A cooled laser mirror
(57) Abstract:Usage: in laser technology, in the resonator and in the optical path of the laser processing units. The inventive mirror has a reflecting plate, intermediate plate, base. Channels for the refrigerant is made on both sides of the intermediate plate provided between and connected to a distribution manifold and a manifold Assembly. The mirror has a high geometric stability through effective profiled cooling the reflective plate and exclude the ingress of heat into the base of the mirror. 4 C. p. F.-ly, 3 ill. The invention relates to laser technology and can be used in the optical path of the laser processing units.Know a cooled laser mirror  in which the heat exchanger contains cooling channels formed by connecting opposite the cooling channels of the first and second plates, the cooling channels in each plate is offset at an angle relative to the nearest adjacent cooling channel of the opposite plate, whereby is formed intersecting the cooling channel structure, opposite offset the Roma it is possible to design, containing wetted by the liquid heat-conducting wall between the first and second plates, preventing the connection of fluid flow between the cooling channels of the first and second plates.The disadvantage of this technical solution is the need of the high costs of the refrigerant to obtain heat transfer coefficients 4104W/m2hail, in addition, in this mirror, it is difficult to create a region with a local increase in the heat transfer coefficient in accordance with the profile of the light load on the mirror.Closest to the proposed technical solution is cooled laser mirror  consisting of a reflective plate, intermediate plate, power bases, cooling system, made in the reflective and the intermediate plate so that the plate thickness and dimensions of the cooling channels in the same and the channels in the plates shifted so that against the pillars in the reflective plate located channels of the intermediate plate, and the coolant flows in parallel through the channels of both plates. The disadvantage of this mirror is the increased consumption of fluid in the cooling system, the uneven temperature of the basics.The purpose of izobreteny is to power 5-100 kW.The goal is achieved due to the intensification of the cooling system, i.e., increasing the heat transfer coefficient up to 4104W/cm2hail under the reflecting plate, creating areas with a local increase in the heat transfer coefficient under the reflecting plate, and reduce the flow of heat in the base, which reduces the Flexural component of termoperenosnye reflective surface.This is achieved by using a two-layer cooling system, where the channels for the refrigerant are made mutually intersecting both sides of the intermediate plate. Application in the design of the cooling system with intersecting channels results in an increase in the heat transfer coefficient is about 1.5 times compared with the channel system, and the system of intersecting channels on the side of the intermediate plate adjacent to the base, substantially reduces the flow of heat in the base and, in addition, is used for optimum restucci refrigerant before the refrigerant received in the holes to flow from the intermediate plate adjacent to the base, the channels under the reflecting plate. The diameter of holes for overflow is selected mainly less than the width of the channels located under the reflecting plates is her plate and limited layout area of the holes.Dimensions intersecting channels made from both sides of the intermediate plate are selected from conditions of maximum heat removal under the reflecting plate, so the channels on the side of the intermediate plate adjacent to the reflecting plate, should have a higher surface heat transfer coefficient than the channels on the side of the intermediate plate adjacent to the base, and therefore the ratio of the width, depth, step, intersecting in two directions of channels made on the side of the intermediate plate adjacent to the reflecting plate to the corresponding parameters of channels made on the side of the intermediate plate adjacent to the base, are selected in the ranges, respectively, 0,2-0,6; 0,2-1,2; 0,3-0,7.Channels made on the side of the intermediate plate adjacent to a reflective plate on the periphery of the end ring collector. Typically, the depth of this reservoir is chosen equal to the depth of the channels, and the width of 1.5-6 of the channel width. This manifold through holes (cross-channel) is connected to the collector collecting the refrigerant located in the base, and further connected to the exhaust system refrigerant.Intersecting the first manifold, connected to a supply of refrigerant, and the ratio of the depth and width of the distribution manifold coolant to the depth and width of flow collector coolant is selected in the range, respectively, 0.3-1; 1-2. In addition, the distribution manifold can be placed in the base and the substrate simultaneously or only basis. The collector of the collection can also be placed in the substrate and in the basis at the same time or only at the base. To eliminate the influence of the pressure of the coolant during operation of the mirror ratio of the thickness of the intermediate plate to the thickness of the reflective plate is selected in the range of 2-10. The mirror on the back side of the Foundation has holes for fastening to the alignment system, and to reduce the effect of the tightness of fasteners made undercuts, for example, in the form of a deaf grooves.The invention consists in that the design of the mirror system of channels made from both sides of the intermediate plate, providing effective cooling of the reflective plate and reducing the flow of heat in the base, in addition, this design allows you to create under the reflecting plate shaped heat removal in accordance with program and collector collect coolant and then a diversion systems, and the supply of refrigerant, the design and location of which are selected from the conditions of minimum flow and pressure drop of refrigerant while ensuring maximum heat removal.In Fig. 1 shows a cooled laser mirror, General view; Fig. 2 section a-a in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 section b-B in Fig. 1.The mirror consists of a reflecting plate 1, framework 2, the intermediate plate 3. On the side of the intermediate plate adjacent to the reflecting plate made of mutually intersecting channels 4 and on the side of the intermediate plate adjacent to the substrate intersecting channels 5, which are connected with each other through the openings 6. The mirror works as follows. In base 2 made a hole 7 through which the supplied refrigerant enters the distribution manifold 8 and further along mutually intersecting channels 5 and transverse channels 9, the refrigerant flows in the channels 4, located in the intermediate plate on the side adjacent to the reflecting plate 4, then the refrigerant through holes in the intermediate plate 6 is supplied through the channels 5 in the collector 10 collection, where it is removed through the opening 11 in base 2.Termoperenosnye and the tension in pokernetonline directly thermal expansion, another action is bending. In the invention, which is a design with two cooling system made from two sides of the intermediate plate, to reduce the effects of thermal expansion under radial load arranged mutually intersecting channels on the side of the intermediate plate adjacent to the reflecting plate, with high heat transfer coefficient in channels ( 40000 W/m2hail).To reduce the effects of bending is the second bottom layer of cooling the refrigerant in the channels made by the intermediate plate adjacent to the base, reduces the penetration of heat into the base, reduces thermal gradient across the thickness of the mirror and bending component of termoperenosnye and stress.A specific example is the number of mirrors with a diameter of 100-200 mm Materials mirrors copper, copper alloys, height mirrors 60-100 mmFor example, a mirror with a diameter of 120 mm, an overall height of 67 mm has a reflective plate thickness 1.5-2 mm, an intermediate plate thickness of 7 mm and a basis 58 mm, on the side of the intermediate plate adjacent to the reflecting plate made of mutually intersecting channels with a width of 2 mm with a pitch of 4 mm and a depth of 2 mm, souzdalskaya to the base, made mutually intersecting channels with a width of 5 mm, in increments of 8 mm and a depth of 3 mm, communicating with the open annular distribution manifold with a width of 6 mm and a depth of 13 mm, holes, connecting channels, made from two sides of the intermediate plates have a diameter of 2.8 mm and placed on the mirror area bounded by the rectangle with dimensions 48 x 24 mm area of holes. The basis of mirrors made two holes with a diameter of 10 mm for the inlet and outlet of the refrigerant, in addition, at a distance of 6 mm from the back side of the Foundation made undercuts in the form of a deaf grooves with a width of 6 mm and a depth of 15 mm from the side of the axis of the mirror and parallel to its plane, the length of the groove depends on the geometry of the bounding plane. 1. A COOLED LASER MIRROR which contains the root, intermediate plate, reflecting plate, a cooling system with channels for the refrigerant, mounting holes, characterized in that the intermediate plate with two sides made of mutually intersecting in two directions, the channels for the refrigerant, connected to each other through the openings in the intermediate plate, the intermediate plate is made distribution manifold associated with the hole is in the basis of the executed collector collection associated with a hole for the conclusion of the refrigerant and with the holes in the intermediate plate connecting the collector channels on the side of the intermediate plate facing the reflecting plate, and under the mounting holes made undercuts.2. Mirror under item 1, characterized in that the ratio of the width, depth, step, intersecting in two directions of channels made on the side of the intermediate plate adjacent to the reflecting plate to the corresponding parameters of channels made on the side of the intermediate plate adjacent to the basis chosen in the ranges(0,2 0,6) (0,2 1,2) (0,3 0,7).3. The mirror on the PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the size and number of holes in the intermediate plate is selected from the condition that the total gate area is 1 2 of the cross-section area of the channels located under the reflecting plate and the limited layout area of the holes.4. The mirror on the PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the ratio of the depth and width of the distribution manifold to the depth and width of collectors collect coolant is selected in the range accordingly(0,3 1,0) (1 2).5. The mirror on the PP.1 to 4, characterized in that the ratio of the thickness of the prom is
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: at least two dielectric layers are produced with preset thickness. Layers are disposed one onto the other to form pack of layers. Thickness of layer packs is subject to reduction and thicknesses of separate layers are similarly reduced by means of deforming layer packs to keep relation of thicknesses or relation of thicknesses of layers. Layer pack is disposed between two carrying layers before subjecting the layers to deformation. At least one carrying layer is formed from several separate layers, which are supposed to be disposed subsequently at the end of process of partial deformation at any previous layer of carrying layer. Separate layers of carrying layer can be overlayed onto previous separate layers of carrying layer.
EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; improved reflection factor.
FIELD: mirror systems of observation.
SUBSTANCE: coordinates of point of driver's eye and reference point at object to be observed in the driver mirror are measured by rule as well as reference point at mirror of transportation vehicle. Angles of inclination of mirror to coordinate planes are found from relations mentioned in formula of invention. Inclination of driving mirror to coordinate planes is determined. Random point at object of observation is preset and its coordinates are measured by means of measuring tape. Coordinates of point in mirror are calculated where the light beam reflects from the mirror and enters driver's eye. Procedure repeats many times for many random points at object of observation and coordinates of corresponding points of reflection at plane of mirror are found. Shape and sizes of mirror are determined by end points of reflection.
EFFECT: simplified determining of shape and sizes of mirror; improved precision of orientation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: optical instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for wide-band light reflecting. Reflecting surface has dielectric layers A, B and C. A layer is made of material having low refractivity, B layer is made of material with average refractivity and C layer is made of material having high reflectivity. Optical thickness of layers equals to λr/4, where λr is wavelength of middle part of interval having high refractivity. Sequence of layer alternation looks like (CDCABA)KCBC, where K>=and has to be integer. Spectrum range with high reflectivity is widened due to shift in adjacent bandwidths at opposite sides along wavelength scale.
EFFECT: widened spectrum range with higher refractivity.
FIELD: optical industry.
SUBSTANCE: mirror can be used when producing optical reflecting systems in lasers and experimental physics. Mirror has transparent dielectric base. Metal coating is applied onto the base. Coating has to nanoparticles, for example, silver nanoparticles, which have plasma resonance at electromagnet radiation frequency. The mirror intends to reflect the radiation. Linear dimensions are far smaller than the radiation wavelength. Nanoparticles are applied uniformly onto surface of the base to cover 15% of its area. Thickness of mirror is reduced to minimal size; size of spot of reflected radiation in focus is reduced.
EFFECT: reduced thickness of mirror; improved precision.
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: integral micromechanical mirror has substrate to place four electrodes onto it. Four additional electrodes of capacitive movement converters are disposed onto the substrate in such a manner to form flat capacitor with mirror element. One additional fixing plate is disposed under mirror element directly onto substrate. There are torsion beams placed in such a way that they connect mirror element with fixing plate. Mirror element, torsion beams, electrodes of electrostatic drives and capacitive converters as well as fixing plate are made of semiconductor material. Area of substrate used for placing integral mirror is reduced. Position of mirror element is subject to control relatively the substrate.
EFFECT: improved reliability of operation.
FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.
EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical observation devices for use on automobiles and other vehicles. proposed system of mirrors contains rear view mirror 7, outer side mirrors 8, 9 and inner side mirror 5, 6, additional mirrors 10, 11, 12 and front mirror 4. Front mirror 4 and inner side mirrors 5, 6 are arranged in driver's field of vision. Front mirror 4 consists of separate adjustable parts 4а, 4б, 4в and it reflects panorama of spaces behind and at both sides from driver from rear view mirror 7 and outer side mirrors 8, 9. Inner side mirrors 5, 6 reflect directly parts of spaces arranged at both sides from driver which are not seen in outer side mirrors 8, 9.
EFFECT: provision of safety on the road owing to panoramic reflection of rear and side spaces around vehicle.
5 cl, 25 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical devices of automobiles, particularly, to front view mirrors. Front view device for automobiles with steering wheel at right side contains two mirrors installed inside automobile at angle relative to each other with possibility of providing periscopic effect and reflecting front part of road. Like sizes of mirrors and distance between mirrors and between mirrors and driver are in following relationship: B1:B2=(L1+L2):L2 where B1, B2 are like sizes of reflecting surfaces of first and second mirrors, respectively; L1, L2 are distances from first mirror to second mirror and from second mirror to driver, respectively.
EFFECT: improved quality of picture and reliability of front view device.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the group of inventions refer to laser technique and may be used in mirror elements of laser resonators and in arrangements for transmission of laser radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the laser mirror has two identical, not communicating between themselves, symmetrical priming contours of heat-carrying agents located between the front plate on whose exterior side a reflective surface is fulfilled, and the rear plate on both sides of the diagram located in the symmetry plane of the arrangement. Each of the priming contour of the heat-carrying agents is fulfilled in the shape of in-series located, beginning from the diagram, a driving collector, a draining collector, a heat exchanger whose exterior surface adjoins to the inner surface of the corresponding plate. The cavity of the driving collector is connected via channels passing through the draining collector with the heat-exchanger which is connected with the cavity of the draining collector. In the second variant of the arrangement the reflective surfaces of the laser mirror are fulfilled on the exterior sides of the front and the rear plates. The heat exchangers are fulfilled in the shape of identical infiltration elements of the same sizes and forms correspondingly to the front and the rear plates.
EFFECT: reduces thermal distortions of the reflective surface and also increases the service term of the laser mirror.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: controlled optics.
SUBSTANCE: semi-passive bimorph flexible multiplayer mirror can be used as corrector in adaptive systems for dynamic controlling of radiation wave front. Deformed controlled bimorph semi-passive mirror has passive substrate and at least two layers of control electrodes provided with piezo-ceramic discs, which discs are separated by "ground electrodes". Shape and disposition of electrodes of all layers are specified independently to compensate specific type of aberration.
EFFECT: improved sensitivity; reduced sizes; reduced applied voltages.