A method of growing plants with long use artificial lighting and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: growing dlinnostebelnyh plants, such as cereals, cucumbers, tall tomatoes, using artificial lighting. The inventive method includes side odnostoronie or bilateral irradiation plants, respectively, one or two vertical bars with horizontal sections of the light sources and is characterized by the fact that with the help of these panels and reflectors form a separate height zone with horizontal threads of exposure, and the inclusion of areas carried out sequentially starting from the bottom, as the tops of the plants of the next zone. The device comprises a vertical bar with horizontal sections of the light sources, along which is located the rack with plants. Horizontal sections are equipped with reflectors, forming separate the height of the zone of horizontal flow exposure. On the opposite side of the rack on the borders of contiguous zones installed photodetectors connected via blocks measuring light and the activation control with the sections forming the corresponding photodetectors top of the contiguous irradiation zones. In cha is compulsory inclusion zones. 2 S. and 2 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to agriculture, can be used for growing plants, mainly long, with the use of artificial lighting and can find application in the accelerated breeding of cereals for growing cucumbers, tomatoes and other agricultural crops.

There is a method of growing plants using artificial lighting, in which the irradiation plants produce lights that are installed at a specified distance above the containers with cultivated plants.

Known installation for cultivation and plant breeding and Luggage for growing plants. Placing light sources at a fixed distance from the container above the maximum height of the phenotype of a plant, you can't effectively use the energy of radiation sources, since the beginning of the growing season the plants are removed from the sources and are in the area with lower irradiation intensity and only grows enters an area with a high irradiation intensity. This leads to wasteful energy losses in the initial period of plant growth.

More efficient use of energy Istoki move vertically (up or down) as plant growth. The move is performed with the aid of the actuator with manual operation on the results of visual observation of the distance between the light sources and plants.

Higher energy efficiency when grown long plants provides a method of growing with the use of artificial lighting, including side unilateral or bilateral (on opposite sides) irradiation plants, placed respectively at the side of one or two vertical panels (frames) with the light sources.

With this method of growing all tiers of the leaves of the plant are covered evenly, which provides favorable conditions for the development of plants, optimal ripening, resulting in energy consumption per production unit of output decreases. However, all sources of light during the whole vegetation period are used simultaneously, while the leaf surface of plants multiplied from the appearance of the seedlings to ripening period.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed method is a method that includes side one-sided or two-sided irradiation of rasputica mentioned sources by moving them along the vertical guides. Moving up the vertical panels with light sources as plant growth allows more efficient use of electricity due to the irradiation of the tiers of the plants with the most developed leaf surface. However, the luminous flux of panels with this method of cultivation inadequate greatly increases during the growing period the leaf surface of plants.

The known device for implementing the above method of growing plants: device for growing plants with a fixed position of the light sources on plants represent the camera with vertical reflective walls form - forming section, in each of which the distance between the light source and the plant is selected small enough to cover the plants with a low light; installation for cultivation and breeding of plants or camera installed on top of each other etazherochki modules in the form of beds, on the horizontal rack is installed in containers with plants, and below the light source for irradiation of plants of the underlying section of the chamber for growing plants.

More efficient use of energy sources of light shall lag made with the possibility of moving in the vertical direction as the growth of plants. Moved by electrically controlled manually.

Device for growing plants with long side unilateral or bilateral irradiation include a vertical panel with light sources, along with a rack for growing plants, or two parallel vertical panels with light sources facing each other and located on opposite sides of the rack. All sources of light during the whole vegetation period are included simultaneously. Due to the uniform illumination of all layers of the leaves are provided with favourable conditions for plant growth and optimal ripening of the crop, thereby increasing the efficiency of energy use compared to plants with above plants light sources. However, the simultaneous switching of all sources of light leads to inefficient energy consumption in the initial stages of ontogenesis, when the area of the leaf surface of plants is small, and not falling on the plant energy radiant flux scattered useless.

The purpose of the invention increase the efficiency of energy use, determined E. the public lighting.

The essence of the proposed method of growing plants with long use artificial lighting, including as a prototype, side unilateral or bilateral irradiation plants vertical panels with light sources and a change in the process of plant growth light flux of these sources, is that unlike the prototype, the horizontal sections of the light sources form a separate height zone with horizontally spaced streams of radiation, and the inclusion of sections carried out sequentially starting from the bottom, as the tops of the plants of the next zone. The inclusion of the sections is carried out manually or automatically using an optical system for determining the position of the layer of leaves.

