The portal of the tunnel for high-speed rolling stock
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to railway transport. The inventive portal of the tunnel for high-speed rolling stock includes a retaining wall, inside which there is a link tunnel lining, and on the opposite, outer side of the frontal slope of the lead-in part of the portal in the form of channelaudio plot. The latter consists of side walls and upper floors and has a larger cross section at the inlet and the cross-section equal to the cross section of the tunnel at the exit. In addition tonality plot has a trapezoid shape in horizontal section. The side walls channelaudio plot is executed through the Windows from turning deaf shutters with pruinosa returnable items. This embodiment allows you to smoothly reduce the amount of blow air oxen at the entrance to the tunnel speed of the composition and to increase the comfort of passengers. 3 Il. The invention relates to railway transport, particularly to CNC parts of the tunnel in the areas of the entrance and exit.On the lines of high-speed rolling stock there are various obstacles: the hills upland watersheds, mountain masses is iniu, only by the construction of tunnels. As established by experience in the construction of Railways, overcoming tall obstacles with the help of tunnels leads to a significant reduction of construction and operational length of railway lines and reduce capital costs.The input and output side of the tunnel, protruding beyond the frontal slope excavation, architectural decorated the front faces are called portals.The portal represents the load-bearing structure in the form of retaining walls, raised in most cases at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of the input side of the tunnel, serving on the earth's surface (Tunnels on the Railways. C. A. Kompaniets, West Siberian book publishers. Novosibirsk, 1965, S. 19, Fig.12A and b, C. 113, Fig.68, S. 118, Fig.74).The structure of the portal includes a first reinforced link tunnel lining, combined with a concrete retaining wall and forming with it one whole. The front side of the retaining wall is usually made architectural: with decorative stone and other decorative elements.The disadvantage of the tunnel with this design portals is its constant throughout sceneprostate in the surrounding area in the form of a wave, increasing the air pressure in the area of the environment that causes a vibration in the construction elements of houses and other building structures.In addition, electric rolling stock (reaching speeds of, for example, 200 km/h and more) at the entrance to the tunnel is experiencing a severe blow air waves and the sharp increase in drag oncoming airflow inside the tunnel, causing the passengers unpleasant sensation of pain in the ears, like those that appear when a steep and sudden decline of the aircraft, and other negative phenomena. There are known cases of extrusion of glass in locomotives, and this accident.Therefore, when you approach the tunnel rolling stock is forced to slow down, and it is a waste of time: on braking, the passage of the tunnel at a low speed, followed then increasing the speed, which leads to increased energy costs and other losses.Closest to the present invention is a tunnel portal part having a step change of the cross section at the site of entry and exit (s-Bahn Japan, the "Shinkansen"./edited by C. G. Albrecht. M. Transport, 1974, S. 102, Fig.74).The famous portal of the tunnel contains a retaining wall, with wny frontal slope of the lead-in part of the portal in the form of channelaudio, closed on three sides (sides and top) section of the route with the greater cross-section than the tunnel itself, which is made integral with the retaining wall of the portal and is one with it.Thus, starting from the outer surface of the retaining wall, standard cross section of the tunnel speed is changed to the greater cross-section (about 2 times). Therefore, at the initial moment at the entrance of the rolling stock in the tunnel he feels less air resistance and therefore reduce the strength of the shock wave.Upon further advancement of the rolling stock is included in the actual tunnel and the resistance of the oncoming air and the force of the shock wave increases, but this occurs more gradually over time, which reduces the above negative effects.The disadvantage of this device is the fact that the strength of the shock wave during the occurrence of the rolling stock in the tunnel is reduced enough.The aim of the invention is a smooth decreasing the amount of blow air waves at the entrance to the tunnel high-speed rolling stock and increase passenger comfort.The objective is achieved by the fact that the portal of the tunnel contains a retaining EU side of the frontal slope of the lead-in part in the form channelaudio plot consisting of side walls and upper floors, and the take-up reel part channelaudio section of the portal has the shape of a truncated isosceles wedge with smoothly varying cross-section (transverse) from a maximum equal to the cross section in the open part, to the minimum, close to the cross-section of the tunnel in the retaining wall of the portal and its beveled side walls contain a number of end-to-end Windows with swivel blind shutters, equipped with a return spring elements.The novelty of the proposed invention is