The method of purifying ethyl alcohol
(57) Abstract:Usage: in the electrical industry and as a solvent when carrying out optical measurements. The inventive product is ethyl alcohol. BF C2H6O optically transparent to 210 nm. Ethyl alcohol is purified by treatment with sodium borohydride, taken in an amount of 0.001 to 0.3% by activated carbon adsorption and subsequent rectification. 2 Il. table 1. The invention relates to a method of purifying ethyl alcohol, which finds wide application in the electrical industry and as a solvent when carrying out optical measurements.A method of obtaining ethyl alcohol intended for optical measurements, by rectification and holding simultaneously the adsorption of pollutants alcohol impurities activated carbon in the vapor phase  the Disadvantages of this method are the inability of multiple cleansing alcohol because of the low adsorption capacity of coal at elevated temperatures, the need for selection in the process of rectification dirty fraction indicates the low efficiency of treatment and leads to the loss of the target product.Nabolister the Transmittance in the UV region of the spectrum by passing contaminated ethanol through activated charcoal, followed by distillation, the best results are achieved by passing through activated carbon pre-diluted with water up to 40-50%-aqueous solution of alcohol with a speed of 2-5 cm3/cm2min  Obtained by a specified method, the alcohol has far-border acquisitions in the field of 240-250 nm.The disadvantages of this method are the need to use pre-diluted with water or alcohol, which leads to losses of the target product, the formation of contaminated flows and increasing energy consumption at the stage of selection of the target product by distillation from the aqueous solutions, low efficiency due to the low adsorption capacity of coal.The process of purification of ethyl alcohol by pretreatment of the concentrated ethyl alcohol with sodium borohydride, taken in an amount of 0.001 to 0.3 wt. of passing it through activated charcoal and selection of the distilled spirits rectification allows to obtain high purity ethyl alcohol, suitable for optical measurements. Using this method increases the effectiveness of activated charcoal in the treatment process ethyl alcohol, reduces losses of the target product and simplifies the, that the increase of its concentration above 0.3 wt. no effect on cleaning efficiency and does not only leads to increased consumption of the reagent. The processing of the purified ethyl alcohol sodium borohydride is preferably carried out at 20-50aboutC.In Fig. 1 presents the proposed installation; Fig. 2 a plot of the border transmission purified ethanol concentration sodium borohydride (processing at the 30aboutC).Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed method of purifying ethyl alcohol to the requirements of optical purity was carried out in a continuous laboratory plant (Fig.1), which includes the tank 1 equipped with a stirrer and thermorelay, dosing pumps 2, 3, adsorber 4, filled with activated charcoal, the intermediate tank 5, the Packed column 6 rectification, refrigerator 7 and the collector 8. Working conditions of the laboratory setup and the results are shown in the examples. As a criterion of efficiency of purification of the selected indicator "long-wave boundary of the transmittance in the UV region of the spectrum, characterized by the wavelength at which the transmittance alcohol layer thickness of 1 cm is equal to 100% and this rate was determined on a spectrophotometer SF-26.
