The modulation of electromagnetic radiation and the electromagnetic radiation modulator
(57) Abstract:Usage: the invention relates to optoelectronics, namely modulators of electromagnetic radiation. Essence: in the way of modulation of the electromagnetic radiation based on the change in carrier mobility that is managed in the change of transmittance with the passage of the radiation through the high-resistance semiconductor material when the temperature of the charge carriers in the semiconductor material by an external impact and temperature stabilization of a semiconductor material, and the device for containing the wafer of high resistivity semiconductor material, means external influences on the plate, and means for stabilizing the temperature of the plate, as a high-resistance semiconductor material wafer of gallium arsenide or indium antimonide. 2 S. and 4 C. p. F.-ly, 1 Il. table 1. The invention relates to optoelectronics.There is a method of modulation of electromagnetic radiation, including managed the change of transmittance with the passage of the radiation through the plate from the high-resistance semiconductor material, in which current carriers excite by the creation of the external exposure to heat of carriers 
The disadvantage of this method and modulator, providing a deep modulation of the microwave radiation is limiting the modulation frequency of the inertia of the process of excitation of carriers.The closest to the proposed method and the modulator are methods of modulating the electromagnetic radiation based on the change in carrier mobility, comprising a controlled change in transmittance with the passage of the radiation through the plate from the high-resistance semiconductor material by temperature change of carriers in the semiconductor material and temperature stabilization plate, and a modulator of electromagnetic radiation containing a plate of high resistivity semiconductor material, means external influence to change the temperature of the carriers in the semiconductor material and means for stabilizing the temperature of the plate 
The disadvantage of this method and modulator, providing a deep modulation at frequencies of about 11 GHz, is to limit the spectral range due to changes in mobility in the redistribution of the carriers along the branches of the zone (intervalley transitions).The invention is directed to rossilli due to a change in carrier mobility in the process of intraband transitions within the same branch areas (valleys).The extension of the spectral range of the modulation is achieved by the fact that in the known method the modulation of electromagnetic radiation, including managed the change of transmittance with the passage of the radiation through the plate from the high-resistance semiconductor material by temperature change of carriers in the semiconductor material and temperature stabilization plate, as a semiconductor material using gallium arsenide or indium antimonide, and in a known modulator containing a plate of high resistivity semiconductor material, means external influence to change the temperature of the carriers in the semiconductor material and means for stabilizing the temperature of the plate, the plate is made of gallium arsenide or indium antimonide.The drawing shows a schematic diagram of the proposed modulator.Radiation 1 falls on plate 2 of gallium arsenide, temperature (lattice) which is stabilized by known means (thermostat) 3, which plate is in thermal contact.The essence of the invention enables the achievement of the technical result of the modulation of the THz radiation and Milli is changing mobility in the transitions of carriers within the same branch areas (valleys).Temperature control of carriers Tiis carried out by external impact. There are various methods of heating media. In the invention for temperature changes can be used either heating in the Annex to the plate voltage from an external source, or photorazor, which consists in the exposure of the plate radiation source with the energy of a quantum is greater than the width of the forbidden zone.At millimeter wavelengths the main contribution to the absorption of gallium arsenide (indium antimonide) makes the interaction of radiation with gas free media (semiconductor plasma generated in the process of intraband transitions within the same branch (valley) area. The amount of absorption is determined by the following ratio:
5,2610 N where bugarovsky absorption, cm-1,
n the refractive index;
N is the carrier concentration, cm-3;
m*/m is the ratio of the effective mass to the electron mass;
mobility, cm2/Sun.Because mobility is
where e is the electron charge;
the relaxation time of the pulse, the assumption was made about the decisive influence on the absorption ve is associated with a temperature value:
=kTiwhere K is Boltzmann's constant.The relaxation time is determined by the ratio of the probabilities of scattering media, corresponding to different mechanisms, and can be represented in General form () A where a and r parameters, corresponding to different scattering mechanisms, and specified for gallium arsenide electronic conductivity type 9000 for indium antimonide electronic conductivity type 77000
In the temperature range of 5-70 To mobility is determined by the ratio At3/2.The table below shows the calculation results of the transmission exp l} on the wavelength modulated radiation 1.4 mm when using wafers of gallium arsenide with a carrier concentration 2,51011cm-3thickness of 35 microns.When temperature stabilization plate of gallium arsenide to a temperature close to the temperature of liquid nitrogen and the heating media up to 300 K, the depth of modulation at a frequency of about 10 GHz is equal to 94% 1. The modulation of electromagnetic radiation, including managed the change of transmittance with the passage of the radiation through the plate from the high-resistance semiconductor material by temperature change of carriers in semiconductor materialswith gallium arsenide or indium antimonide.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the temperature change carriers on the plate serves voltage from an external source.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that for changing the temperature current carrier plate is irradiated with optical radiation with quantum energy greater than the width of bandgap semiconductor material.4. Modulator electromagnetic radiation containing a plate of high resistivity semiconductor material, means external influence to change the temperature of the media in poluprovodnikov material and means for stabilizing the temperature of the plate, wherein the plate is made of gallium arsenide or indium antimonide.5. The modulator under item 4, characterized in that as a means for changing the temperature of carriers used a current source, connected through an ohmic contact with the plate.6. The modulator under item 4, characterized in that as a means for changing the temperature of carriers used radiation source optically connected to the plate.
