(57) Abstract:Usage: in a small transportable electrochemical generators based on fuel cells with molten carbonate electrolyte. The inventive generator includes a fuel cell 1, the device 2 of the preparation and supply of fuel, a heat insulating housing 3, the radiation casing 4, a profiled screen 5, the first and second burners 6 and 7, the duct 8, the device 9 ignition gas valve and piping 10, screw box 11, end-to-end coaxial channel 12. The fuel cell 1 with the device 2 preparation and supply of fuel, in the form of Converter located inside the radiation of the housing 4. Inside the insulating housing 3 is installed the screen 5 that serves as the bottom of the radiation of the casing, and a heating device made in the form of two burners 6, 7 arranged coaxially one above the other and oriented output nozzles counter. The heat from the burners is accumulated by the screen 5 and the walls of the radiation of the housing 4, the screen and the walls serve as a secondary heat source, which provides highly uniform heating of all fuel cell battery. For more uniform heating of the top variable pitch, installed radiation outside of the housing 4. As fuel in the second burner is used anode gas generated inside the battery. 4 C. p. F.-ly, 1 Il. The invention relates to electrical generators, fuel cell, in particular, with the molten carbonate electrolyte.The known device [1 and 2] includes a cartridge of a fuel cell with many racks of fuel cells, each of which contains a number of fuel cells with liquid electrolyte in them, which is subject to crystallization; sealed protection, including a fixed housing surrounding the cartridge of a fuel cell; an electrical heating device installed on the power source, which is placed inside the container. The specified device generates an amount of heat sufficient to create the electrolyte temperature above the crystallization temperature, when the cartridge of the fuel cell is not operating and when the heat arrived in the rack of the fuel element and passed through the rack to the heated element. The fuel cell contains a device for supplying oxidant and fuel, and the storage device of the electrolyte is established between the anode and cathode, where quality is the first cooling channel, electric heating device placed inside the cooling channel and the casing is provided with a device for lifting. At least one electric heating device is located between the Chuck of the fuel elements and the inner surface of the protection, including the container. A heating device are long tubular resistive heaters.Similar enables the creation of an electrochemical generator, operating at low temperatures with the exception of crystallization of the electrolyte when transporting the generator to the filling stations. This is achieved by using a common electric heater installed inside of a cartridge that protects the fuel cell. The heater generates within the cartridge uniform heating of all of the fuel elements. However, to enable electric heater requires an electrical power source. In addition, for heating the phosphoric acid to 150-205aboutWith require a limited amount of heat that can be obtained by means of an electrical heater.For electrochemical generators, in most cases, typical working conditions, which are readily available Jarod. With these conditions, the generator must generate electrical energy. Therefore, there may be conditions when there is no external source of energy that does not allow you to use the heater and reduces the degree of autonomy of the electrochemical generator as electric power is produced only during the operation of the generator.The prototype of the invention is an electrochemical device  includes a generation section that contains electrochemical elements, a new line of supply of gaseous fuel, the input line of the gaseous oxidant and at least one recirculation channel used fuel, where the canal recirculation fuel passes through the chamber of the generator, in order to unite with a new line of input fuel for education reformiruemoi mixture, where the camera reformer contains the outer part containing reformiruemoi material, the inner part mainly containing a nozzle mixer and the mixer-diffuser, and the middle portion for receiving fuel, where the nozzle of the mixer and the mixer-diffuser preferably located inside the chamber of the reformer and mostly outside the main part of the apparatus, cetecom with the reforming material, moreover, the nozzle of the mixer can operate at temperatures below 400aboutC.The disadvantage of the prototype is the creation of excess heat coming into the section generation for heating due to direct effects on the fuel cell heating device, consisting of a nozzle mixer and mixer-diffuser.The technical result of the invention is expected as providing an economical intense heating of all elements of the battery with the molten electrolyte, the melting temperature of which is approximately 500aboutWith increasing plant efficiency through effective use of convective heat of the anode gas generated in the fuel elements.The purpose of the invention providing a cost-effective electrochemical generator by providing a highly