the electrode will not be gassing, as his potential at 50 mV lower than the potential of the gas. Under the same conditions of gas evolution at the electrodes in the electrolyte, the charge current in heavy water electrolyte and a half times higher (see coccoluto on the lead electrode in the acid electrolyte with heavy water solvent. The potential surge of gas evolution at the electrode with heavy water exceeded 30-120 mW, depending on the current charge, the potential of gassing in the battery with plain water.

Thus, with heavy water electrolyte solvent can improve the hydrogen evolution overpotential at the electrodes of chemical current sources that can be used for the development of various electrochemical systems for specific applications.

The ELECTROLYTE FOR the CHEMICAL CURRENT SOURCE containing ionic component and the solvent is water, wherein the solvent is taken heavy water.

 

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