A method of obtaining a high molecular weight polyacrylamide
(57) Abstract:Usage: obtain high molecular weight polyacrylamide. The inventive creation of highly stable reverse acrylamide emulsions in the presence of salts of metals of group II and III in quantities of 0.001 to 0.05 by weight of the aqueous phase. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab. The invention relates to a method for linear polyacrylamide of high molecular weight in the reverse emulsions.It is known that the polyacrylamide of high molecular weight is used in the processes of wastewater treatment in the pulp and paper industry, and also as a thickener water in the processes of secondary production.One method of obtaining high molecular weight polyacrylamide is polymerization in inverse emulsion, the dispersed phase which are aqueous solutions of monomers, and a continuous medium nonpolar organic solvents  Stabilizers monomer emulsions are sorbitane esters of fatty acids, their polyoxyethylene derivatives and some others, the polymerization is initiated, typically oil-soluble compounds by dinitriles asuitable acid, benzoyl peroxide.Cons is t to the formation of significant amounts of coagulum on the walls of the reactor and the stirrer. Remove coagulum is a time-consuming process, leading to a significant rise in the cost of the product.In the known descriptions of polymerization in inverse emulsion process is carried out at relatively low concentrations of monomer in the system 12-25% as the increase of monomer concentration above this limit leads to a sharp increase in the number formed during polymerization of the coagulum. The increase in the content of the emulsifier in the polymerization system, contributing to its stability undesirable because it forces the user to enter additional purification stage latex from the emulsifier, in addition, leads to deterioration of the polymer.A method of obtaining water-soluble polymers in the reverse emulsion, in which the reduction of the resulting coagulum is achieved by adding alkali metal salts in an amount of from 0.6 to 10% in the aqueous phase of emulsions 
The disadvantage of this method is the use of large quantities of salts, electrolytes, which degrades performance and limits the range of applications of the obtained polymer. The quantity of monomer introduced into the aqueous phase does not exceed 40-50% of the total content of polymer clay is th sulfates, chlorides, acetates of sodium, ammonium in the amount of 2-5% to the aqueous phase of emulsions 
This reduces the amount of coagulum formed during polymerization, with 50% or more to 2-23% of the content of the monomer in the aqueous phase of the emulsion is 40% of the total content of monomer in the system 28 wt. the content of the emulsifier 2-3 wt.The disadvantage of this method is the high salt content in the final product (4-12% in terms of dry polymer), which is undesirable, because it makes impossible its use in water treatment processes pulp and paper industry and other industries. In addition, the low polymer content in the finished product forced in some cases to carry out the concentration of the latex to give it consumer qualities.The purpose of the invention is the creation of highly stable emulsions with a high content of monomer in them, further polymerization which proceeds with the formation of small amounts of coagulum.This is achieved by the introduction of the dispersed phase Monomeric emulsions, salts of metals of group II and III in quantities of 0.001 to 0.05% of the aqueous phase. The content of monomer in the emulsion is 50-70 wt. to the aqueous phase (up to its limit rastvorimost the s (more than 10 million ), the characteristic viscosity of the polymer is about 25 to 30 DL/gSlight salt content in the polymers can not limit the scope of their applications. As the dispersion medium Monomeric emulsions used aliphatic hydrocarbons, emulsions stabilized sorbitane esters of fatty acids, the polymerization initiated by azo compounds. The amount of initiator in the oil phase of the emulsions of 0.001-0.05% of the total amount of emulsifier in the emulsion system of 0.5-5% ratio of phases of water:oil varies from 1.5: 2 to 3:1. Monomeric emulsion free from oxygen and polymerized at temperatures of 45-60aboutC. the Content of polymer in the resulting dispersion 20-40% of the amount generated in the water polymerization of coagulum 1-10% as additives are salts of metals of group II and III of the Periodic system and of a number of acids, such as hydrochloric, sulphuric, nitric, boric, and others. All of these salts in the concentration range of 0.001-0.05 to wt. to the aqueous phase can significantly increase the stability of the inverse monomer emulsion.P R I m e R 1. Prepare a monomer emulsion consisting of 15 g of acrylamide, 15 g of water, 30 g of cyclohexane and 0.7 g of servicemonitoring (span-60) and 0.001 g of dinitrile azotobacteraceae by blowing argon and polimerizuet for 3 h at 55aboutC.The comparative stability of the Monomeric emulsion during polymerization, characterized by the amount of coagulum formed, are given in table.1.P R I m e R s 2-7. Prepare emulsions containing 10-20 g of acrylamide, 10-12 g of water, 28-16 g of cyclohexane, 2 g of span-60, 0.001 g of dinitrile asuitable acid and 0.02 to 1 g of salt II-III groups.Examples are illustrated in the table. 2. The characteristic viscosity of the thus obtained polymers of acrylamide from 24.5 to 28 DL/gP R I m e R 3 (comparative). As salt additives used sodium acetate (see tab.2). 