the e features: volume fraction of ethyl alcohol 96,2 about. the concentration of aldehydes in terms of acetic aldehyde of 6.5 mg/DM3, far-border transmission of 287 nm.Ethanol is loaded into the container 1 in the amount of 4.0 l by filing in termobumagu capacity of the coolant with a temperature of 26-27aboutWith stirring, the vessel support temperature of 25aboutC. From the tank 1 alcohol pump 2 with a flow rate of 0.2 l/h is fed to the adsorber 4. The adsorber 4 volume of 200 cm3filled with charcoal grade "a", the process of adsorption of alcohol in the adsorber proceeds at 25aboutAfter the adsorber alcohol enters the intermediate tank 5. From the intermediate tank 5 alcohol pump 3 with a flow rate of 0.2 l/h is fed continuously to the distillation column 6 of the Packed type (column filled with a nozzle made of spirals of size 2,h,0 mm), where the following operation modes of the column produce a purified alcohol: temperature of top 78,0-78,3aboutTemperatures cube 85-86aboutWith, reflux number of 4.0. Within 16 h of testing selected 3090 cm3purified alcohol. The effectiveness of the cleaning process alcohol assessed by determining the rate of "long-Wavelength limit bandwidth" samples of purified alcohol through 2,0 h, 14 l test and the total sample, these indicators are the following: through 2,0 h 228 nm is rectified in example 1. In the load capacity 1 4 l of ethanol, with stirring ethyl alcohol is heated to 30aboutWith and dissolving 0.64 g of sodium borohydride, stirring after dissolution is continued for 30 min at 30aboutWith the concentration of sodium borohydride 0.02 wt.). Then treated with sodium borohydride ethyl alcohol from the tank 1 by the pump 2 with a flow rate of 0.2 l/h fed into the adsorber 4, which is filled with fresh charcoal grade "a". The adsorption process proceeds at 30aboutC. Next, similarly to example 1 by distillation in column 6 produce a purified ethanol for 16 h tests selected 3105 cm3ethyl alcohol with the following far-border transmission: through 2,0 h 212 nm, after 14 h 214 nm, the total sample of 213 nm.P R I m e R s 3-8. The cleaning process of ethanol is carried out analogously to examples 1, 2. The results presented in the table.A comparative analysis of the results shows that the process for obtaining optically transparent ethyl alcohol by pre-treatment with sodium borohydride, taken in an amount of 0.001 to 0.3 wt. adsorption activated carbon, separation of the pure product by distillation can increase the degree clean the IDA sodium lower than 0.001 wt. (example 6) leads to deterioration in the efficiency of cleaning, handling alcohol with sodium borohydride preferably in the temperature range 25-50aboutC. by increasing the temperature to 60about(Example 7), a deterioration of the quality of the secreted product.The use of this method allows to obtain optically transparent to 210 nm ethyl alcohol, to increase efficiency in the use of activated charcoal in the treatment processes of ethyl alcohol and to increase the duration of use of coal to these goals. The METHOD of PURIFYING ETHYL ALCOHOL by adsorption with activated carbon and subsequent distillation, characterized in that ethyl alcohol to the stage adsorption pre-treated with sodium borohydride in the number 0,001
FIELD: chemical industry; method of production of the alkali-resistant and thermal-resistant polyols.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the improved method of production of the alkali- resistant and thermal-resistant polyols representing the sugar-alcohol syrups. The method provides for the following stages: hydrogenation of the hydrolysate of the corresponding polysaccharide with formation of the hydrogenated sugar-alcohol syrup, the alkaline and thermal treatment of the hydrogenated syrup for production of the stabilized sugar-alcohol syrup, refining of the stabilized sugar-alcohol syrup by its gating through, at least, one ion-exchange resin, in which the stabilized sugar-alcohol syrup is refined by means of its double gating through the cationic- anionic ion-exchange configuration (CACA) including, at least, the first weak-acid cationic ion-exchange resin and the second strongly-base, medium-base or weak-base anion-exchanging resin. The method allows to have the alkali-resistant and thermal-resistant polyols not having the shortcomings of the polyols of the previous level of the engineering.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the alkali-resistant and thermal-resistant polyols not having the shortcomings of the polyols of the previous level of the engineering.
18 cl, 3 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for synthesis of 1,3-propanediol involving the following steps: (a) formation of aqueous solution of 3-hydroxypropanal; (b) hydrogenation of 3-hydroxypropanal to form crude mixture of 1,3-propanediol, water and cyclic acetal of molecular mass 132 Da (MW 132 cyclic acetal) and/or cyclic acetal of molecular mass 176 Da (MW 176 cyclic acetal); (c) distillation (drying) of indicated crude mixture of 1,3-propanediol for water removing and formation of the second crude mixture of 1,3-propanediol (the first flow of residues after distillation) containing 1,3-propanediol and MQ 132 cyclic acetal and/or MW 176 cyclic acetal; (d) contact of the flow containing MW 132 cyclic acetal and/or MW 176 cyclic acetal with acid-base cation-exchange resin or with acid zeolite, or with soluble acid, and (e) removal of MW 132 cyclic acetal. Method provides enhancing effectiveness for extraction and purification of 1,3-propanediol.
EFFECT: improved method of treatment.
