The method of determining the salinity of soils and/or groundwater level and salinity
(57) Abstract:Usage: agriculture, namely the control of soil reclamation. The inventive carry out electrical profiling of the investigated area in a contactless manner, also conducted by remote sensing. The degree of salinity is determined by the correlation between the received electrical resistance at this point and data analyses of samples at the test points. The groundwater level is determined by the difference of electric resistance obtained by measurement at a single point for registration along strike and perpendicular to the strike of the structures of soils. 3 Il. The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to land reclamation, and can be used to control the reclamation condition of irrigated lands.There is a method of determining the salinity of soils, groundwater salinity and level, based on the drilling of wells of different depths with the sampling of soils and groundwater with the establishment of the content of salts by chemical means (guideline on monitoring of reclamation condition of irrigated Semel lnost field and laboratory work, as well as the impossibility of mapping salinity survey sites because of the high sparse network of observation wells.The closest technical solution is the method of determining the salinity of the soil and the level and groundwater salinity, based on measuring their electrical resistance methods of vertical electrical sounding (VES). In this case, initially according to the chemical analyses of samples of saline waters and salt-affected soils taken from wells at key points of the investigated area, establish a correlation between the electrical resistance and the degree of salinity of soil and groundwater salinity. (N.N. Cherepanov, G. Y. Chernyak, V. A. Baron. Methods geophysical studies hydrogeological survey with the purpose of land reclamation. M. Nedra, 1974).The disadvantages of this method are relatively low productivity, because this method is point and requires penetration of the supply and receiving elements. In addition, the moisture content of soils and their particle size significantly affects the accuracy of measurements using an electric field.To address the shortcomings of izvestno is their mineralization, including measuring their electrical resistance in the locations of the observation wells and according to the chemical analyses of samples from these wells, establishing a correlation between the electrical resistance and the degree of salinity of soil and/or groundwater salinity, electrical profiling of the investigated area and determine the correlation of the degree of salinity of soil and/or groundwater salinity, and jump on the magnitude of electric resistance of their level, in which the electrical resistance of the saline soils and/or saline water is determined by the intensity of the electromagnetic field in non-contact electromagnetic profiling and remote sensing.The essence of the method lies in the fact that to create in the soil of the electromagnetic field does not require penetration of the radiating and receiving antenna, the method is contactless, which significantly reduces the complexity and improves the performance of research.The intensity of the electromagnetic field is almost not affected by moisture or particle size, thereby increasing measurement accuracy.FPIC is e electromagnetic field of a given frequency, and the receiver tuned to the same frequency, via the receiving antenna captures the intensity of the electromagnetic field. Since the research does not require grounding antennas, measurements may be performed in motion. Depth studies of soils depends on their particle size distribution and in General equal to half the distance between the emitting and receiving antennas. For the exact determination of the depth of research on a given frequency at the site of the work carried out parametric measurements in wells with known geological section (for example, the groundwater level). Quantitative interpretation of these measurements are conducted empirical method proposed by C. A. Shamshurin. The method is quite simple and you can achieve great accuracy in the determination of the groundwater table. This method lies in the fact that in specific geological section there are usually quite precise and unambiguous link between the abscissa of the characteristic points of the curvesandand the depth of the sole electric horizon. On the resulting parametric measurement curves are characteristic points associated with the depth of groundwater and the depth of water h and spacing>/BR>To determine the depth of study is sufficient spacing r multiplied by a factor kh(hg=knr).In determining the salinity of the soil and/or groundwater levels of salinity carry out the methods of remote sensing and electromagnetic profiling. Remote sensing is intended to study the geological section, and electromagnetic profiling to examine the Geology of the rocks at a certain, predetermined depth.Work method the electromagnetic profiling performed at the same distance (spacing) between the receiving and generating antennas, which depends on the depth of the study. With such spacing conduct research on the profile. Work can be done in the movement, which dramatically increases the amount research.When remote sensing is one of the antennas (usually a generator) remains in place, and the other (reception) is removed or is approaching, and separations, which are pre-selected, measured.Determination of the electrical resistance of soil electromagnetic methods provide several options: using vertical horizontalneho dipole. The essence of the measurements is as follows:
Excite the magnetic field of a vertical magnetic dipole and at selected distances along the profile measured potential field, which is measured using an orthogonal framework. In this first measure the vertical component of Hzelectromagnetic fields, and then the frame is turned 90aboutand measure the radial component of Hr. Resistance of soils determined through the ratio of these components of Hz/Hr.Hz/Hr= /rf where the soil resistance, Ohm;
r spacing, km;