FIELD: infrared radiation detection and recording.
SUBSTANCE: proposed photodetector unit that provides for reduction of one pixel bias current by approximately 10 - 50 times has at least one light-sensitive element in the form of multilayer heteroepitaxial semiconductor structure built around three-component solid solution CdHgTe incorporating permanent-composition effective layer corresponding to sensitivity gap of unit and disposed between two graded band-gap layers of same semiconductor material; gradient of graded band-gap layers is chosen proceeding from requirement to enlarge forbidden gap between effective layer and external edges of graded band-gap layers; it also has multiplexer affording read-out and processing of signal coming from light-sensitive element and interface made in the form of integrated circuit that functions to control multiplexer and to align multiplexer amplification and conversion channels; light-sensitive element and multiplexer are mounted in vacuum chamber opposite input aperture in immediate proximity of cold pin of cryogenic gas machine; light-sensitive element contacts are made in the form of indium columns connected to mating ones of multiplexer; the latter is disposed in hot gap.
EFFECT: enhanced voltaic sensitivity, eliminated extra noise with partially numbered cold gap signal and dc component of bias current dependent photoresistor signal.
11 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: luminous radiation recording and measurement.
SUBSTANCE: proposed resistor built around heteroepitaxial structure CdHgTe has insulating substrate that carries at least one substrate of sensing element made of CdZnTe or GaAs, or Si mounting sensing element in the form of heteroepitaxial structure; the latter has lower graded band-gap layer of CdxHg1 - xTe, where x varies between 0.8 ± 0.5 and 0.3 ± 0.05 in direction from substrate; working layer of CdxHg1 - xTe, where x = 0.3 ± 0.05; upper graded band-gap layer of CdxHg1 - xTe, where x varies between 0.3 ± 0.05 and 0.8 in direction from substrate; and antireflecting coating. Alternative composition of working layer and, consequently, concentration gradient in graded band-gap layer is also proposed.
EFFECT: extended spectral sensitivity region; eliminated surface recombination to enhance integral detection capability.
12 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: metal science; protection of materials against external and corrosive attacks.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for producing diamond-like films designed for encapsulating solar photocells to protect them against chemical, radiation, and mechanical damage includes variation of ion kinetic energy, plasma discharge current, and spatial density distribution of plasma incorporating C+, H+, N+, and Ar+ ions by acting upon ion current from radial source with electric field built up by stop-down, neutralizing, and accelerating electrodes. Spatial plasma distribution is checked for uniformity by measuring plasma current density on solar photocell surface whose temperature is maintained not to exceed 80 oC. In the process substrate holder makes complex axial movement in three directions within vacuum chamber. Diamond-like films produced in the process on solar photocell surface area over 110 cm2 are noted for uniformity, difference in their optical parameters variable within desired range is not over 5%.
EFFECT: enhanced adhesive property, microhardness, and resistance of films to corrosive attacks.
5 cl, 12 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: electrical equipment.
SUBSTANCE: face side of semiconductor wafer whose structure has n-Ge substrate, n-GsAs buffer layer, n-GsAs base layer, p-GsAs emitter layer, p+-GsAlAs large-gap layer, and p+-GsAs contact layer is covered with silicon dioxide layer. Contact metallization layer is evaporated on rear side of wafer. Protective photoresist layer is formed on silicon dioxide layer and rear contact is built up by electrochemical deposition. Photoresist mask with windows is made upon removal of photoresist above contact regions of photoelectric converter. Then silicon dioxide layer is etched in windows and chromium metal contact layers are alternately evaporated. Upon producing photoresist mask with contact pattern contacts are built up by electrochemical deposition of silver and protective layer of nickel. Upon removal of photoresist evaporated layers of contact metallization are removed by ion-beam etching, wafers are given heat treatment, and photoresist mask with window pattern over photoelectric converter perimeter is formed. Then silicon dioxide layer is removed from windows and gallium arsenide layers are etched to expose germanium substrate. Silicon dioxide layer is removed upon removal of photoresist and antireflecting coating is applied upon etching p+-GsAs beyond contact regions.
EFFECT: improved quality of face contacts due to adhesion, reduced contact resistance and noble metal consumption.
1 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: optoelectronic and robotic devices for recording optical radiation parameters.
SUBSTANCE: proposed off-line coordinate-sensing optical receiver has glass substrate, photosensitive anomalous photovoltage film of semiconductor material, and metal contacts; it is produced from semiconductor compounds in the form of stepped anomalous photovoltage film whose thickness gradually increases starting from ≈1 μm.
EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity.
1 cl, 2 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: nuclear physics; recording charged-particle associated neutrons in static-vacuum neutron generator.
SUBSTANCE: proposed semiconductor detector that can provide for recording charged-particle associated neutrons in static-vacuum neutron generator at recording speed of up to 107 particles per second has semiconductor recording element disposed in insulating case closed both on charged-particle flow end and on opposite end with metal layers electrically connected to current leads; current lead on charged-particle flow end is made in the form of stiff metal hold-down plate with holes opposite sensing zone of semiconductor recording element attached to insulating case; current lead connected at opposite end is made in the form of stiff metal plate pressed by means of spring-loaded member to semiconductor recording element; insulating case is made of vacuum-tight material of gas desorption capacity not over 5 x 10-8 millibar per cm-2 per sec-1; case may be made of ceramics.
EFFECT: enhanced recording speed.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: nuclear power; geology; metallurgy; ecological testing system.
SUBSTANCE: registrar has semiconductor detector made of monocrystal silicon having flat signal p+-n junction around which there are guard ring-shaped p+-n junctions located and preamplifier. Electrode of flat signal p+-n junction is connected with input of preamplifier. Electrode of internal guard ring-shaped p+-n junction is connected with zero potential bus of preamplifier.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.
FIELD: electronic engineering; semiconductor lasers for data recording, reading, and processing.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method designed to generate coherent electromagnetic radiation and width of its spectral line for mentioned lasers includes introduction of metal or superconductor nanoparticles in its system of hyperfine semiconductor layers and excitation of electrical dipole vibrations using electrons of mentioned nanoparticles.
EFFECT: greatly reduced dimensions of lasers.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: photosensitive devices for detection of electromagnetic radiation.
SUBSTANCE: IR detector has cryostat inside which the chip with photosensitive detector and multiplexer are disposed onto cooled holder. Multiplexer has control, supply and processing outputs connected control, supply and processing units disposed outside the cryostat. Multiplexer is provided with photoconverters which have control outputs connected. The outputs are made in form of fiber light-guides which are connected to light-guides mounted inside control unit. Light-guide can be also only single. Ends of light-guide are provided with optical multiplexer being connected with light-guides. Optical de-multiplexer of light-guide is connected with photoconverters. Wall of cryostat is provided with window at the plane where it crosses light-guides. The window can be made in form of optical joint.
EFFECT: improved reliability of operation; reduced heat generation; reduced noise.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering; electrical energy generation by solar-radiation-to-power conversion.
SUBSTANCE: proposed solar battery has panel with modules secured thereto by adhesive; these modules incorporate solar cells interconnected in series or in series-parallel with aid of switching buses. The latter are provided with thermomechanical expansion devices; shielding glass strip provided with flexible members of desired shape and size additionally glued to planar or curvilinear surface of frame is secured by means of adhesive to front surface of each solar cell. Inner space of flexible members is filled with sealing compound to form convex meniscus. Solar cells abut against flexible members and are fixed in position until sealing compound is fully polymerized. Switching buses with thermomechanical expansion devices, as well as shunting diodes are welded or soldered to rear contacts of solar cells in regions free from sealing compound. Thermomechanical expansion devices are disposed between rear end of solar cells and carrying surface of frame also in regions free from sealing compound. Solar battery is characterized in simplified design of switching system and in that battery mass is uniformly distributed over frame surface.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability, in-service stability of mechanical, thermomechanical and electrical characteristics, and reduced mass of solar battery.
1 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex