Pile kvasha and way of embedding it in the ground

 

(57) Abstract:

The purpose of the invention: simplification of technology immersion and increasing the carrying capacity on the ground. The design of the new piles is that the drop-down items placed in the lower part of the hollow concrete piles made with a variable cross-section and the joint between the variables in thickness and destructible concrete bridges, the cross section of the elements and the thickness of the jumpers to the bottom of the structure are reduced, and the diameter of the cavity between the elements increases, and the drop-down reinforcement elements made of longitudinal prestressing reinforcement installed in a radial plane of symmetry of each element by changing the eccentricity of the force of compression of the concrete along the length of the element, and tightening the reinforcing ring, at this time, the valve in the upper section of the elements is located eccentrically from the center of the loft toward the cavity, and in the lower section of the outer side. In the method according to the first embodiment news is that the use of hollow concrete pile with a drop-down elements located in the bottom part of the casing and the United destructible concrete lintels, immerse the pile into the soil the elements, squeeze the side ground layers and reveal the pile. On the second version of the new method is that before diving into the ground to form a well-defined depth, install or immerse the pile and at the same time immerse her, destroy concrete lintel Flex elements and reveal the pile.3 S. p. f-crystals, 16 ill.

The invention relates to the construction, in particular to the foundations of buildings and structures with Kozlov (fan-shaped) arrangement of piles in soil space, and technology of their devices.

As shown by theoretical and experimental studies, as well as practice for construction on soft soils of buildings and structures are most promising pile foundations with Kozlov (radial) position of the piles in the Foundation soil [1-3] compared with the foundations of piles with their vertical location in the basis they have increased the carrying capacity for complex loading and a more rational design of the Foundation.

Gantry arrangement of piles in this case, provide an increase in the area of the bearing base on the indentation and the amount of Vipera soil when it is pulling, increasing the stiffness of the Foundation as to which direction HorizontalAlign volume mismanage soil and their work on the compression curve.

The rationality of the design of the Foundation is to minimize the dimensions of the grillage or its replacement with precast concrete element with a cavity. This reduces cost, reduces the complexity of the process device, provides an opportunity to further work with planning marks, etc.

Most interesting are the following analogs: a self-extracting gantry piles [2] and combined pile Foundation [3], The foundations are mainly based on Svornosti and mnogoplemennosti design. This approach is complicated by the immersion process piles and increases its duration. In addition, in both cases, a further increase of the bearing capacity of the Foundation associated with additional seal mismanage soil, limit their constructive and technological solutions.

The closest technical solution is piled foundations, erecting according to the method described in [4]

This way their content is combined, as it involves the driving of modular design, compaction of the soil and the packing of the granular material with the simultaneous disclosure of elements, i.e., it includes a set

It is obvious that the Assembly is in the package and swivel vertical elements simplify the technology immersion. In addition, the achievement of high density tamping and filling, respectively, of soil and granular material in Messina space, and hence further increase the bearing capacity of Foundation on the basis of methods of efficient technology in this case is difficult because the United articulated vertical elements form between them a space.

The aim of the invention is the simplification of technology immersion and increase the bearing capacity of the Foundation base.

The goal provides the use of a hollow, reinforced concrete piles, drop-down elements which are placed in the lower part thereof and interconnected crumbling concrete bridges, in this case, the reinforcement elements are made of longitudinal prestressing reinforcement installed in a radial plane of symmetry of each element.

In special cases of application the design of the piles has the following implementation: drop-down items are made with a variable cross-section and the joint variable thickness concrete bridges, with increase. The reinforcement elements are made of rebar installed with changing the eccentricity of the force of compression of the concrete along the length of the element, and the tightening ring, placed in the section of education elements, and in the upper section of the valve elements are equipped with eccentricity from the center of the cross section of the element in the direction of cavity design, and in the lower section of the outer side.

Depending on ways of embedding the design of piles has several variants, differing from each point of the bottom of the drop-down items or lack of it, as well as a set of distinctive private significant features. In some cases, the design can perform as drop-down concrete pile shell and without pre-tension longitudinal reinforcement.

The depth of the piles in the soil carried out in two main ways, or a combination. In the first method, the pile is immersed in the soil at the project level and at the same time with the seal in the cavity backfilled material destroy concrete lintel Flex elements and compress the side layers of the soil. This method can be called as printed. The second method before diving into the bottom obremski and bend the elements. The second method can be called as the dive with the disclosure. The combined method is a combination of certain essential features of both.

