Opto-electronic device for measuring the size of the shells
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to measurement devices, namely, devices for measuring the geometric parameters of the shells. The technical effect is to increase speed. The device comprises an optical measuring head mounted on a two-axis mechanism and consisting of a lens 2, a mirrored pyramid 5 vibrooccasion 6, 7, four mirrors 8 with the drive rotation 1, 9, 10, 11, the screen with the slits 13 and the movable diaphragm 14, and the Registrar signals, comprising a measuring circuit, made of the photodetector 17, the photocurrent amplifier 19 unit AGC-20, the pulse shaper 21 and indicator 22, and two identical alignment blocks, each of which (one) is made of two photodetectors 16, 18, the photocurrent amplifiers 23, 24, shapers pulses 25, 26, differentiating circuits 27, 28, thyristors 29, 30, transformer 31, inductors 32, 33 and motor 34. 4 Il. The invention relates to measurement devices, namely, devices for measuring geometrical parameters of cylindrical hollow products, and can be used in heavy machinery in the production of shells of the basic parts of himnefteprom.Known opto-electronic measuring system  contains the Converter deviation boundaries of the heated products from the optical axis of the lens, which before the measurement is set to the nominal size of the shell relative to the stationary roll plate bending machine. Opto-electronic system has two variances indicator of size and temperature.The temperature required for process control and for the introduction of a temperature correction for the size of the product.The disadvantage of this system is the length of the measurement process, as the calculation of the amendment is carried out manually using tables.Of the known opto-electronic devices the closest to the technical nature of the invention is a photovoltaic device for controlling the internal diameter of the shell  the Device comprises an optical measuring g the servomotors, the Registrar signal of the four circuits, each of which includes sequentially connected to the photodetector, amplifier-shaper pulses, the filter of low frequencies, United in pairs with two blocks subtraction outputs connected through amplifiers with electric drives, and a measuring circuit including serially connected amplifier connected to one of the four photodetectors, shaper pulses, and indicator.A disadvantage of this device is its low system performance automatically based measuring head, because this system contains filters low frequencies, which are inertial elements, and the measurement has to be performed several times during the process.The aim of the invention is to improve the performance of the measurement by reducing time-based measuring head.This is achieved in that the optoelectronic device for measuring the size of the shells containing the optical measuring head with rotation drive mounted on a moving two-axis mechanism connected to the two motors, and the Registrar signal of the four capaility low frequency, pairs are connected to two blocks subtraction outputs connected through amplifiers with actuators and measuring circuit, comprising sequentially the United photocurrent amplifier connected to one of the four photodetectors, the pulse shaper and the indicator, it introduced a four-sided mirror pyramid with vibrooccasion reciprocating movement along the axis of the lens, is installed before the top of the mirror pyramid, four concave mirrors with a drive rotation of optically conjugate with the corresponding faces of the pyramid, slit mask in the shape of a square, placed in the image plane of the lens, which is equipped with four sensor-recorder signals, at the same time before one of the photodetectors placed aperture with a hole that is installed with the ability to move, and two power schemes servo motors, each of which is made of a transformer with the secondary grounded point, thyristor switch connected bipolar secondary winding of the transformer, surge valves, connecting the thyristor switches with servo, and two differentiating circuits with diodes connecting the outputs of the pulse shapers with UE the measurement by reducing time-based optical head when searching for the center of the shell, because the controls servo motors do not contain filters low frequency with high inertia, and wholly performed according to the pulse circuit.In Fig.1 shows a block diagram of the device of Fig.2, the photodetectors in the image plane and screen design; Fig.3 General view of the system of Fig. 4 timing diagrams of signals.Optical measuring head has a body 1 (Fig.1), which establishes the lens 2, the elastic suspension with 3 fixed thereto core 4 and tetrahedral mirror pyramid 5, coil 6 vibrooccasion connected to the generator 7, four mirror 8. Mirrors are mounted on axes fixed in the housing and located on the sides of the square, centrally-like base of the pyramid 5. To increase the area of surface scanning mirrors 6 are concave surface.On the body 1 and the screw set nut 9 with an internal conical surface, in which by means of a spring 10 abuts the levers 11 are rigidly connected to the mirror 8. Thus, rotation of the nut 9 is rotating mirror 8 at the same angles, as a result, the installation of measuring devices on a given shell size. The housing 1 on the spine of the image optical system is the screen 13 with clefts (Fig.2), located on the sides of the square, centrally-like base of the pyramid 5. Opposite one of the slots installed movable aperture 14 with a hole. In front of each slit of the screen 13 are photodetectors 15-18, through relay contacts R1, R2connected to inputs of corresponding blocks. The photodetector 17 through the relay contacts R1(Fig.1) is connected to the input of the amplifier 19, which is covered by feedback-AGC block 20, the output of amplifier 19 is connected to the pulse shaper Schmitt trigger 22.The sensors 15, 17 through the relay contacts R2connected with the inputs of the block alignment, which consists of the input amplifiers with high gain 23, 24, shapers of pulses of the Schmitt trigger 25,26, the outputs are connected to a differentiating circuit with the diodes 27, 28, the outputs of which are connected with the control electrode of the thyristor keys 29, 30, included different in the secondary winding of the transformer 31 and through the balancing inductors 32, 33 connected to the servo motor 34.The photodetectors 16, 18 through the contacts of relay R2connected to the inputs of a similar block alignment 35, which controls the servo motor 36.The housing 1 of the optical head, the screen is telego movement on a horizontal rail 38. This guide is in turn mounted on the vertical guide 39, with the possibility of forward movement. The device is installed near the bending machine 40 and the control shell 41.The device operates as follows.The optical system of the head, consisting of mirrors 8, pyramid 5 and lens 2, an image plots of the product in the plane of the screen 13. With the help of nuts 9 mirrors 8 are so designed parts of the item with only one boundary (inner or outer). The heated product is a source of infrared radiation that is detected by a photodetector 15-18. Fluctuations in the pyramid 5 using vibrooccasion, consisting of the core 4, the coil 6 and the generator 7, along the optical axis of the lens projection plots of the product also vibrate relative to the slits in the screen 13. Therefore, the photodetectors 15-18 come through cracks pulses of infrared radiation and at their outputs impulses of the photocurrent.The device operates in two modes: automatic search of the center contacts of the relay R1open, the relay R2closed; in measurement mode, the relay contacts R1SRA products which consists of two identical blocks of alignment, which represents a tracking system of regulation for the two coordinates. So let's consider a system with one coordinate.The photocurrent signals from the photodetectors 15, 17 come to the amplifiers 23, 24, which amplify the signal and then shapers 25, 26, which convert the signals of the amplifiers in the rectangular pulses of constant amplitude. Shift fronts of these pulses is proportional to the optical axis of the lens relative to the center of the shell (Fig. 42,43 Fig.4). Came the first signal, for example from the shaper 25, is fed to a differentiating circuit 27, which is due to the inclusion of diode emits only a positive signal (Fig. 44). The pulse is supplied to the control electrode of the thyristor key 29 and opens it, as a result, the servo motor is supplied through the bleed orifice 32, the current from the secondary winding of the transformer 31, the motor winding voltage appears (Fig.46). When the signal at the output of the shaper 26 it stands out front of the differentiating circuit 28 (Fig.45) and the pulse arrives at the control electrode of the thyristor key 30, which, opening, skips the current surge through the dross is iagr.47), but since it is opposite in sign to the previously arrived, it, being summarized in the course, the motor winding kompensiruetsja. Finally on the servo appears the voltage UFe. (Fig.48), and its armature will rotate, moving the carriage from the optical head until such time as the shift of the fronts between the incoming pulses will not be equal to zero.If the first will come the signal from the shaper 26, the motor would receive a pulse of the opposite polarity, and the armature of the motor rotates in the other direction, respectively, by moving the carriage from the optical head. The move will go up until the shift fronts between the signals is not equal to zero, i.e., the optical axis of the lens in alignment with the center of the shell at a given coordinate.Works similarly to the tracking system according to the second coordinate. The pulses are received from the photodetectors 16 and 18, and has a block alignment 34 that controls the servo motor 35.After the center of the product was found and taken as the base measurement, relay R2opens its contacts, relay contacts are closed P1.Before the photodetector 17 is mounted movable aperture 14 in which there is a hole for fixing the deflection P19, covered by the AGC block 20. The voltage output from the amplifier 19 is supplied to the pulse shaper 21 connected to the indicator 22 which detects the deviation of the internal size of nominal.With the introduction of optical-electronic devices increases the performance measurements of the shells in the process of their production in a hot state on the roller plate bending machine, and therefore, the process fit the time in the permitted temperature range of the part as it cooled. This eliminates re-heating of the parts and allows you to reap the economic benefits from reducing the heating time. OPTO-ELECTRONIC DEVICE FOR measuring the size of the SHELLS containing the optical head rotation drive mounted on a moving two-axis mechanism connected to the two motors, and the Registrar signal of the four circuits, each of which includes sequentially connected to the photodetector, amplifier-shaper pulses, the filter of low frequencies that are pairwise connected with two blocks subtraction outputs connected via amplifiers with actuators and measuring circuit, comprising sequentially soedineniya fact, it entered the lens, square mirror pyramid with vibrooccasion reciprocating movement along the axis of the lens, is installed before the top of the mirror pyramid, four concave mirrors with a drive rotation of optically conjugate with the corresponding faces of the mirror pyramid, a mask in the shape of a square with slots along its sides, is placed in the image plane of the lens, behind which are four of the photodetector Registrar signals aperture with a hole that was installed can be moved and placed in front of one of the photodetectors,and two power schemes servo motors, each of which is made of a transformer with the secondary grounded point, thyristor switch connected to different secondary winding of the transformer, surge valves, connecting the thyristor switches with servo, and two differentiating circuits with diodes connecting the outputs of the pulse shapers with the control electrode of the thyristor switches.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: according to method of contact-free optical measurement the object is placed between laser radiation source and photoreceiver. Power of laser radiation P is measured and compared with preset level of power P0 . Laser radiation is optically scanned into beam of parallel rays at the area where object finds its place and size of object is found from size of shade of object onto photoreceiver while correcting time of exposure from value of difference (P0-P). Device for realizing the method has laser, beam-splitting plate, short-focused cylindrical lens, output cylindrical lens, collimating lens, CCD, data processing unit, photoreceiving threshold unit.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method, and also to device for measurement of component amount coming from surrounding gas atmosphere and received by parts in process of thermochemical treatment of metal parts. Sample, lengthwise size of which considerably exceeds its cross size, is exposed to gas atmosphere impact. Change of sample length in time in lengthwise direction is measured, being the result of component transfer from gas atmosphere, and measured change of length is used for determination of component amount that was transferred from gas atmosphere to sample. Method is performed isothermally or at changing temperature, at that change of length resulted from temperature change is compensated in calculations. In order to realise the method, device is used that incorporates clamp for sample used in method, system of length measurement for registration of sample length change in time in longitudinal direction, and also computing unit. Method provides possibility to obtain much more accurate data on amount of component coming from gas atmosphere and received by parts.
EFFECT: obtainment of much more accurate data on amount of component coming from gas atmosphere and received by parts.
14 cl, 11 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for contactless measurement of small objects sizes is realised with the help of device, comprising zoom, which is arranged in the form of single fixed, and also the first and second movable components. Considered object is placed in back focal plane of zoom. In back focal plane of zoom fixed component there are two calibrated frames arranged. Object image is subsequently matched with images of two frames, and position of movable component is fixed in process of this matching. Calculation of object size is carried out by two fixed positions of movable component, by size of frames and structural parametres of zoom.
EFFECT: provision of high accuracy of small objects linear dimensions measurement.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: pulse heat source with action time of where R - piping radius, d - wall thickness, a -temperature conductivity is installed on pulse heat source piping according to the method for determining the thickness of deposits on inner surface of piping, and temperature change is determined at the distance l=(2.5-3.5)d from the heating source. The device for determining the thickness of deposits on inner surface of piping is equipped with generator of current radio pulses, amplifier, analogue-to-digital converter, computing device, indicator of deposit thickness and indicator of deposit heat conductivity; at that, output of current radio pulse generator is connected to induction coil; amplifier input is connected to temperature sensor output; amplifier output is connected to input of analogue-to-digital converter; output of analogue-to-digital converter is connected to input of computing device; outputs of computing device are connected to indicators.
EFFECT: possibility of monitoring the deposits of small thickness and possibility of monitoring the pipes during performance of preventive actions when the process is stopped and pipes are dehydrated.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: silicon monocrystalline microheater is used as a displacement sensor and the value of heat lost from the microheater to a heat receiver serves as the measuring signal. The microheater has the shape of a variable section beam, the wide part of which is a resistor and has a region of opposite conduction type, and the narrow part is form of current leads having low-resistivity silicon regions and a silicide coating, wherein the end of the current leads is in form of a platform for forming metal contacts. Displacements vary from 5 to 800 mcm and measurement accuracy is equal to ±20 nm.
EFFECT: high accuracy and stability of sensor readings.