Injector

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in the boiler-furnace technique at the supply of liquid fuel into the combustion chambers of boilers, furnaces and other heat consuming installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products. The inventive nozzle includes a Central chamber tightening fuel with an axial nozzle that is installed with the possibility of axial movement during Assembly, the peripheral annular swirling chamber, the fuel is made with geometric characteristic exceeding the geometric characteristic of the camera 2 or 3 times, and provided with an axial nozzle, additional annular swirling chamber, the steam or water is installed with the possibility of axial movement during Assembly of the nozzle placed between the camera and made with geometric characteristic exceeding the geometric characteristic of the camera in 1,5 - 2 times, and its axial nozzle is made with a slice located between the sections of the nozzles. 1 Il.

The invention relates to energy and can be used in boiler and furnace technology for delivery of liquid fuel into the combustion chambers of boilers and furnaces, other heat consuming installations, the advantage is mehanicheskie injector fuel consumption plants, in which separate channels to the head of the injector receiving fuel and steam. Next, in the head of the nozzle is offset from the fuel and steam flows that go in the combustion volume in the form of individual jets or General cone atomization [1] These injectors are used to improve the quality of the spray pattern when the load of the boiler. The operation of these nozzles is formed of a single fuel torch. A known design of nozzles technical solution [1] as part of the burner does not allow to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides, since they do not provide the possibility of obtaining independent fuel torches. In addition, these injectors flow of the spray agent (steam) is 2-4% of the weight of the fuel. Such a small weight flow agent is used for secondary crushing drops of liquid fuel, resulting in the intensification of combustion and, consequently, to a rise in the temperature of the torch. It is well known that increasing the temperature of the torch leads to increased generation of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products.

Known technical solution dvuhmetrovoy nozzle is provided in [2] Circuit dvuhzonovy nozzle is used in installations where wide the cast flows both stages, interacting with each other, form a common torch. Usually the ratio in dvuhshipovyh the nozzles such that the angle of the torch first stage more angle torch of the second stage, i.e., fuel torches intersect. The result is a General torch with an average value of specific fuel flow and total film thickness.

Structurally, the nozzles have a summary measure of the geometric characteristic, which in General is determined by the formula from [2]

A sincos where Rtothe distance from the axis of the inlet to the axis of the nozzle;

rwiththe radius of the nozzle;

the angle between the direction of the input channel and the axis of the nozzle;

the angle between napravlenie input channel and tangential direction of the swirling chamber;

m number of input channels;

fIsection of the inlet channel.

Largest geometric characteristics And judge the value of the opening angle of the torch. According to [2] when A > 4, the angle of the torch almost does not increase. Relatively different increase the angle of the torch within the change of the geometrical characteristics of from 0 to 2.

For known structures bypass nozzle geometric characte first stages (internal spray nozzle) is always higher than the second in 3-5 times. Thus, the opening angle of the fuel jets of the first stage is always higher than the corresponding angle of the second stage.

In addition, structurally take the ratio of the outer diameter of the first nozzle (fixed) to the diameter of the second nozzle is Dn/ds0,75-0,77.

This design implementation bypass injector (geometric characteristics of the nozzles and the ratio of the diameters Dn/ds) allows to obtain a stable flame of each nozzle at their separate work and mixing of the fuel jets with the formation of a single torch for the simultaneous operation of two steps.

The presence of two independent circuits supplying fuel to the nozzle, the excess of the geometric characteristics of the internal nozzle on the outer, inner stillness nozzle does not allow for conditions to reduce the emissions of oxides of nitrogen in the regulation characteristics of the fuel torch.

The closest technical solution of the present invention is dvuhzonovy nozzle, details of which are given in [3] (prototype). In this construction the nozzle liquid fuel is fed by two independent channels in the Central and peripheral camera saasa the geometric characteristic of the Central chamber of twist. The result is that at the exit of the nozzle are formed two independent cone atomization of liquid fuel having different angles. Moreover, in any position of the inner nozzle to its outlet end protrudes outside of the outer nozzle.

The main task of this construction was to ensure receipt of the spray torch fuel, consisting of two cones disclosure external and internal. Moreover, the angle of flare of the inner nozzle was significantly lower than the opening angle of the external torch nozzle. This separation of the fuel torches on two independent flow creates conditions for the implementation of the two-stage combustion of fuels.

When working dvuhmetrovoy nozzle, ustanovlennoy in the burner device in the root zone of the flame, creates a zone with excess air below stekhiometricheskogo values. The combustion in this zone is delayed with decreasing temperature of the torch and education in the root zone components chemical underburning of fuel: CO2N2CH4WITHnHmthat reduces the generation of nitrogen oxides.

The disadvantages dvuhshipovyh injectors should be attributed that in accordance with [4] the opening angle out what about the nozzle may not be less than 50-60aboutbecause at smaller angles significantly deteriorate dispersion characteristics of the fuel and increases the range of the jet. This causes the small size of the combustion chambers of boilers to incomplete burning of fuel and / or surge torch on the screen surfaces.

When placing dvuhmetrovoy nozzle in the burner with the high speed output swirling air flow, which is typical for oil-gas burners under the action of the kinetic energy of the air jets cone atomization of liquid fuel will be closer, and thus, the efficiency of reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides due to the staged combustion can be significantly reduced.

These disadvantages of the known injectors limit the possibility of their effective application to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen.

The proposed construction of the nozzle is devoid of the disadvantages inherent in the models and the prototype.

The purpose of the invention, the reduction of NOx emissions of heat consuming installations.

In accordance with the technical solution of the present invention the objective is achieved in that between the two independent channels dvuhslotovoj forsun is which fail steam or water into the swirling chamber, from which steam or water out individual cone disclosure. The cross-section of the channel, which is supplied with steam or water, provides a flow rate of 8-12% of the total consumption of liquid fuel supplied to the injector.

To ensure individual development of jets at the exit of the nozzle in any position of the Central (fuel) nozzle to its outlet end stands for the outlet end of the nozzle for the supply of steam (water), and that, in turn, stands for the output end of the peripheral (fuel) nozzle.

The geometric characteristics of the internal (fuel) nozzle 2-3 times less than that of the peripheral (fuel) of the nozzle, and the geometric characteristics of the nozzle for the supply of steam (water) in 1.5-2 times greater than that of the inner nozzle.

Technical solution [3] proved that the independent development of the fuel flow at the exit of the nozzle is achieved due to the fact that the geometric characteristics of the internal nozzle in 2-3 times less than that of the peripheral nozzle and the end of the inner nozzle supports the outer end of the nozzle, in order to obtain an independent cone disclosure of steam (water) in relation to the fuel cones, it is enough to perform this nozzle with geometric features and advantages of the interstitial position between the ends of the inner and outer nozzles.

As shown in [5] the injection of steam or water into the root zone of the torch on 15-40% reduces the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products, primarily by reducing the temperature of the torch. When the supply of steam (water) in the combustion zone simultaneously with the reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides decreases the content in flue gases and such harmful components as soot benzo(a)pyrene and other

The boiler design, mode of operation, type of fuel combusted, the method of injection of steam or water affect the efficiency of suppression of emissions of nitrogen oxides, but in General can be considered to be reliably achieved in the vast majority of cases that enter 8-12% moisture (steam, water) from the fuel to the injector substantially reduce the concentration of nitrogen oxides. Input moisture in sizes less than 8 and more than 12% significantly reduces the marginal impact of the suppression of nitrogen oxides. In addition, when the input moisture of more than 12% of the fuel consumption significantly decreases the efficiency of the combustion process.

As is known, enter the recirculation gases in the burner substantially reduces the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products. The most effective technical solution to reduce emissions is to enter the recycling Department is e only by reducing the temperature level of the combustion process and ballasting the root zone of flame combustion products of fuels, but the fact that the air flows are separated (escaped) layer of flue gases. This factor creates conditions for the emergence in the flame zone, pereobogaschennaya fuel, in which excess air is significantly below the stoichiometric required ( < 1,0).

A similar function in the nozzle performs steam or water exiting individual cone disclosure "in rassechku" fuel cones disclosure.