that the lead-in part of the tunnel is made in the form channelaudio section of the portal with smoothly varying cross-section and has the shape of a truncated isosceles wedge, and the internal volume can be changed when the pressure at the time of high-speed rolling stock due to the automatic opening through the Windows from turning deaf shutters.Thanks to the wedge-shaped channelaudio plot and the presence of through Windows with swivel blind shutters, new properties, namely: resistance oncoming air during movement of the rolling stock is growing gradually, as progress towards the tunnel, and alignment davlenie composition and pre-set the amount of effort recoil spring elements.These features allow to reduce air resistance to movement of rolling stock enters the tunnel, to reduce the force of the shock wave and to improve passenger comfort.Therefore, in comparison with the known technical solutions have the following technical and economic advantages: the shock wave increases smoothly; the energy of the shock wave is effectively absorbed and dispersed in the environment; operates automatically; the ability to control the strength of the shock wave; increase passenger comfort; reduce energy costs and other losses.In Fig. 1 shows the portal of the tunnel, side view (before passage of the rolling stock), and Fig.2 section a-a in Fig.1 (before passage of the rolling stock), and Fig.3 is the same, at the moment of passing rolling stock.The drawings are marked by letters:
Fmaxthe maximum cross-sectional area of the input part;
Fminthe minimum cross-sectional area;
B direction of high-speed rolling stock;
- the angle of rotation of the valves during the passage of high-speed rolling stock;
q1,qnthe direction of the air outlet of high pressure.Pre is litow retaining wall 1, on the inner side which is first increased the level 2 tunnel lining 3 tunnel 4, forming with it a single whole. On the opposite, outer side of the frontal slope of the take-up reel 5 is part of the portal in the form of channelaudio section 6, which has the shape of a truncated isosceles wedge with plasmaspheresis cross-section from the maximum cross-section (Fmax) equal to the cross section in the open part, to the minimum cross-section (Fmin), close to the cross-section of the tunnel 4 in the retaining wall 1 of the portal. Tonality section 6 consists of side walls 7 and the top of the slab 8, rigidly jointed with each other and with the retaining wall 1 and forming a single whole. The side walls 7 includes a number of sequentially arranged end-to-end Windows 9, which on the outside are closed light (for example, from aluminum or plastic) turning deaf shutters 10 return spring elements 11.Recoil spring elements 11 may be of different design (for example: spring tension, compression or torsion), but it seems more rational use of vertical torsion spring (shaft), who are both articulated hinges rotary valves 10.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns mining and can be used at stratum development of minerals with swelled ground rock for guarding of district development drifts. Guarding method includes implementation of district development drifts 1, fixing of district development drifts, stratum weakening of minerals be making grooves 2,3. Powers of swelling layers of minerals stratum are defined. Stratum weakening is implemented by creating of vertical rooves 2,3 in sole, in the immediate vicinity of wall of working, from side of gradient and pitch of seam, at that groove length from side of gradient 2 is accepted as equal to maximal power of swelling stratum, but not more then 2000 mm, and groove length from the side of seam pitch 3 is equal to minimal power of swelling stratum.
EFFECT: decreasing of swelling of soil rocks, decreasing of costs for supporting district development drafts, increasing of spatial work concentration, providing of easier method of groove implementation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves moving of air with moving trains through the circulation ventilation connection connecting the tunnels near the subway station, and through the station. To create the desired air flow through the subway station from moving trains in the tunnel and its regulation depending on the frequency of train movement, the aerodynamic drag of circulation ventilation connection is changed.
EFFECT: lower economic costs for the ventilation of tunnels and subway stations.
SUBSTANCE: hydrotechnical deferent tunnel with reinforced concrete lining is designed as a working 1 in the rock with a cross section in the form of a figure of a constant width and in contact with the bearing reinforced concrete lining 2 with the external and the internal surfaces made in the cross-section in the form of a figure with a constant width. The cross-sections of the working 1, of the external surface in contact therewith, and of the internal surface of the reinforced concrete lining 2 are made in the form of a Reuleaux triangle. One of the coinciding corners 3 of the Reuleaux triangle of the working 1, the external and internal surfaces of the reinforced concrete lining 2 is located in the vault portion 4 of the tunnel with the reinforced concrete lining.
EFFECT: increasing the strength, stability and reliability of the hydrotechnical deferent tunnel in complex engineering geological and seismic conditions.