The catalyst for purification of air from the oxygen-containing impurities and the method of its preparation
(57) Abstract:Usage: in catalytic chemistry, in particular in catalytic air purification from oxygen-containing impurities, such as ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and others, for example in devices for conditioning the air supplied to the cabin of the aircraft, or in technological processes of water ozonation. The invention is: to improve the efficiency of the catalyst based on manganese dioxide by increasing permeability, strength, heat resistance of the catalyst additionally contains titanium and titanium dioxide in a ratio of components, wt. %: manganese dioxide 5-15; titanium dioxide 0.05 and the rest is titanium. The catalyst is made of particles of titanium with a size of 0.2-1.6 mm, pressed porosity 15-65% vol. layer 1-10 mm in the form of glass, pipes, plates, rods, hemispheres, etc., and sintered at 1,100-1,200oC. When manganese dioxide is precipitated on the surface of the sintered particles and in the pores of the base by immersion in a solution containing 45-55 wt.% nitrate manganese at 50-70oWith shutter speeds of 0.5-1 h After the sample is dried in air and then thermoablative at 300oC for 2-3 h 2 S. p. f-crystals. 2 Il. The invention relative to the, nitrogen oxides, etc. May be used in devices of the air conditioning systems, in particular for removal of ozone from air supplied to the cabin of the aircraft, for cleaning vibronic gases of industrial plants, decomposition of residual ozone in the technological processes of ozonation water, etc.A known catalyst for the decomposition of ozone and other oxygen-containing impurities, which represents an activated carbon coated on the surface of the manganese dioxide 
The catalyst hopcalite on the basis of activated manganese dioxide has a high catalytic activity in the decomposition reaction of ozone and oxygen containing gases  is used either in bulk form or is recorded in a pulverized condition on the support matrix by gluing.A known method of preparation of the catalyst manganese dioxide by media coverage of metal, glass, ceramics, active component 
The disadvantage of the said catalyst is a reduction in the efficiency of purification of gas with increasing gas-dynamic loads due to abrasion of the catalyst entrainment of the active phase. Increasing the height of the layer of catalyst entails a sharp increase in g is ist, a fixed catalyst bed, filefilters.The closest in technical essence to the invention is a catalyst based on manganese dioxide obtained by deposition on I will enclose of the porous heat-resistant material, such as polyamide, phenolic, polyamide, and others  the Shortcomings identified the same as the counterparts: low mechanical strength of the catalyst, the sharp increase in hydraulic resistance and reducing the treatment efficiency by increasing the speed of cleaned air.The invention consists in increasing the efficiency of the catalyst based on manganese dioxide by increasing the permeability, strength, heat resistance. This is achieved by the fact that the catalyst additionally contains titanium and titanium dioxide in the following ratio of components: manganese dioxide 5-15 wt. titanium dioxide is not more than 0.05 wt. titanium else. The catalyst is made in the form of glass, and the bottom wall of which is pressed from particles of titanium with a size of 0.2 to 1.6 mm, thickness of 10 mm and sintered to a porosity of 15 to 65% and the manganese dioxide deposited in the pores formed between the sintered particles of titanium in the amount of 5-15 wt.Comparative analysis of the prototype allows us to conclude, CTSA pressed from particles of titanium with a size of 0.2-1.6 mm to porosity 15-65% layer 1-10 mm porous filter element (base), shaped glass, pipe, plate, rod, hemispheres and sintered at a temperature of 1100-1200aboutWith, and a known catalyst manganese dioxide deposited on the surface and in the pores of the substrate and generally forms morganatically the catalyst, and this is due to its essential difference from the previously announced catalysts, providing mechanical strength and thus a higher efficiency at high specific speeds of the purified gas.Thus, the claimed catalyst meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty."Analysis of other known methods for producing catalysts and catalyst compositions used for air purification from oxygen-containing impurities, including ozone, showed that manganese dioxide is used in granular form or as a deposited catalyst on an inert carrier, which is not part of the active phase (alumina, polymers), but their use in granular media, ceramic or polymer does not provide the catalyst properties, what it has in combination with porous titanium carrier is made by pressing and subsequent sintering at a temperature of 1100-1200EUB, plates, etc. and on the surface of the sintered particles and in the pores of the basics of precipitated manganese dioxide.In Fig.1 presents the dependence of the degree of conversion of ozone in the ozone-air mixture containing 100 ppm of ozone on temperature of the purified mixture at different ratio of components in the catalytic composition. As can be seen from the curves shown in Fig.1, a catalyst containing 15 manganese dioxide, even at room temperature and above almost completely decomposes ozone in the air curve 1. Curves 2 and 3 reflect the degree of conversion of ozone on temperature for the catalyst containing manganese dioxide 5 and 9 wt. In Fig.2 presents the dependence of the degree of conversion of