rational process of heat exchange.The objective is achieved as follows. Electrochemical generator comprising a housing, which houses the fuel battery, the heating device, the feeder oxidant, preparation and supply of fuel, the fuel battery located in the radiation shield, between the housing and the radiation casing formed by the duct, the means of preparation and supply of fuel is placed between the base of the fuel battery and the bottom of the radiation of the casing, the heating device is made of located coaxially one above the other of the first, second burners and screen output nozzles are oriented oppositely, the screen serves as the bottom of the radiation of the casing and is installed around the second burner inlet nozzle which is connected to the internal anode volume of the fuel battery, and the input of the first nozzle of the burner is connected to the feeder source of fuel. In addition, the screen surface is made of profiled. The duct is formed by a screw insert. The insert is made with a variable step height.The drawing shows an electrochemical generator in the context, where 1 fuel cells; 2 preparation device and fuel supply (Converter), 3 heat insulating casing 4 radiation shield, 5 profiled screen 6 first burner, 7 second burner, 8 flue, 9 unit of the gas ignition, 10 piping and fittings, 11 screw insert, 12 end-to-end coaxial channel.The generator works as follows.The process occurs inside the insulating housing 3. The burner 6 is connected to an external feeder source of fuel (not shown) and is designed to heat the fuel cells 1 of the battery to the melting temperature ele fuel from an external source (not shown). The ignition of the burner 6 is performed by the ignition device 9. Fuel burner 6 should be preferably gas (natural gas, biogas, coke and so on). The products of combustion from the burner 6 fall on a heated profiled screen 5, where additional ignition gases. Profiled screen 5 serves as the main fuel-screen TV and a heat accumulator. The heat from the heater (burner and screen) and radiation casing affects the device 2 preparation and supply of fuel, in the form of Converter. As a result, the Converter selects the fuel gas, the supply of the fuel elements 1.The products of combustion source gas after wrapping profiled screen 5 evenly washed radiation casing 4 and spiraling gas duct 8 with variable pitch is heated uniformly. Heated profiled screen 5 and the radiation casing 4 are intermediate (secondary) emitters, perceiving heat by convection and selective emission of combustion products (CO, H2O CO2), and emit a continuous spectrum to the heating surfaces located within the radiation of the housing 4. This provides more uniform heating elements 1 and 2, located in R 10. Upon reaching the melting temperature of the electrolyte in the fuel cell 1 to the second burner 7 starts flowing gas from the anode space of the fuel element. The ignition of the burner 7 is a torch burner 6, and also due to the supply of gas to the hot surface of the profiled screen 5. The products of combustion from the burner 7 move along the path of the combustion products of the burner 6. Upon reaching the optimal temperature of the fuel cell 1, the gas supply to the burner 6 is stopped. In the process of the electrochemical generator to maintain the operating temperatures of the burner 6 may be periodically switched on and off. In the burner 6 is a through axial channel 12, through which air is supplied to the burner 7. The most preferred form of radiation casing 4 circular in cross-section.The invention provides uniform heating of the fuel cell and the Converter prevents local overheating of the elements of the battery and Converter, pipelines, located inside the radiation enclosure allows use as a heat source of the anode gas generated in the fuel cells of the battery.The invention can be industrially carried out using well-known, the chorus is the materials. The design has received confirmation of such decisions and conclusions created and tested a prototype. 1. ELECTROCHEMICAL GENERATOR comprising a housing, which houses the battery, the heating device, the feeder oxidant, prepare and submit to the battery fuel fuel battery located in the radiation shield, between the housing and the radiation casing formed flue and heating device placed outside the radiation casing, characterized in that the treatment device and the fuel is placed between the base of the fuel battery and the bottom of the radiation of the casing, the heating device is made of located coaxially one above the other of the first, second burners and screen output nozzles are oriented oppositely, the screen serves as the bottom of the radiation of the casing and is installed around the second burner, the input nozzle which is connected to the internal anode volume of the fuel battery, and the input of the first nozzle of the burner is connected to the feeder source of fuel.2. Generator under item 1, characterized in that the screen surface is made of profiled.3. Generator under item 1, characterized in that the duct is formed a screw is on top.5. Generator under item 1, wherein the first burner is formed through the coaxial channel.