The above distinguishing features are essential to the proposed design of the nozzle, namely, the nozzle body between the Central swirling chamber, the fuel diffuser axial nozzle and a peripheral swirling chamber, the fuel axial nozzle is additional ring the swirling chamber with the steam supply or water and mounted with the possibility of longitudinal movement during the Assembly of the axial nozzle; geometrical characteristics of the additional annular tightening of steam or water exceeds 1.5-2 times the geometric characteristic of the Central chamber of the swirling fuel; slice axial nozzle chamber swirling steam or water is located between the sections of the nozzles of the Central and peripheral cameras zakruchivat the Central and peripheral fuel nozzles 1 and 2, and the pipe 3 for supplying steam or water. The nozzles are connected to the Central 4 and peripheral 5 torquing fuel cells, and the pipe 3 to the additional ring twisting chamber for supplying steam or water. Fuel cells are established distributors in the Central 7 and 8 peripheral, and the valve 9 in the chamber for supplying steam or water. For centrifugal spin of fuel in the Central and peripheral chambers are respectively screw 10 and tangential 12 torquing device, combined with the output nozzles. The output of fuel from the nozzle is made through the axial diffuser nozzle 13 Central and axial nozzle 14 of the peripheral fuel cells, and release of steam or water through the axial nozzle 15 additional cameras.

For adjusting the position of the slice output of the nozzles with respect to each other, in the jet established regulatory washer 16. Installed items nozzles are fixed outer nut 17.

The offered nozzle is as follows. Liquid fuel via two pipes 4 and 5 flows through the valves 7 and 8 in the swirler 10 and 12 in the nozzle 13 Central and peripheral 12 of the fuel cells. Steam or water through the pipe 6 through the distributor 9 fuel torches are formed of two truncated cones with Central and peripheral. The angle of the cone atomization of the Central nozzle is significantly below the cone angle atomization peripheral nozzle.

Steam or water is supplied into the furnace from the cone atomization located between the cones atomization of the fuel nozzles of the Central and peripheral channels. The angle of the cone atomization steam or water is greater than the angle of atomization of the Central fuel nozzle, but less than the angle of atomization of the fuel nozzle peripheral channel.

Trajectories of moving particles of fuel and steam (water) coming out of the nozzles, evolve individually and do not intersect each other. To reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides heat consuming installations in the organization of two-stage combustion is provided by the output of not blending between an independent fuel flows, shielded from each other by a flow of steam or water in the amount of 8-12% of the mass flow of liquid fuel.

Thus, when the injector installed in the combustion device with an organized supply of air in the root zone of the flame creates a zone shielded by a stream of steam or water, probaganda fuel, due to the mixing of the fuel flowing from the two cones atomization with Castets with a decrease in temperature of the torch and education in the root zone components chemical underburning of fuel, H2CH4WITHnHm.

The rest of the air discharged from the peripheral zone of the gas burner, interacts with part of the fuel emerging from the peripheral nozzles. As a result, in the peripheral part of the torch is created, probaganda fuel with excess air more stoichiometric necessary.

As a result, the combustion occurs in a stepwise scheme with the formation of two zones of combustion: basal area with < 1.0, and the peripheral area of the combustion chamber with > and 1.0. When the two-stage scheme for the combustion of liquid fuel is suppressed formation of nitrogen oxides by reducing the temperature of the torch and the recovery of the already formed oxides of nitrogen due to the presence in the root zone components chemical incomplete burning of fuel.

In addition, the injection of steam or water between the fuel flow contributes to the creation of two stages of combustion of fuel in an independent torches and quantitative consumption equal to 8-12% of the flow of liquid fuel to the injector by reducing the temperature of the fuel torches in the root zone of the torch substantially reduces the formation of nitrogen oxides.

As a result of implementing the proposed design of the nozzle obespechivayuschie the effect of implementing the proposed design of the nozzle in comparison with the prototype will be expressed primarily in a much greater reduction in environmental damage caused to the national economy by emissions of nitrogen oxides.

NOZZLE containing coaxially accommodated in the housing Central chamber twisting of the fuel diffuser axial nozzle that is installed with the possibility of longitudinal movement in the housing during Assembly, and a peripheral annular swirling chamber, the fuel is made with geometric characteristic exceeding the geometric characteristic of the Central chamber of the torsion 2 - 3 times, and provided with an axial nozzle, the Pro-slice axial nozzle of the Central chamber winding, characterized in that it is provided with an additional annular chamber twisting with the steam supply or water and mounted with the possibility of longitudinal movement during the Assembly of the axial nozzle, located between Central and peripheral chambers twist and made with geometric characteristic exceeding the geometric characteristic of the Central chamber twisting 1.5 to 2 times, and its axial nozzle is made with a slice located between the sections of the nozzles of the Central and peripheral cameras tightening fuel.

 

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