1. A method of OBTAINING a high MOLECULAR weight POLYACRYLAMIDE, including the formation of a stable inverse monomer emulsion in the presence of inorganic salts and subsequent polymerization, characterized in that use salts of inorganic salts of metals of group II and III in quantities of 0.001 to 0.05% by weight of the aqueous phase.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the use of sulfates, chlorides, borates, nitrates of the metals of group II and III.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to synthesis of polymers with high water absorption based on acrylamide and can be used in production of sanitary and hygiene items, dehydrating agents for the coal industry, water-retaining agents for agriculture. Copolymerisation of an aqueous solution of monomers containing acrylamide and a crosslinking agent is carried out in the presence of ammonium persulphate as a radical copolymerisation initiator with the following ratio of components in the solution of monomers, wt %: acrylamide 85-95, guanidine methacrylate 5-15. The crosslinking agent used is guanidine methacrylate.
EFFECT: improved quality of hydrogel, reduced consumption of expensive reagents, simplification of synthesis method, improved application properties.
2 tbl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method is realised by polymerisation of an aqueous solution containing 7-15 wt % of acrylamide and 0.5-1.5 wt % of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide, in presence of polymerisation initiator, besides, the polymerisation initiator is a mixture of 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanopentane acid) and ammonium salt of 4-8-dithiobenzoate of 4-cyanopentane acid with their content in the aqueous solution as 0.03-0.07 wt % and 0.07-0.35 wt %, accordingly, and polymerisation is performed at temperature of 70-80°C and pH 3.0-4.0.
EFFECT: increased structural homogeneity of a hydrogel.
2 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method is realised by polymerising an aqueous solution containing 7-15 wt % acrylamide and 0.5-1.5 wt % N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide under the action of a redox system: ammonium persulphate and N;N,N',N'-tetramethyl ethylenediamine, wherein polymerisation is carried out in the presence of 0.01-0.12 wt % mercaptoacetic acid.
EFFECT: high structural homogeneity of the hydrogel.
2 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to organic high-molecular compounds, specifically to new biocompatible amphiphilic homopolymers suitable for creation of medicinal preparations, biologically active substances and solubilisation of poorly soluble substances, as well as a single-step method of producing such homopolymers. Amphiphilic homopolymers have general formula , where M is a monomer selected from a group comprising N-vinylpyrrolidone, N-isopropylacrylamide, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide, ethyleneamine, 2-allyloxybenzaldehyde, acrylamide, acrylic acid and esters thereof, methacrylic acid and esters thereof and N-dialkylacrylamide; R is a long-chain aliphatic linear or branched hydrophobic group; n is an integer from 6 to 125. Method of producing said homopolymers comprises performing radical homopolymerisation of a monomer in an organic solvent in presence of a radical homopolymerisation initiator and chain length growth regulator. Chain length rowth regulator is long-chain aliphatic mercaptoamine or muriatic mercaptoamino chloride.
EFFECT: invention provides a single-step method of producing amphiphilic homopolymers, increases output of end product, and reduces production time thereof.
9 cl, 6 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to organic high-molecular compounds, and specifically to novel amphiphilic polymer complexes, a method for production thereof, to a carrier and a composition for delivery of biologically active substances, as well as use of complexes as activators of oxo-biodegradation of carbochain polymers. Polymer complex contains a hydrophilic fragment of an amphiphilic polymer, which is bonded to transition metal ions. Amphiphilic polymer is a homopolymer or random copolymer of general formula H-[-M-]-S-R, wherein [-M-] is a hydrophilic fragment consisting of identical or several different irregularly ordered monomers, selected from a group comprising N-vinylpyrrolidone, N-isopropylacrylamide, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide, ethyleneamine, 2-allyloxybenzaldehyde, acrylamide, N-dialkylacrylamide, maleic anhydride, acrylic, methacrylic, maleic, fumaric, cinnamic acid and esters of said acids; R is a hydrophilic fragment of general structure –(-C8-19alkyl)-CH2-X, where X independently represents H, OH, NH2 or NH3Cl. In amphiphilic polymer at least 1 mol% of monomers are monomers, containing a carboxyl group. Number average molecular weight of amphiphilic polymer ranges from 1 to 30 kDa. Method of producing polymer complexes involves combined incubation of aqueous solution of amphiphilic polymer with aqueous or organic solution of a transition metal salt. Carrier for delivery of biologically active substances is micelles, consisting of said complexes. Composition for delivery of biologically active substances contains at least one biologically active substance and said carrier.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain polymer complexes with high output and high degree of purity, and also to obtain a carrier ensuring high water compatibility of poorly soluble and insoluble biologically active substances.