FIELD: dc power supplies and dc power systems operating on hydrogen and oxygen.
SUBSTANCE: novelty is that method includes electrical installation starting and running under steady state conditions involving evaporation of liquid methanol and water, production of hydrogen and carbonic acid as result of chemical reaction between methanol and water vapors followed by chemical reaction between produced hydrogen and oxygen to generate water vapors and heat, and water and carbonic acid discharge to environment. When installation is running under steady state conditions, liquid methanol is evaporated due to its thermal chemical reaction with hydrogen and oxygen compound in electrochemical generator and water vapors produced as result of this chemical reaction are conveyed for reaction with methanol vapors to produce hydrogen. Device implementing this method is built around electrochemical generator and has methanol storage tank and series-connected vapor reformer, gas separation unit with carbonic acid discharge line, and electrochemical generator with heat and reaction product discharge lines. Newly introduced in device is methanol pumping circuit incorporating series-connected electrochemical generator communicating through heat discharge line, pump, thinning-and-heat-transfer apparatus, and methanol vapor flow regulator; in addition device is provided with gas heat exchanger, as well as water vapor pumping circuit incorporating series-connected electrochemical generator communicating through hydrogen inlet with reaction product discharge line, water-separating heat-transfer apparatus communicating with water discharge line, fan, vapor reformer, and gas heat exchanger; vapor reformer inlet communicates through gas heat exchanger with methanol vapor flow regulator and methanol storage tank communicates with methanol pumping line and is inserted between thinning-and-heat-transfer apparatus and pump.
EFFECT: reduced ancillary power requirement, enhanced efficiency, reduced size and mass, and simplified design of device.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: novelty is that by-product removing device has absorbent-charged part in fuel cell that selectively absorbs carbon dioxide delivered from module for power generation, fuel reforming for energy production in first gas, and for power generation from hydrogen; absorbent-charged part affords second gas supply in which carbon dioxide concentration is reduced due to its absorption in power generation module; fuel cell has part charged with fuel for energy generation in the form of hydrogen-containing liquid or gas.
EFFECT: enlarges amount and reduced cost of power generation without by-product emission into environment.
24 cl, 147 dwg
FIELD: renewable electrochemical devices for energy storage in reduction-oxidation batteries.
SUBSTANCE: novelty is that acid vanadium electrolyte liquor that has in its composition V+3 and V+4 in desired concentration ratio introduced in electrolyte solution is produced from solid vanadium pentoxide by electrochemical method while at least partially reducing dissolved vanadium in acid electrolyte liquor; for the purpose electrolyte liquor is circulated through plurality of cascaded electrolyzers at least partially to V+3 degree; in this way reduced vanadium incorporating electrolyte liquor leaving the last of mentioned electrolyzers enters in reaction with stoichiometric amount of vanadium pentoxide to produce electrolyte liquor incorporating in effect vanadium in the V+3 form; acid and water are introduced to ensure definite molarity of liquor and the latter is continuously circulated through cascaded electrolyzers; stream of electrolyte liquor produced in the process that incorporates V+3 and V+4 in desired concentrations is discharged at outlet of one of electrolyzers of mentioned cascade. Each electrolyzer is distinguished by high degree of asymmetry and has cathode and anode of relevant surface morphology, geometry, and relative arrangement for setting current density on anode surface exceeding by 5 to 20 times that on projected cathode surface, oxygen being emitted from anode surface. Asymmetric electrolyzer of this type can be used in one of electrolyte circuits, positive or negative, of operating battery (cell) for reducing balance of respective oxidation degrees of their vanadium content.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure and reduced coast of vanadium electrolyte preparation.
10 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: electrical engineering; fuel cell battery for various power installations such as vehicles or emergency power supplies.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel cell battery has at least two series-connected fuel cells each incorporating anode with hydrogen-sorbing alloy, oxygen (air) cathode, and additional electrode connected in parallel with cathode and made in the form of nickel oxide electrode disposed between anode and cathode; all electrodes are provided with external power leads; series connection of fuel cells is made between anode lead of one fuel cell and additional electrode lead of other fuel cell; cathode lead of each fuel cell is connected to additional electrode lead by means of switching device. Additional electrode is isolated from anode by matrix electrolyte and from cathode, by liquid electrolyte. Fuel elements are integrated with respect to liquid electrolyte to form common electrolyte loop. Switching device may be made in the form of electromechanical relay, intelligent switch, isolating diode, controlled diode, thyristor, or field-effect transistor.