10 cl, 9 tbl, 1 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved method of reducing concentration of aldehyde in the crude stream of a carbonylation process, involving feeding a crude stream containing a carbonylatable agent selected from a group consisting of methanol, methyl acetate, methyl formate and dimethyl ether or mixture thereof, having primary concentration of aldehydes; and reaction thereof in gaseous phase with a deposited catalyst which contains at least one metal from group 8 to 11, in conditions which facilitate reduction of primary concentration of aldehydes to secondary concentration of aldehydes.
EFFECT: method improves degree of reduction of aldehyde.
28 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of improving the quality of ethylene glycol products, where ethylene glycol raw material and hydrogen are fed into a rotary packed bed reactor loaded with a solid oxide catalyst at temperature of about 20 to about 280°C, pressure of about 0.1 to about 4.0 MPa, volume flow rate of about 0.2 to about 100.0 h-1 and hydrogen to ethylene glycol molar ratio of about 0.01 to 40:1, and ethylene glycol is obtained after the reaction, where said solid oxide catalyst is selected from at least one catalyst based on copper, nickel and palladium. The rotary speed of the packed bed reactor ranges from about 300 to about 5000 rpm.
EFFECT: improved quality of ethylene glycol products, specifically high selectivity of trace impurities, which affect transmission of UV radiation for ethylene glycol products, ie achieving a high UV radiation coefficient.
9 cl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to method for obtaining ethyleneglycol from ethylene. Method includes the following stages: i) transformation of ethylene into ethylenoxide in presence of oxygen, catalyst of epoxidation and retardant in ethylenoxide reactor; ii) absorption of ethylenoxide with absorbent water solution and the following stripping of said absorbent to obtain flow of ethylenoxide water solution; iii) transformation of flow of ethylenoxide water solution into ethylenecarbonate flow in presence of one or several catalysts and carbon dioxide in one or several reactors of carboxylation; iv) transformation of ethylenecarbonate into first ethyleneglycol flow in presence of one or several catalysts in one or several hydrolysis reactors; v) removal of water from first ethyleneglycol flow to obtain dehydrated ethyleneglycol flow and wasted water flow in one or several dehydration columns; vi) purification of dehydrated ethyleneglycol flow in one or several ethyleneglycol distillation columns to obtain flow of purified ethyleneglycol product and recirculation catalyst flow. First ethyleneglycol flow contains inorganic chloride admixtures, and method includes the following additional stages: vii) transformation of inorganic chloride admixtures into 2-chloroethanol by reaction with ethylenoxide in one or several dehydration columns and viii) removal of 2-chloroethanol in wasted water flow.
EFFECT: claimed method makes it possible to reduce or eliminate necessity in catalyst discharge.
10 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: distillery industry; production of a dehydrated ethyl alcohol.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of distillery industry, in particular, to the methods of production of a dehydrated ethyl alcohol. The method provides for concentration of the water-alcohol solution purified from impurities by a rectification, its dehydration by adsorption through the molecular sieves and its regeneration by a desorption. Concentration of the water-alcohol solution and its dehydration by adsorption are conducted at the pressure of 105-350 kPa. A part of the formed during the concentration vapors is once more heated up to the temperature of 96-150°C and feed to the stage of desorption, which is realized at the pressure of 5-60 kPa. The rest part of the vapor from the stage of adsorption and a desorption is subjected to condensation and the water-alcohol liquid is fed to the stage of the alcohol concentration with withdrawal of the water from the process. The invention allows to intensify the process of dehydration and to reduce consumption of the heat-power input.
EFFECT: the invention allows to intensify the process of dehydration and to reduce the heat and power inputs.
FIELD: method for production of alcohol-containing solvents based on waste from ethanol production from food-grade raw materials.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes reprocessing of etheraldehyde fraction of concentrate containing ethanol main admixtures from starch- and/or sugar-containing raw materials. Process is carried out in rectifier at vapor phase temperature in still of 60-90°C. Nitrosolvent is obtained by mixture sampling at 60-70°C. Degreasing solvent is obtained by mixture sampling at starting temperature in column top of 73°C or more when ethers are detected in distillate. Claimed nitrosolvent (degreasing solvent) contain (mass %): acetate-type ethers 10-30 (0.8-2.9); aliphatic alcohols 51-74 (87-89); acetaldehyde 5-9 (0.2-1.5), and water 8-10 (8-10).