Concrete lintels and pre-stress ensure the integrity of the structure during its handling, storage and transportation, and in the process of embedding the initial destruction of the concrete lintels, uniform and radial separation of the elements (disclosure curved), and the desired flexibility and maximum crack the drop-down items.

Use ready-made drop-down piles excludes from technology penetration Assembly and connection drop-down elements, that is to some extent a simplification.

Increasing the bearing capacity of Foundation on the basis of comparison with the prototype is implemented in printed method, i.e., when the packing granular material in a relatively closed cavity submerged piles. Isolation of the cavity due to the fact that the drop-down items significantly limit vapor stuffed material and ensure its volumetric compression. With this approach it is possible to obtain the maximum density padding. In addition, the disclosure piles on the tee and with thickened allowany ground works under load as a single gruntovaya array.

In Fig. 1 schematically shows a section of printed drop-down piles, dug printed method (first method), and Fig. 2 is a section of printed drop-down piles And slit in the core, Fig. 1; Fig. 3 section printed drop-down piles B-B section in the core (Fig. 1), and Fig. 4 section printed drop-down pile in the -- In the slit in the core (Fig. 1), and Fig. 5 incision driven drop-down piles, deepens the immersion of disclosure (the second method), and Fig. 6 section driven drop-down piles B-B section in the core (Fig. 5); Fig. 7 section driven drop-down pile in the -- In the slit in the core (Fig. 5); Fig. 8 scheme dive printed drop-down piles to the design elevation; Fig. 9 scheme of soil compaction under the fifth printed drop-down pile, and Fig. 10 the pattern of fixing the core of the bulk material in a relatively closed cavity printed drop-down piles and disclosure, and Fig. 11 is a diagram of the installation of driven drop-down pile in a pre-made hole, and Fig. 12 scheme dive driven drop-down piles simultaneous disclosure; Fig. 13 section heel drop-down piles with cracks in concrete lintels from gaskets (is ATI revealed piles and strength of interaction of the shell with the ground in the plane of the cross section; in Fig. 15 scheme odnowionego Foundation, erected printed (Fig. 8-10) and its loading, and Fig. 16 scheme odnowionego Foundation built by immersing disclosure (Fig. 11-12) and its loading.

Hollow finished pile cross-section G-G is divided into the upper and lower parts. The upper part has the shape and reinforcement standard (GOST) hollow piles. The bottom part is made from the drop-down items 1, United concrete lintels 2. The side faces of the elements 1 form an angle which increases from the value ofinin the upper section to the value ofnin the lower section. With increasing angle you specified thickness of concrete lintels 2 decreases. The diameter of the cavity d in the first embodiment (printed drop-down pile) between elements 1 along their length does not change. The diameter of the cavity dinin the second embodiment (knock-in drop-down pile) between the elements 1 in the upper section is smaller than the diameter dnin the heel of piles.

Total operating reinforcement parts pile is made of longitudinal prestressing reinforcement 3 in each element 1 and the tightening ring 4, is placed in the section drop-down education e is Givaudan ring 4 provides the design displacement of the armature from the values of rinwith the eccentricity of the force of compression of the concrete element 1 from the center section toward the cavity to a value of rnwith eccentricity from the center section in an outward direction.

The depth first method printed drop-down piles 5 implemented as follows. First of all pile 5 with the eccentric point of the bottom of the drop-down elements 1 in the direction of the cavity is immersed in the soil at the project level. In the immersion process is the initial location of the elements 1 provide at the expense of force interaction of the bevel with the ground, while in the lining of the heel to occur compressive force. Immersion can be undertaken in conjunction with the core 6. In bureaucra the immersion use the pile 5 without tapering bottom members 1.

Education broadened the heel and the gasket cavity as follows. At the beginning of the core 6 displace soil from the cavity of the pile and fill sleeps material below the heel. Thus, form the core of the compacted soil outside the cavity of the pile 5. In the immersion process and gaskets from dynamic loads, seals and eccentric compression hard concrete reinforcement bottom elements 1 in concrete lintels 2 of abutment piles arise and develop cracks. Plascrete elements 1. When the gasket under the fifth use core 6 without tapering.

Next fill sleeps material in the pile heel 5, using the core 6 with sharpening. In further specific intervals along the height of the fill cavity 5 piles to the design elevation of the top of the stuffing. In the process of stuffing the cracks develop in concrete lintels 2 to section G-G and elements 1 open, thus overcoming the resistance to compression of the lateral layers of the soil and of the bending element 1.

The formation of extended heel and dense packing is characterized by the following features. When the gasket at the level of the pile heel 5 sleeps material presses on the inner surface of items 1 isolated power gi. As a result of this pressure, and the effects of eccentric compression of the concrete bottom elements 1 overcome resistance to lateral compression allowing soil RBSMand elements 1 uniformly and radially open, when this happens the further development of cracks in concrete lintels 2. The uniformity and radialnet disclosure items 1 provide for the friction forces in the cracks of the concrete lintels 2 in place of conventional crushing elements 1. In the future, when the gasket is poured material is Remedium from the heel to the cross-section G-G

At the last stage of penetration of the pile 5 on top of the gaskets form a monolithic concrete sealing 8, closing the normal cracks from bending element 1. After that are preparing for the erection of a building or structure. During the construction of the anchor Foundation monolithic concrete sealing 8 reinforced to receive the pulling force.

Embedding the second method driven drop-down piles implemented as follows. Pile 5 with the eccentric point of the bottom elements 1 in the outer side of the set or immersed in a pre-made hole to a certain depth. Then it is dipped into the ground. At the initial stage of immersion from dynamic loads theportuguese equipment, force interaction bevels elements 1 with the ground and eccentric compression of the concrete bottom elements 1, in concrete lintels 2 appear and develop cracks. Further as the pile 5, the main power factor disclosure items 1 is the interaction of the sealed soil surface cavity, thus increasing the influence of the parameters of the cavity and d. In the process of immersion cracks on the concrete lintels 2 develop from the pile heel 5 to section G-G and the elements 1 with Ishiba this density padding conditionally closed cavity is significantly lower than the first method.

Depth beforehand performed well in this way to regulate the amount of disclosure items 1, except in relatively dense soils excessive disclosure, and are frozen soils and embankments with impenetrable inclusions.

The formation of extended heel of the Foundation is the same as in the first method, i.e., it is characterized by uniform and radial disclosure items 1.

At the final stage of flooding in cavity piles 5 form a monolithic concrete sealing 8, closing the normal cracks from bending elements 1.

In General, if we start from the essential features of the device and method of burial, the foundations from the drop-down piles can be considered as bezrostverkovye, otnoshenie foundations from the drop-down piles, erecting combined method.

As shown by simulation studies, the Foundation of the printed drop-down piles, erecting by the first method, has a high bearing capacity based on complex loading, especially for pushing and pulling. The Foundation of the knock-in drop-down piles under construction located on the second way of penetration, has themselves, characterized in that drop-down items placed in the lower part of the hollow concrete piles made with a variable cross-section and interconnected variables in thickness and destructible concrete bridges, the cross section of the elements and the thickness of the jumpers to the bottom of the structure are reduced, and the diameter of the cavity between the elements increases, and the drop-down reinforcement elements made of longitudinal prestressing reinforcement installed in a radial plane of symmetry of each element by changing the eccentricity of the force of compression of the concrete along the length of the element, and tightening the reinforcing ring placed in the section of education the drop-down items at this time, the valve in the upper section of the elements is located eccentrically from the center of the loft toward the cavity, and the bottom section is in the outside.

2. The way of penetration of the pile into the ground, including the driving of piles with pop elements, interconnected in soil, the filling material between the elements and disclosure of items in the seal sleeps material, characterized in that use hollow concrete pile with a drop-down items, arranged in Nienna seal in the cavity of the pile sleeps material destroy concrete lintel bend the elements, squeeze the side ground layers and reveal the pile.

3. The way of penetration of the pile into the ground, including the driving of piles with a drop-down elements connected between each other in the ground, characterized in that use hollow concrete pile with a drop-down elements located in the bottom part of the casing and the United destructible concrete lintels, before diving into the ground to form a well-defined depth, install or immersed in her pile and simultaneously dipped her, destroy concrete lintel Flex elements and reveal the pile.

 

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