The technical result is obtained when using the proposed method lies in the fact that the formation of separate height zones with horizontally spaced threads exposure and consistent inclusion of horizontal sections of the light sources as plant growth ensure the adequacy of the generated light panels light flux of leaf surface vegetative plants when perecived saving electricity and improving the efficiency of its use.

The essence of the proposed device for growing long plants using artificial light containing, as a prototype, the main vertical panel sections of the light sources, along which is located a rack for growing plants, is that unlike the prototype, the light sources are made in the form of spaced apart by the height of the horizontal sections, which are equipped with reflectors for forming separate the height of the zone of horizontal flow exposure, and the device is equipped with a photodetector, units of measurement light and the control unit switching sections connected in series circuit sections connected to the corresponding outputs of the control unit inclusion, and the photodetectors are installed opposite to the vertical side panel of the rack on the borders of contiguous zones.

The device in the particular case provided with an additional vertical bar with horizontal sections of the light sources located opposite to the main section side of the rack, as well as additional sensors, which are installed in the space between the reflectors sections of light sources the main vertical light sources additional vertical panel to the corresponding outputs of the control unit turning on the sections.

In the proposed device that implements the proposed method, a series connection of horizontal sections of the light sources as plant growth, ensuring the adequacy of the generated light panels light flux of leaf surface vegetative plants, is carried out automatically. Therefore, the task of ensuring the efficient use of electricity in the artificial light is solved without participation of the operator.

The technical result of the claimed particular case of the device is expressed in the creation of more favorable conditions for the development of plants through bilateral irradiation. You can double the rows (and number) is placed between the panels of plants and further improve the efficiency of electricity utilization for growing plants.

In Fig. 1 shows a diagram illustrating the inventive method of growing plants using one (a) or two (b) vertical panels with horizontal sections of light sources forming separate height zone with horizontally spaced streams of radiation (shows the inclusion of sections corresponding to the position of the leaf surface of plants); for f the th panel light sources, the photodetectors and blocks of automation to ensure the consistent inclusion of sections with horizontal threads of irradiation as plant growth; Fig.3 is a similar device with two vertical bars of light sources.

For the implementation of the proposed method using the same (Fig.1A) or two (Fig. 1B) vertical panel 1 with a horizontal partition 2 light sources. As light sources used horizontal fluorescent lamps (tubes), incandescent bulbs, installed in horizontal rows, or other linear or point sources. Using reflectors 3, for example a parabolic profile, form a separate height zone 4 with horizontally spaced streams of radiation. The 5 plants in containers 6 are mounted on a rack 7 in one or more rows from one side of the vertical panel (Fig.1A) or between two such panels (Fig.1B). When growing plants from seedlings, initially include only the bottom section 2 forming the lower zone with horizontally placed flow exposure. When the plant leaves the second highest area include light sources of the second section (Fig.1A). similarly, as wheeden istlef adult plants (cucumbers or tomatoes) the bottom section of the light sources is switched off (shown in Fig.1B) on and off the horizontal sections of the light sources 2 is performed manually or automatically by measuring the shading leaves of plants important aspect - workers, installed opposite to the light source side of the plants.

The proposed device for growing long plants using artificial lighting, which is automatic sequential switching areas as plant growth, contains (Fig.2) the main vertical panel 1 with light sources 2, along with a rack 7 which is used for host plants. The light sources 2 is made in the form posted on the height of the horizontal sections, which are equipped with reflectors 3 serving for the formation of separate height zones 4 with horizontal threads of irradiation. The device is equipped with a photodetector 8, block 9 of the measuring light and the unit 10 controls switching sections connected in a Daisy-chain. The section with the light sources 2 are connected to the respective outputs of the unit 10 managing their inclusion. The photodetectors 8 are installed in rows on the borders of contiguous zones 4 opposite to the vertical panel 1 side of the rack 7. Thus each row of photodetectors 8 are connected through the blocks 9 and 10 only above section 2.

Grown 5 plants in containers 6 at the age of seedlings of the mouth of the lower section 2 sources of light. This section forms the lower zone 4 with horizontally placed flow exposure. The other sections with light when it is turned off. When the plants upper bound lower in the exposed tops of the plants overlapping the luminous flux incident on the bottom row of the photodetector 8. This leads to a decrease of the signals of the photodetectors to the threshold value, the passage through which is registered by the unit 9 measuring light and through the trigger unit 10 controls the enable commands to enable the second height of the horizontal section of the light sources 2. Increasing the illumination of the lower photodetectors enabling the second section does not change the state of the trigger by blocking its inputs at the time of inclusion of the second section waiting for the multivibrator. Be included two lower horizontal section of the light sources 2. Similarly as plant growth photodetectors 8, blocks 9 and 10 ensure the consistent inclusion of the following in height sections of light sources forming the corresponding zones with horizontally spaced streams of radiation. In the case of growing plants from falling lower tier of leaves from adult plants (cucumbers, Etendue hit the light flux on the bottom row of photodetectors 8, automatically turns off the second bottom section 2 sources of light when passing a signal of the bottom row of photodetectors threshold upwards.

Option device for growing long plants (Fig.3) provided with an additional vertical panel 1 (right) with the horizontal sections of the light sources 2, which is located opposite to the main panel 1 (left) side of the rack 7. In the space between the reflectors 3 sections of the light sources 2 of the main panel 1 (left) are a series of additional photodetectors 8, which are connected to respective inputs of block 9 of the measuring light. The horizontal section of the light sources 2 additional vertical panel 1 (right) connected to the corresponding outputs of the control unit switching section.

The gain in power consumption when using the invention the following.

Let the number of lamps (light sources 2) in each horizontal section n, the number of partitions (and thus, radiation areas) m, and the power consumed by each lamp, R. during the vegetation period in the conditions of growing plants under artificial illumination light is radiated in a period of t hours, otype all lamp vertical panel included simultaneously, therefore, the total energy spent to obtain economically useful biomass, make prototype

EFRpmntK.

In the proposed method and the device section of the light sources 2 vertical panels 1 are connected in series, starting from the bottom. When the plants from the first zone of irradiation in the second they covers both the first and second zones. When the output from the second and the transition to third covers three areas and so on until they reach a maximum height.

If the final plant height L is completely blocked by radiation areas, and l3the height of one zone 4 with the horizontal flow exposure, L L3m. The power of one horizontal section of the light sources 2 is pn. Assuming a constant growth rate of plants of different horizontal sections of the light sources consume electricity, defined by the expressions:

1-I (bottom) section E1pntK

2-I section E2=pntK1

3-I section E3=pntK1

4-I section E4= pntK1

m-th section (top) Em=pntK1

General electric power plant will be:

EimageEi=pntK1+1 +1 +...+1 taking into account that will receive the final is subramania compared with the prototype is for a different number of lighting zones: m 3 33% 5 m 40% m 10 45% m 20 46,5%

A rational number of zones, which gives the gain in energy consumption already at 40% m5.

When growing cucumbers and tomatoes, the power savings will be even more by turning off the lower radiation areas when dropping the lower tier of leaves. For example, at 100 days and 5 m, possibly after 20 days off the 1st exposure zone, after 40 and second. Then the power savings compared to the prototype will be 52%

Thus, the proposed method and device provide significant power savings, reaching 40.50% and more.

1. A method of growing plants with long use artificial lighting, including side unilateral or bilateral irradiation plants vertical bars of light sources and a change in the growth process of plants provisions of the luminous flux of these sources, characterized in that the horizontal sections of the light sources form a separate height zone with horizontally spaced threads exposure, record the achievement of the tops of the plants of the next zone, and the inclusion of sections carried out sequentially starting from the bottom, as versini this in the appropriate section of the area below the specified value.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the set of values passed through the zone of growing plants light fluxes to enable and disable their corresponding light sources, record the current value passed through the growing area of the light flux from each zone, compare, and current for the given zone values and the results of the comparison enable or disable the corresponding light sources.

3. Device for growing long plants using artificial lighting that contains the main vertical panel with light sources, along which is located a rack for growing plants, characterized in that the light sources are made in the form of spaced apart by the height of the horizontal sections, which are equipped with reflectors for forming separate the height of the zone of horizontal flow exposure, and the device is also equipped with sensors, the unit of measurement light and the control unit switching sections connected in series, the section connected to the corresponding outputs of the control unit inclusion, and the photodetectors are installed opposite to the vertical side panel of the rack on the borders of caprices is a Nelya with horizontal sections of the light sources, located on the main section of the rack, as well as additional sensors, which are installed in the space between the reflectors sections of the light sources of the main vertical panel, with additional fotoplenka connected to the inputs of the unit of measurement light, and the horizontal section of the light sources additional vertical panel - to the corresponding outputs of the control unit turning on the sections.

 

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FIELD: agricultural production, in particular, plant growing.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has device for measuring area of stem section and working tools. On the basis of measurements, voltage supplied to working tools is adjusted. Optimal conditions are created for plant treatment regardless of diameter of stems. Also, power consumption is reduced owing to employment of end switches adapted for automatic switching-off of power units of working tools in case of "idle stroke".

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced power consumption.

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