EFFECT: simplified and economy method for reprocessing of waste from ethanol production; enhanced assortment of alcohol-containing solvents.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: alcohol production.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises direct distillation of concentrate of top ethyl alcohol impurities or rectification of intermediate ethyl alcohol fraction in presence of an alkali agent selected from sodium and potassium oxide, carbonate, and bicarbonate hydrates, and aqueous ammonia in case of top ethyl alcohol impurities processing and selected from sodium and potassium oxide, carbonate, and bicarbonate hydrates, calcium oxide, and aqueous ammonia in case of intermediate ethyl alcohol fraction rectification at alkali agent concentration 0.01 to 3.0 wt % and vat temperature 80-86°C. Desired processing product is commonly used as a binary mixture component and vat residue obtained in distillation and rectification operation is commonly used as additional component of fuel oil.
EFFECT: achieved wasteless processing of alcohol production wastes and utilization of all processing products.
FIELD: industrial organic synthesis and chemical engineering .
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a process of producing liquid oxygenates, including methanol, C2-C4-alcohols, formaldehyde, lower organic acids, or mixtures thereof, and to installation for implementation the process. Process comprises successively supplying natural gas from complex gas preparation plant to a series of "gas-gas" heat exchangers and into annular space of at least one tubular reaction zone of reactor, wherein natural gas is heated to temperature of the beginning of reaction, whereupon heated gas is passed to the entry of the tubular reaction zone mixer, into which compressed air or oxygen is also injected to provide gas-phase oxidation in reaction zone of reactor. Resulting reaction mixture is discharged from reactor into a series of "gas-liquid" and "gas-gas" heat exchangers, wherein reaction mixture is cooled to ambient temperature and sent to separator, wherefrom liquid phase is passed through lower carboxylic acid recovery vessel to the system of rectification columns to isolate the rest of mixture components, whereas leaving gas is recycled to complex gas preparation plant. More specifically, oxidation is carried out within temperature range 240 to 450°C and pressure from 2 to 10 MPa at residence time of reaction mixture in reactor 2-6 sec and oxidant concentration 2 to 15 wt %. In reactor having mixers hollow and at least one tubular reaction zones, required temperature is maintained constant throughout all length of tubular reaction zone and at entries for compressed air or oxygen in mixers of each of tubular reaction zones and hollow reaction zone. Liquid oxygenate production plant is composed of aforesaid complex gas preparation plant, a series of "gas-gas" heat exchanger to heat natural gas, reactor, a series of "gas-liquid" and "gas-gas" heat exchangers to cool reaction mixture obtained in reactor, gas-liquid separator, lower carboxylic acid recovery vessel, and system of rectification columns to isolate the rest of products.
EFFECT: enabled implementation of the process directly near gas and gas condensate deposits, increased conversion of methane per one passage through reactor, and increased yield of oxygenates due to improved design of plant.
6 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the method of oxidation of hydrocarbons using oxygen in trifluoroacetic acid and can be used particularly for oxidation of alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkylaromatic hydrocarbons, alkenes, cycloalkenes. The method involves saturation of trifluoroacetic acid with oxygen, after which, the initial hydrocarbon is added to the obtained reaction medium and is kept until depletion of bound oxygen with obtaining the corresponding oxygen containing compound.
EFFECT: invention allows carrying out a process of selective partial catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons with obtaining different oxygen containing organic compounds without use of high temperature and traditional catalyst systems based on transition metals.
1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: food products; alcoholic beverages.
SUBSTANCE: according to the method, initial flow is supplied to the first distillation steam-stripping column while its distillate is passed to the second distillation rectifying column. Initial flow is refined using first membrane separation method. Obtained concentrate is passed to the first distillation column and derived permeate is supplied to the second distillation column. Distillate from the second distillation column is refined using second membrane separation method.
EFFECT: increasing pureness of obtained ethanol.
16 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of processing carbon-carbonate mineral involves burning limestone in a reactor, obtaining calcium oxide, production of calcium carbide by reacting part of calcium oxide obtained from burning limestone with carbon, bringing part of the obtained calcium carbide into contact with water, obtaining acetylene and caustic lime, bringing gaseous wastes from burning limestone into contact with water to obtain carbonic acid. Limestone is burnt using heat obtained from burning part of the volume of acetylene, obtained from part of the volume of calcium carbide. At least part of the obtained acetylene is used in synthesis of ethanol and/or dichloroethane and/or ethyleneglycol and/or acetone. During synthesis of ethanol and/or dichloroethane, acetylene is reacted with hydrogen in the presence of palladium as catalyst, after which at least part of synthesised C2H4 material is reacted with water vapour, obtaining ethanol, and/or reacted with chlorine, obtaining dichloroethane. Also at least part of the obtained acetylene is subjected to hydrolysis, obtaining ethyleneglycol. Also during synthesis of acetone, part of the obtained acetylene is reacted with water vapour, where the hydrogen obtained is used in said synthesis of ethanol and/or dichloroethane and/or burnt in the burning process. Carbon dioxide obtained from synthesis of acetone is used in the process of producing carbonic acid.
EFFECT: wide range of obtained finished products and prevention of formation of industrial wastes.
4 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of processing alcohol production wastes: concentrate of head impurities of ethyl alcohol (CHI) and an intermediate fraction of ethyl alcohol (IFEA). The method involves obtaining a water-alcohol solution of CHI or IFEA with density (0.837-0.940) g/cm3 (I) and conducting continuous extraction of impurities (C3-C5 alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds) in a packed column with a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons (II) or a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (III) with ratio of volume flow I: II or, respectively, I : III, equal to 1:(1-4) (preferably 1:1.2). To intensify mass exchange into solution (I), (0.1-0.5) wt % mixture (IV) of anionic alkyl sulphates and noionic oxyethylated alkyl phenols in ratio (25-20):(70-75) wt% (IV). The desired processing products: raffinate - aqueous of ethanol with weight ratio of the latter equal to (80-20) wt % can be used to obtain high-purity edible ethyl alcohol and as an anti-icing agent for glass used on cars, and extract - solution of alcohol and esters in a mixture of hydrocarbons is used to prepare mixed solvents for the paint industry.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the method of processing alcohol production wastes.
4 cl, 8 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves partial oxidation of an alkane contained in a gaseous crude stream, which contains an alkane, with oxygen contained in an oxygen-containing crude stream. Said method involves: forming a reactor system, having a back-mixing reaction chamber with injection mixing, which is connected to a tubular flow reactor, wherein said back-mixing reaction chamber with injection mixing ensures dwell time from about 0.05 s to about 1.5 s; feeding said crude stream containing alkanes and said oxygen-containing crude stream into said back-mixing reaction chamber with injection mixing; initiating formation of alkyl free radicals in said back-mixing reaction chamber with injection mixing to obtain a product stream from the back-mixing reaction chamber with injection mixing, containing oxygen, said alkane and at least a portio of said alkyl free radicals; feeding the product stream obtained in the back-mixing reaction chamber with injection mixing into the tubular flow reactor; and converting said product stream obtained in the back-mixing reaction chamber with injection mixing into said alkyl oxygenate in said tubular flow reactor; where said alkane is selected from group consisting of methane, ethane, propane and butane.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain the end product using an efficient and cheap method without using a catalyst.
34 cl, 2 ex, 36 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of producing dehydrated ethyl alcohol, which can be used in chemical, electronic and pharmaceutical industry. The method involves feeding crude alcohol or a water-alcohol solution into a preliminary dehydration column operating under a vacuum to obtain a distillate which is fed into a final dehydration column operating at excess pressure, where dehydrated alcohol is collected in form of a residue and the distillate is fed into the preliminary dehydration column in form of reflux. The distillation process in the preliminary dehydration column takes place at absolute pressure of 8.0-13.3 kPa to obtain a distillate with alcohol content 98.2-98.9 vol. %, and the distillation process in the final dehydration column takes place at absolute pressure 0.1-0.5 MPa and alcohol content in the reflux of 96.5-97.2 vol. %.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain an end product of high quality using an improved an improved process scheme.
1 tbl, 1 dwg, 2 ex