ozone on temperature for the catalyst based on manganese dioxide prototype. As can be seen, the activity of the inventive catalyst, obtained by the claimed method at a temperature of from 0 to 350aboutS, i.e. in the proposed temperature range significantly outperforms previously known.The claimed catalyst was prepared as follows: titanium particles of a certain size or a mixture of particles of different sizes in the range from 0.2 to 1.6 mm were mixed, loaded into a mold of the desired configuration, condensed and spressovannost sintered particles besieged manganese dioxide in an amount of 5 to 15 wt. by immersing in a solution containing 50 wt. nitrate of manganese at a temperature of 50-70aboutWith aged for 0.5-1 h at every dive with subsequent drying in air and thermally treated at a temperature of 300aboutWith in a vacuum oven for 2.5-3 h, i.e., in a period of time sufficient for complete removal of the decomposition products of salt. The increase in the content of manganese dioxide was achieved by repetition of the operation of the deposition. It is found experimentally that when the ratio of the components: dioxide morganza wt. titanium dioxide is 0.05 wt. titanium else in the investigated temperature range, the catalyst effectively decomposes the ozone in the air and a further increase in the content of manganese dioxide is impractical. Porosity of less than about 15. does not allow to provide high-quality deposition of manganese dioxide on the entire thickness of pressing and good permeability of the catalyst, and a porosity of more than about 65. reduce the strength of the catalyst, its effectiveness in the cleaning gas. The shape of the obtained catalyst depends on the geometry of the mold that allows you to adjust the geometrical dimensions of the metal catalyst. In the invention the particles specaly in the form of glass permeable sasuhou. Tested the manufacture of the catalyst in the form of tubes, plates, rods, hemispheres, etc.The claimed method were prepared catalytic compositions containing different amounts of manganese dioxide and tested in the reaction of ozone decomposition in the temperature range from room temperature up to 350aboutWith at various speeds the air flow.P R I m e R 1. Took titanium particles with a size of 0.2-1.6 mm, stirred, covered in mold, condensed and extruded to porosity 55-65% specaly at a temperature of 1150aboutC. On the surface of sintered particles of titanium besieged manganese dioxide by immersion in a solution containing 55 wt. salts of manganese nitrate at a temperature of 50aboutWith 30 min with subsequent drying in air and thermally treated at a temperature of 300aboutC for 1 h the resulting composition contained 5 wt. manganese dioxide, 0.05% titanium dioxide, titanium else. Tested at air flow rate 100000 h-1the ozone concentrations of 100 ppm, a humidity of 25 g/kg of the Degree of decomposition of ozone at various temperatures was:
TemperatureaboutSince the Degree was
tion of ozone, 50 28 100 50 150 65 200 75 250 81 300 90 350 98 the Hydraulic resistance of the catalyst after 50 h of operation the output image, by re-impregnation of the content of the manganese dioxide has increased. After heat treatment, the composition contained 9 wt. manganese dioxide, 0.05% titanium dioxide, titanium else and tested at air flow rate 1000000 h-1the moisture content of 25.3 g/kg, the ozone concentration of 100 ppm. The degree of decomposition of ozone at various temperatures was:
TemperatureaboutWith the Degree of transformation of ozone, 50 44 100 68 150 84 200 92 250 95 300 98 350 99,4
After 50 h of operation the hydraulic resistance to the gas flow has not changed, i.e., sintering or destruction of the catalyst occurred.P R I m e R 3. The catalyst with a content of 15 wt. manganese dioxide, 0.05% titanium dioxide, titanium else tested at air flow rate 100000 h-1the moisture content of 25 g/kg, the concentration of ozone in the air is 100 ppm. The degree of decomposition of ozone at various temperatures was:
TemperatureaboutWith the Degree of transformation, 25,4 60 50 63 100 84 150 96 200 97 260 99 350 99,8
Signs of sintering or destruction of the catalyst is not detected. The hydraulic resistance is not changed.P R I m e R 4. The catalyst containing 15 wt. manganese dioxide, 0.05% titanium dioxide, titanium else, tested at speeds in the air the rotation of ozone at various temperatures was:
TemperatureaboutWith the Degree of transformation, 25,4 60 50 63 100 84 150 96 200 97 250 99 350 99,8
An increase of the order of the velocity of the air flow has little effect on the degree of conversion of ozone in the air, the destruction of the catalyst does not occur.Comparative tests of known catalyst based on manganese dioxide of hopcalite and claimed Margaritifera catalyst at specific air flow rate 100000 h-1the ozone concentrations in air 50 ppm. As in the examples, the inventive catalyst is mechanically strong, with the equipment and the increase in gas-dynamic loads is not destroyed. The known catalyst there is abrasion of the granules, the ablation of the active phase in the form of dust, which reduces the efficiency and increases the hydraulic resistance of the catalyst layer 1.2 times.The duration of operation of the inventive catalyst when the moisture content of ozone-air mixture of 24.7 g/kg, a temperature of 75aboutWith increased 2.8 times.Because titanium powder and manganese compounds are produced by the domestic industry, the invention is industrially applicable. 1. The catalyst for purification of air from the oxygen-containing impurities is the ID of the titanium in the following ratio of components, wt.%:
Manganese dioxide - 5-15
Titanium dioxide - 0,05
Titanium - Rest
made of particles of titanium with a size of 0.2-1.6 mm, pressed porosity 15-65% vol. layer 1-10 mm in the form of glass, pipes, plates, rods, hemispheres, etc., and sintered.2. The preparation method of the catalyst for purification of air from the oxygen-containing impurities, including ozone, based on manganese dioxide comprising the impregnation compound of manganese, drying and heat treatment, characterized in that is used as a base of titanium particles with a size of 0.2-1.6 mm, pressed porosity 15-65% vol. layer 1-10 mm, in the form of glass, pipes, plates, rods, hemispheres, etc., and sintered at 11000-1200oWith, and manganese dioxide is precipitated on the surface and in the support base by immersion in a solution containing 45-55 wt.% nitrate manganese at 50-70oWith aged for 0.5-1 h, after which the sample is dried in air and then thermoablative at 300oWith in 2-3 hours
The well-known catalyst of this kind is the catalyst to obtain phthalic anhydride, comprising deposited on an inert carrier catalytically active substance containing as the main components of the vanadium oxide and titanium oxide
FIELD: heat-power engineering; cleaning flue gases from toxic admixtures.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes cooling of flue gases to temperature below dew point, condensation of water vapor, mixing of cooled flue gases with ozone-and-air mixture, oxidation and absorption of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides by condensate thus obtained and discharge of cleaned flue gases and condensate from zone of treatment. Flue gases and acid condensate are cleaned from carbon dioxide in perforated units of cassettes coated with layer of slaked lime [Ca(OH02] for forming calcium nitrite [Ca(NO3)], calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)]. Device proposed for realization of this method includes zone of treatment in form of box with heat-exchange and absorption-and-heat exchange sections located in this box in way of motion of flue gases. These sections are provided with air and flue gas inlet and outlet branch pipes where heat exchangers-air preheaters of 1st and 2nd stages, horizontal and vertical perforated cassettes units made from rough corrosion-resistant material coated with layer of slaked lime [Ca(OH2)], mixing chamber with perforated distributing tube and air duct with ozonizer are located.
EFFECT: enhanced ecological and economical efficiency and reliability.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: emission gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention, in particular, relates to cleaning emission gases associated with manufacture of fired building materials to remove injurious impurities. Method according to invention consists in that reductive conditions are created within rotary furnace zone wherein temperature of emission gases is between 850 and 1400°C using burning-out of carbon-containing waste and maintaining air excess factor α = 1.05...1.1, whereas in furnace zone, emission gas temperature is below 800°C, air excess factor α is elevated to 1.2 by feeding hot air.
EFFECT: enabled conversion of nitrogen and sulfur into nitrogen and sulfur and additional removal of CO and simultaneous reclamation of coal production waste.
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of neutralization and a utilization of the aggressive chemical compounds.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of neutralization and a utilization of the aggressive chemical compounds, in particular, the saturated with the anhydrides acid-containing compounds and wastes. The neutralization is applied to the smoke mixture containing the sulfuric anhydride and chlorosulfonic acid, or the oxidizing agent of the rocket propellant based on of the nitric acid containing a dimer of the nitrogen dioxide. For neutralization use the hydrolyzed dispersible aluminosilicates based of the natural clays selected from: hydromicaceous Cambrian clay, montmorillonite clay, kaolinite clay or on the basis of their mixtures. At that the hydrolyzed dispersible aluminosilicates, which are taken at least in equal shares with an aggressive chemical compound, are prepared at the following ratio of components (in mass shares): a dry substance - 1.0-2.5, water - 1.0. The invention allows to neutralize the aggressive wastes and to produce the useful product with the sorption activity.
EFFECT: the invention ensures neutralization of the aggressive wastes and production of the useful product with the sorption activity.
3 cl, 2 ex, 6 tbl
FIELD: complex cleaning of various industrial gaseous emissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method may used for complete entrapping of toxic gases, such as NOx, SO2 and CO from flue gases of fuel burning units and gaseous emissions from production units. Proposed method includes pumping of gas flow to be cleaned through reservoir filled with reaction fluid followed by settling, separation of reaction products in form of sediment and their utilization. Used as reaction fluid is trifluoroacetic acid saturated with oxygen. In the course of cleaning, composition of cleaned gases is monitored continuously. In case of penetration of contaminants, flow of gases being cleaned is directed to second reservoir filled with new portion of trifluoroacetic acid saturated with oxygen. Used trifluoroacetic acid is regenerated by saturating it with oxygen and is directed to re-cycle.
EFFECT: efficiency close to 100%.