f is operating frequency, Hz.Because you are working orthogonal framework of a strictly two fixed position during the measurement, the measurement process is much easier and quicker. In addition, it is easy to automate, (U.S. Pat. RF N 1769266), so this method of measurement has been widely used.Determination of soil salinity and soil aeration zone produced by the methods of remote sensing and electromagnetic profiling. On the experimental plot conduct parametric measurements in wells salt survey. According to the measurement results build correlation f(C%) for each glue definitions very high, since the salinity of the soil more than 0.3% (onset of salinity and humidity more than 10% of the intensity of electromagnetic field is almost not affected by humidity and granulometric composition of soils.The groundwater salinity is also determined using remote sensing and electromagnetic profiling. In the first case, determine the salinity of the groundwater depth in the second profile. On the basis of parametric measurements made by observation or exploration wells with known salinity of groundwater, build correlation f(m g/l) for the work area, which then determine the salinity of water when doing production work.The groundwater level is determined using remote sensing-based study of the anisotropy of rocks. As you know, the anisotropy of rocks is related to their heterogeneity, and therefore the propagation of electromagnetic waves will be different depending on the measurement direction along the fall of geological structures or across.Typically, to determine the anisotropy of rocks conduct research by circular sensing. For this generator framework establish the First spacing 0aboutsend along strike of geological structures. After computing Ohm build a pie chart resistance. From a Central point on the graph paper mark values of the measured resistance on the dressing-down. Resistance equal spacings connect lines. So get a pie chart. In homogeneous anisotropic media receive the equivalent of a pie chart, in inhomogeneous anisotropic media pie turn out elongated in the direction of the stretch plane anisotropy and take an elliptical shape. Thus, the apparent resistance measured in the cross stretch of rocks less than that measured along the stretch. This phenomenon, due to the strong increase in current density along the layering is called "the paradox of anisotropy". This is the brightest and most well-known indicator of anisotropy. The greatest influence of anisotropy in electromagnetic measurements observed in flooded soils. The pie chart in this case is drawn in the direction of fall of the water enclosing rocks. Because of this, on the dressing-down, dedicated to the groundwater, the apparent (effective) resistance obtained is higher than the spacings in non-irrigated soils, i.e., formed as if the it curves, measured the stretch and in the cross stretch of geological structures and combined on the same graph, at the point of watering the rocks apart and parallel to each other until, until the end of the interval of flooded soils. In non-irrigated soils are again combined. Apparently, this effect should be observed in the coal and ore bodies, where the anisotropy of rocks is very high.Determination of ground water level in connection with the foregoing, the proposed method is as follows.First, the spacing oriented along the strike of the structures. Then, without changing the position of the generator antenna spacing turn 90aboutregarding the initial and oriented in the cross trending structures. Both curves obtained from measurements, are built on the same graph. When applying the second curve to the first border groundwater observed the divergence of the curves, which is a reliable sign of hydric soils. The starting point of the divergence of the curves are characteristic points of the curves, which, using the method of C. A. Shamshurin, determine the depth of groundwater.In Fig. 1 shows correlationin dependencies between elektricheska chart of salt content in the soil in the m layer, received electromagnetic profiling of soils. In Fig. 3 presents graphs of the impedance measured at the same point of observation. One curve (1) as measured by the stretch of flooded soils, the other in the cross stretch (2). The angle between the deliveries of the 90about.P R I m m e R. a method for determining the salinity of the soil and/or groundwater level and salinity by a non-contact electromagnetic profiling and remote sensing was carried out in the Bukhara region of Uzbekistan. On the job site were conducted trial studies, including parametric measurements in wells salt survey and monitoring wells to establish the correlation dependencies =f (%) and f(M g/l). The results of this work were built these relationships (Fig. 1). The correlation coefficient is 0.95, indicating a high accuracy of measuring soil salinity and soil. To study the distribution of salts in the profile in the m layer were carried out on electromagnetic profiling. The studies were conducted in motion (walking) with the spacing of the radiating and receiving antennas on 2 meters (see Fig. 2). Determination of the depth gruntvig layers and then cross stretch. The angle between the spacings was 90about. Both curves built on the same graph (see Fig. 3). As can be seen from the graph, the spacing of 5.5 m (h=2.8 m) curves diverged further in parallel each other to a spacing of 25 m (h=12.5 m), where they are again aligned. The interval from 5.5 m to 25 m is flooded, which was confirmed by exploratory drilling.Studies have shown high efficiency of application of electromagnetic methods for control of ameliorative condition of irrigated lands. The METHOD of DETERMINING the SALINITY of SOILS AND/OR GROUNDWATER LEVEL AND SALINITY, including the measurement of electrical resistance in the locations of the observation wells and according to the chemical analyses of samples from these wells, establishing a correlation between the electrical resistance and the degree of salinity of soil and/or groundwater salinity, electrical profiling of the investigated area and determine the correlation of the degree of salinity of soil and/or groundwater salinity, and jump in the value of electric resistance of their level, characterized in that the electrical resistance is determined by the intensity of the electron is ery groundwater is determined by the difference of electric resistance, the resulting measurements at the same point along strike and perpendicular to the strike of the structures of soils.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for drop irrigation of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has cylindrical casing with inlet and outlet openings. Cylindrical casing has threaded covers and body. Valve and elastic cuff are movably positioned inside cavity of cylindrical casing. Apparatus is further equipped with additional cuff. Main and additional cuffs are provided with orifices. Valve is made in the form of concavo-concave lens arranged in spherical belt. Valve is manufactured from material having density smaller than density of water, in particular, valve may be made from cork of 0.2-0.3 t/m3 density. Valve is arranged in casing between cuffs and is adapted for alternating contacting through cuffs with projections oppositely arranged inside casing cavity. Projections are made in the form of spherical segments, with radius of spheres of segments being smaller than radius of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens. Difference between radii of projection sphere and that of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens is equal to thickness of elastic cuffs. Channels on apexes of cover and casing projections are extending in radial direction toward inlet and outlet openings.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.
4 cl, 4 dwg