EFFECT: fast reset, enhanced specific power characteristics, elongated service life.
9 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: off-line power engineering; power plants incorporating electrochemical generators.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for hydrogen storage and production in off-line power plants whose functioning cycle lasts from a few hours to several thousands of hours primarily used for submarines, underwater apparatuses, ships, rail and motor transport, periodically functioning domestic power supplies, as well as periodically functioning stationary power installations used for most important equipment requiring no-break power supply includes hydrogen production by aluminum hydrolysis. Source components are aluminum in the form of foil, sheet, wire, granules of regular or irregular shape provided one of linear dimensions of used component shape does not exceed 1 - 2 mm, and water vapor that ensures enhanced hydrogen yield. In power plants operating in off-line mode for maximum a few hours hydrolysis is conducted at temperature of 250 - 300 °C; use is made of container method of storage including replacement of completely spent container. For power installations operating more frequently in off-line mode hydrolysis is conducted at temperature of 200 - 250 °C, use being made of changeable or unchangeable containers and removal of reaction products from unchangeable container being made by sucking out oxide from container or by dissolving aluminum oxide with aid of chemical reagents, followed by washing and drying out. Flowrate of hydrogen produced in the process is controlled by regulating amount of water supplied in the form of vapor.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and hydrogen yield, reduced cost of hydrogen production, eliminated need for using chemically active media in the course of operation, and enhanced hydrogen yield.
FIELD: dc power supplies and systems using hydrogen and oxygen, as well as alkali and acid electrolytes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for servicing electrochemical generator involves pumping of hydrogen and liquid electrolyte through fuel cell battery as well as passage of CO2-free air through fuel cell battery and its discharge into surrounding atmosphere; in the process electrical energy is generated and reaction product (water) is discharged into surrounding atmosphere; reaction product (water) is dissolved in electrolyte until 15% concentration is attained. After that electrolyte is heated to water boiling temperature and air passed through fuel cell battery is cooled down to ambient temperature, mixed up with steam produced as result of electrolyte heating, and steam-gas mixture formed in the process is discharged into surrounding atmosphere; at the same time electrolyte concentration is brought to 35%. Device implementing this method has set of loads with electrochemical generator operating variables recorder, fuel cell battery with air pumping system incorporating fan, air CO2 cleaner and pipe union for discharging air from fuel cell battery, hydrogen pumping system, electrolyte pumping closed loop incorporating electrolyte tank with gas and liquid spaces and pump, air flow cooler, air flow control valve, and steam-gas mixture discharge line; inlet of air flow control valve is connected to pipe union for discharging air from fuel cell battery; one outlet of this valve is connected to inlet of air flow cooler and other one, to steam-gas mixture discharge line; air cooler outlet is connected to gas space of electrolyte tank.
EFFECT: reduced power requirement, enhanced operating reliability.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydrogen supply systems for priming motor car running on fuel cells.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrogen supply system has hydrogen supply station and mobile system for hydrogen production; hydrogen produced by means of mobile system is fed to hydrogen supply station.
EFFECT: utmost utilization of existing infrastructure.
19 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: hydrogen power engineering, possible use in power plants, consuming hydrogen-oxygen fuel elements, included in composition of electro-chemical generators.
SUBSTANCE: power plant of underwater apparatus has electro-chemical generator, hydrogen accumulators connected thereto, block for storing cryogenic oxygen with gasifier, connected to electro-chemical generator, hydrolysis-based hydrogen production system, connected to hydrogen accumulators; capacity for accumulating fluid products of hydrolysis reaction, connected to hydrolysis-based hydrogen production system, while additionally having gas mixer and pump with control block, electrically connected to electro-chemical generator, and mounted on additional main, connecting inhabited sections of underwater apparatus to lower portion of capacity for accumulating fluid products of hydrolysis reaction, upper portion of which is connected by main to first inlet of gas mixer, second inlet of which through controllable oxygen flow adjuster is connected by main to gasifier, and outlet of gas mixer is connected to inhabited sections of underwater apparatus, by means of main, on which an oxygen concentration indicator is mounted, connected to block for controlling oxygen flow adjuster.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities of power plant, wherein for supplying hydrogen to electro-chemical generator, hydrolysis method for producing hydrogen is used.
FIELD: power engineering, in particular, engineering of power plants, having electro-chemical generator with oxygen-hydrogen fuel elements, possible use in composition of power plants for underwater apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: power plant of an underwater apparatus has chemical reactor, connected to hydrogen accumulator through gas purification block, electro-chemical generator, pneumatically connected to block for storing cryogenic oxygen, and to hydrogen accumulator, while being hydraulically connected to reservoir for distillated water, tank for milled aluminum, connected through dosage device for powder-like substances to chemical reactor; reservoir for accumulation of fluid reaction products, connected to chemical reactor; reservoir with alkali solution, while hydrogen accumulator is made in form of pressurized gas tank, and power plant additionally includes liquid mixer with heating device and liquid level indicator, connected to chemical reactor, while liquid mixer is connected to reservoir with alkali solution and to reservoir for distillated water, and also a heat-exchange heating device is mounted in aforementioned reservoir for accumulating liquid reaction products. Hydrogen accumulator can be mounted together with electro-chemical generator in pressurized space, equipped with fire and explosion prevention system.
EFFECT: higher speed of operation concerning supplying hydrogen to electro-chemical generator, controllable launch time of chemical reactor; thus, increased controllability of hydrogen generation process onboard the underwater apparatus; increased level of fire and explosion safety during operation of power plant.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering; systems of production of electric power by gasification of combustibles.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of electrical engineering, in particular, to the technology of conversion of the chemical energy of combustibles into electrical power with the high effectiveness, where the combustibles are gasified for production of the gas and the produced gas is used in the fuel cell for generation of electrical power. The technical result of the invention is an increase of effectiveness of conversion of the chemical energy of the combustibles into electrical power. The offered low-temperature gasification furnace for gasification of combustibles such as the combustible waste or coal, may work at the temperature, for example, of 400-1000°C, and the produced gas then is fed into the fuel cell for generation of the electrical power. The low-temperature gasification furnace preferentially represents the gasification furnace with the fluidized layer.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased effectiveness of conversion of the chemical energy of the combustibles into the electrical power.
7 cl, 23 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering; fuel cells.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel cell bipolar plate has plate proper, fluid passage space formed on both sides of plate, and fluid guide screen installed in fluid flow space. Formed on plate are inlet and outlet channels communicating with fluid flow space. Bipolar plate is manufactured by means of special mold and using special treatment process. As a result, flow distribution is more uniform and its resistance to fuel and air flow to fuel-cell fuel electrode and air electrode, respectively, is reduced. In addition, area of reaction with membrane-electrode assembly and diffusion area can be increased.
EFFECT: improved design, facilitated manufacture.
20 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: starting system of aircraft engines includes N units of sensors and a commutator, which are connected to a control, monitoring and protection unit.
EFFECT: conversion of energy of fuel elements to electric energy of improved quality with specified output parameters for reliable supply to onboard consumers of an airborne vehicle with all kinds of electric current, which excludes voltage supply in emergency situations.
SUBSTANCE: electrolyte additionally contains lithium molybdate with the following component ratio, wt %: potassium bromide 6.4-7.4, potassium methavanadate 64.6-66.8, potassium molybdate 15.5-16.7, lithium molybdate 11.3-12.2.
EFFECT: electrolyte has low specific enthalpy and melting temperature.
SUBSTANCE: method includes treating the powder of metallic nickel or nickel-containing alloy with an aluminium-containing precursor. As an aluminium-containing precursor, a water-alcohol solution of Al(NO3)3⋅9H2O. The powder is impregnated with a precursor, dried at a temperature of 30-70°C, and then calcined at a temperature of 250-280°C.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify the producing process and to increase the functional characteristics of the porous gas diffusion anode.