11 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: process of preparing a water insoluble polymer hydrogel is that a copolymerization of an aqueous solution of acrylamide and a crosslinking agent in the presence of a radical initiator of copolymerization of ammonium persulfate at a temperature of 88-93°C for 15-30 minutes. The molar ratio of acrylamide and diallyldimethylammonium chloride is 1:1.0-1.4. The resulting hydrogel was washed with water for 5-10 minutes and dried at a temperature of 80-85°C for 5-6 hours.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify the technological process of obtaining hydrogel, and improve the properties of the target product.
1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the high-molecular weight compounds of the medical purpose, more specifically to new synthetical sulfo-containing homo- and copolymers 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropansulfoacid with its own bioactivity that can be used in pharmacology in the capacity of the future-proof antiviral agents or can serve as the basis for the new effective and harmless antiviral medicinal agents and its pharmaceutical forms. The homo- and copolymers 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropansulfoacid of the stated below formula are obtained by the radical heterophase (co)polymerization in the ethanol at 70°C within 24 hours. The homo- and copolymers 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropansulfoacid have the molecular weight MM=(40-70)⋅103.
m=100 mol. %, n=0;
m=(22.8-58.1) mol. %, n=(77.2-41.9) mol. %.
EFFECT: invention allows to get nontoxical homo- and copolymer 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropansulfoacid with its own antiviral activity against the influenza viruses H3N2, H1N1.
1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: producing of polymer products from methacrylate and other (meth)acrylate monomers.
SUBSTANCE: continuous method for production of polymer products includes radical polymerization of methylmethacrylate systems or its mixture with other (meth)acrylate monomers or vinylacetate in presence of radical polymerization initiator to produce polymer-monomer system followed by physico-mechanical treatment (e.g. extrusion) and simultaneous depolymerization. Method of present invention makes it possible to carry out polymerization with conversion of approximately 100 %.
EFFECT: polymer products with improved physicochemical properties; simplified polymerization process.
11 cl, 8 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: method of applying high-resolution image of functional layers, e.g. for applying lithographic mask or other functional layers, comprises polymerization of monomers from vapor phase under action of finely focused electron beam with energy 1 to 1000 keV followed by injection of monomer vapors at pressure from 10-4 to 10 torr. Electron beam is introduced into working chamber through a small opening in membrane, which enables avoiding scattering of electrons on membrane and, at the same time, maintaining monomer vapor pressure in working chamber high enough to ensure acceptable growth time for thickness (height) of image line. Preferred image applying conditions are the following: electron energy in electron beam 10 to 500 keV and monomer vapor pressure 0.001 to 10 torr. For electron beam diameter 50 nm, image width 100-150 nm can be obtained. When improving electron beam focusing, accessible electron beam diameter may be further diminished.
EFFECT: enabled high-resolution image of functional layers directly from monomer in single-step "dry" process without using any solvents.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 8 ex
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polyethylene molding mass with multimodule molecular weight distribution intended to manufacture hollow articles such as gas tanks, canisters, barrels, and bottles using extrusion. Molding mass has density at least 0.940 g/cm3, contains low-molecular polyethylene with viscosity index 40-150 cm3/g in amount 30 to 60%, high-molecular copolymer of ethylene with another C4-C10-olefin with viscosity index 150-800 cm3/g in amount 30 to 65%, and ultrahigh-molecular polyethylene with viscosity index in the region 900-3000 cm3/g in amount 1 to 30%. Molding mass is prepared by cascade-based suspension polymerization.
EFFECT: increased degree of blowing and improved balance between hardness and fissuring resistance.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex