The method of construction of foundations in winter conditions
(57) Abstract:The inventive active layer is carried out by crushing the frozen ground. Crushed frozen ground move in thawed ground first vertical and then horizontal directions. The resulting displacement of the soil is formed matramony pit, which perform the base block. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 9 Il. The invention relates to the construction and for the construction of foundations of buildings and structures in winter conditions.A known method of construction of foundations in winter conditions, including the thawing of frozen soil, the development of the pit and running in the excavation of Foundation block 
Closest to the proposed method is a method of construction of foundations in winter conditions, including the development of the pit by crushing and extraction of the frozen ground and running in excavation of Foundation block  the Disadvantage of known methods is insufficient bearing capacity of the Foundation.The purpose of the invention increase the bearing capacity of the Foundation.This is achieved due to the fact that the method of construction of foundations in winter conditions, including the and, crushing the frozen ground was carried out to a depth of active layer, and moving the crushed soil is carried out in thawed ground first vertical and then horizontal directions, and the fragmentation and relocation of frozen soil can be performed simultaneously. In addition, before crushing the frozen ground it perform vertical slit to form blocks, and the cracks are filled with depth equal to 0.7-0.8 of the height of the active layer, and/or fill gaps substance positive temperature followed by exposure over time.In Fig.1 shows the outline of the existing Foundation and the array developed frozen ground; Fig.2 the pit with fragmented frozen ground; Fig. 3 scheme of wyrmbane of the pit of Fig.4 the Foundation of Fig.5 same as in Fig.1 for the Foundation with the broadening and development of frozen soil with the formation of the slit of Fig.6 the Foundation with the broadening of Fig.7 plan of cutting the frozen ground on blocks in the development of the trench under the strip Foundation; Fig.8 section a-a in Fig.7; Fig.9 the flow of crushed soil wedge tip.During the Foundation in the active layer 1 carry out crushing the frozen ground 2 followed the s crushed soil carried out first in the vertical, and then in the horizontal directions. Thus in the ground waterboat pit, around which is formed in a thawed soil compacted zone 6. On bottom of the pit occiput dry soil and RAM him, then form in the pit of the base block 7.P R I m e R 1. During the construction of printed pile Foundation for wyrmbane pit on the developed layer of frozen soil 2 make vertical destructive force, resulting in the fragmentation of frozen soil and its vertical movement of the melt in the soil 4. Then trimmed the ground move, for example, wedge tip 8 in the horizontal direction, melted into the surrounding soil. Vertical and/or horizontal movement can be accomplished by directional implosions or mechanical methods. Then continue wyrmbane of the pit to the design elevation.P R I m m e R 2. During the construction of pile Foundation great depth develop the drilling column (diameter 1 m) in frozen ground 2 the annular gap 9. To the so formed block frozen ground (core) 10 applied mechanical force, destroy it, and crushed ground 3 move below freezing in the melt Cu, NaCl or sand) and incubated for 0.5 to 2 hours to reduce the temperature of not less than 0aboutC. Produce wyrmbane of the pit with the formation of 11 broadening the required dimensions and perform in the pit base unit 7. Cracks perform a depth equal to 0.7-0.8 of the height of the active layer 1, since the remaining layer has a lower strength due to migration of moisture and broken by mechanical force.P R I m e R 3. In the construction of strip Foundation for the preparation of the trench to form the blocks 12 by cutting the longitudinal and transverse slots 13. Then destroy the blocks 12 and fragmented soil is pushed first melt down in the ground, and then horizontally under undeveloped frozen soil. The base of the trench and tamped mounted in the trench Foundation blocks.Thus, the proposed method is the active use of frozen soil compaction thawed soil at the base and sides of the pit. When this seal thawed soil increases the reliability of the Foundation by reducing strain. 1. The METHOD of CONSTRUCTION of FOUNDATIONS IN WINTER CONDITIONS, including the development of the pit by crushing and displacement of the frozen ground and running in the pit tho soil is carried out in the active layer, and moving the crushed soil is carried out in thawed ground first vertical and then horizontal directions.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the crushing and moving frozen ground exercise at the same time.3. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that before crushing the frozen ground it perform vertical slit to form blocks, and the cracks are performing a depth of 0.7 to 0.8 of the height of the active layer and/or fill gaps substance positive temperature followed by exposure over time.4. The method according to PP. 1 to 4, characterized in that before the execution of Foundation block at the bottom of the pit lay the dry soil and RAM it.5. The method according to PP. 1 to 5, characterized in that the pushing exercise directed by the explosion or by a wedge device.
SUBSTANCE: method involves constructing multilayer foundation; erecting upper building structures. Process of foundation forming includes laying concrete layer on base; preparing water-proof layer above concrete layer; forming one or more cast-in-place and/or composite and/or precast reinforced concrete panels along foundation height or area; forming intermediate layer of hardening material under upper panel and/or panels before and/after their forming, wherein hardening material characteristics are determined from a given relation; forming channels with opened ends in upper panel so channels extend the full panel thickness and preferably have widened areas in lower parts thereof; installing tubes preferably having widened areas in lower parts thereof; sealing intermediate layer and/or water-proof foundation layer along foundation perimeter; channels are formed in places of highest design foundation settlement and deflection, including areas under load-bearing support structure building members, namely columns and/or walls. Upper channel and/or tube ends are located in access area. Channels and tubes are used for injecting hardening material in intermediate layer through upper channel and tube ends during erecting and/or using building, during performing building, including earth-moving, works near building or building structures, which may result in building settlement and/or heeling and/or deformation. Injection of hardening material forms separation into layers and/or cracks in intermediate layer, which are filled with hardening material. Hardening material is injected in channel or pipe having x, y coordinates with pressure, also determined from a given relation.
EFFECT: reduced building settlement, heeling and deformation during erection and usage.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, in particular, to construction and operation of structures, having architecture of various heights. Method to prevent uneven subsidence of unevenly loaded foundations includes survey of soil, reinforcement of soil base in compliance with the data produced as a result of soil survey, and erection of foundation. Soil is surveyed under least loaded section of foundation. Then foundation is erected, and most loaded sections of soil base are reinforced by method of high-pressure injection proportionally to ratio of operational pressure of most loaded section to operational pressure of least loaded section.
EFFECT: provides for even subsidence of structure at various pressure of separate sections of foundations at soil by increasing stiffness of each section of base.
SUBSTANCE: method to reinforce soil, including formation of a well, installation of a flexible thin-walled shell in it, supply of a sealing substance into a gap between walls of the well and the shell, and development of a reinforcing action at the sealing substance, differing by the fact that for development of the reinforcing action, the thin-walled shell in the cross section is deformed into an oval shape, an additional gap is created along the small axis of the oval between walls of the well and the shell, the additional portion of the sealing substance is supplied into this gap, and the deformation wave is moved in the circumferential direction.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of soil reinforcing due to simultaneous reinforcement of soil and supply of a sealing substance.
13 cl, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes formation of a well, placement of a stretching tight shell in it and supply of sealing substance. The well is formed by driving a pipe with a plug at the end and a stretching tight shell on the outer surface into soil. The sealing substance is supplied into the specified shell via longitudinal slots made in the pipe. The device comprises a working organ and a facility of impact load application to it, comprising a pipe, where a rod is inserted as capable of longitudinal displacement in it and contact with the working element. The stretching tight shell is placed onto the pipe and fixed, and longitudinal slots are made underneath in the pipe. The working element is made in the form of a rod, forming a plug, with a cone-shaped tip at the end and inserted into the guide pipe as capable of limited longitudinal displacement in it. The rod comprises an accessory to prevent fallout from the pipe, and its cone-shaped tip protrudes from the pipe.
EFFECT: increased density of soil by introduction of a stretching tight shell into it, expansion of device capabilities for creation of a pile with a support in a base.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to recover a contact layer "foundation - soil base" includes the installation of injector pipes with injection holes, closed by a rubber collar and arranged in the gravel layer, in a pile foundation grill erected in winter time on bases, which are made of heaving soils for freezing and subsiding for thawing, after the arrangement of which during foundation soil thawing accompanied with subsiding processes, the contact layer "foundation - soil base" is recovered by the injection of cement mortar via the injector pipes into cavities of the gravel layer and cavities formed under the foundation with its subsequent hardening.
EFFECT: increased stability of foundations with a low grill, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity, increased manufacturability and quality of performed works.
SUBSTANCE: method for compacting bases formed by weak mineral soils includes making a well, filling a compacting material into the well, and creating the compacting impact by a hollow tubular working tool on the compacting material to form a compacting column. Preliminarily, engineering geological survey of the base soil is carried out, and the values of the strain modulus, the Poisson's ratio, the angle of internal friction, the specific cohesion, the specific gravity, the initial porosity coefficient of the weak mineral soil are determined. Then, the effective value of the strain modulus εi at expanding the compacting material in the well is calculated by the initial and specified porosity coefficient of the weak mineral soil according to the given dependence. Thereinafter the column spacing pitch is defined by the selection method in a range from one to three diameters of the columns, which gives the value of the design base deformation modulus, the necessary increase of the well radius in the process of indentation is calculated by the given dependencies. The well is made by means of indenting a tool in the base soil, filling the compacting material into the well is carried out through the working tool cavity, and the compacting impact for forming a compacting column is carried out by indenting the working tool into the compacting material. Additional engineering and geological survey are carried out on the site, the deformation modulus of the compacted soil between the columns, and the actual average deformation modulus of the base as a whole is calculated according to the given dependence. Then it is compared with the design one, and if the actual average base deformation modulus does not correspond to its design value, additional columns are installed between previously installed ones.
EFFECT: increasing soil compaction productivity, reducing material consumption and labour intensity.
FIELD: foundation building, particularly for all-purpose buildings and structures, electric power lines and outer service lines in continuous or discontinuous permafrost conditions on all types of thawed ground except water-saturated grounds, seasonally thawing and freezing ground with 3 - 9 m depth located above permafrost or rock underplaying ground.
SUBSTANCE: method involves ramming foundation pit in seasonally thawing and freezing ground layer with forming compacted area around foundation pit and under it; building foundation unit in foundation pit. Foundation pit ramming is performed in thawed ground before freezing thereof. Compacted area is formed as solidified ground column supported by permafrost or rock grounds. Foundation pit is rammed up to bulging ground out of pit in upward direction, which indicates that solidified ground column rests upon permafrost or rock ground. After that thawed ground ramming is stopped and foundation unit is built in foundation pit so that foundation unit is supported by solidified ground column.
EFFECT: increased reliability of foundation base, reduced power and labor inputs, improved load-bearing capacity of thawed ground, prevention of foundation settlement during ground thawing and heaving thereof during foundation base freezing.
10 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly building structures erected on ground subjected to heaving during ground freezing and subsidence during thawing thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves marking compaction points on ground surface and compacting ground. Compaction areas are located on foundation axes or parallel thereto so that the areas overlap one another. Compaction is performed by simultaneous well forming along with rolling out well wall. Material for changing heaving ground properties is placed into well and rolled into well wall. Then the well is filled with nonfrost-susceptible material along with following compacting thereof. Rolled out well depth is not less than depth of seasonal frost penetration in ground.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of foundation protection.
FIELD: building, particularly to construct pile foundation in territories with severe climatic conditions.
SUBSTANCE: pile foundation with grillage includes piles driven in seasonally frozen heaving soil, grillage to connect pile heads supported directly by heaving foundation soil. Pile heads have reinforcement rod projections extending for at least 150 mm and welded with anchoring rods located in grillage body. Summary area of extended reinforcement of one pile, maximal pile stretching force and actual value of pile foundation buckling are determined from given relations taking into consideration that maximal admissible relative buckling difference is to be more or equal to actual value.
EFFECT: reduced material consumption and labor inputs, increased reliability and enhanced pile foundation operation during building and building structure usage.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect buildings and building structures on permafrost ground, which may thaw during building or building structure usage.
SUBSTANCE: method involves digging-out pit; filling the pit with nonfrost-susceptible material; introducing reinforcing members in the nonfrost-susceptible material and mounting foundations. The reinforcing member is made as rigid reinforced concrete panel arranged in compacted nonfrost-susceptible material layer. Distance between foundation bottom and panel top is selected to provide uniform load transmission from the foundations to the panel. Upper panel surface is formed of heat-insulation material and sloped parts inclined from panel center to panel periphery are created. Panel rigidity is related with thawing permafrost ground deformation extent.
EFFECT: reduced building deformation caused by non-uniform deformation of thawing permafrost ground.
FIELD: foundations for special purposes, particularly foundation platforms connected to tanks.
SUBSTANCE: reinforced concrete beams or trusses are installed between reinforced concrete panels of upper and lower belts of three-dimensional platform. Reinforced concrete beams or trusses have inclined upper face and are connected one to another in center by monolithic rigid core. The reinforced concrete panels have trapezoid or segmented shape in plane. Reinforced concrete beams or trusses with key connections are located in parallel between reinforced concrete panels of upper and lower belts. Tank walls and coverings have arched structure shaped as prismatic polyhedron inscribed in cylindrical surface defined by square parabola or another curve with generatrices parallel to beams or trusses of three-dimensional foundation platform.
EFFECT: increased structural efficiency due to increased reliability of three-dimensional foundation platform, reduced metal consumption and labor inputs.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly foundation erection in heaving soil at negative temperatures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating pit; forming hole in ground; driving foundation body in hole and filling thereof with non-heaving soil. After hole creation heating element is located in designed foundation base area and is linked to power source through temperature regulator.
EFFECT: decreased costs and increased capacity of foundation erection.
FIELD: construction and operation of railroad overhead system to be erected in adverse subgrade conditions, namely in permafrost conditions and deep seasonal heaving ground freezing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming bored pile having lower widened part in ground in area of pole erection; connecting pile with overhead system pole at height of 0.6-0.8 m over ground surface with the use of platform horizontal welded joint through embedded members built in pile head and pole. Well-known discharge impulse technology is used for pile erection. Said discharge impulse technology provides pile anchoring in permafrost ground and increases pile resistant to ground heaving forces. Widened pile part provides decreased length of pile anchoring in permafrost ground.
EFFECT: increased conical reinforced concrete pole stability, decreased labor inputs and reduced pre-stressed reinforcement due to decreased length of pile anchoring in permafrost ground and reduced pile section within active heaving zone, as well as decreased material consumption and labor inputs for joint creation between foundation and pole.
FIELD: construction, particularly to protect building foundation against frost heaving in seasonally freezing ground.
SUBSTANCE: method for pile foundation protection against frost heaving force applied to foundation from surrounding ground side involves forming normal frost heaving force components acting on pile in direction opposite to tangent heaving force action by installing supporting-and-anchoring plate; securing the supporting-and-anchoring plate to pile body in area corresponding to seasonal ground freezing depth in foundation sitting place; drilling hole to supporting-and-anchoring plate location, wherein hole diameter is equal to transversal dimensions of supporting-and-anchoring plate. Supporting-and-anchoring plate has surface area of not less than 1/10 of side area of pile section having length equal to 2/3 of seasonally freezing depth.
EFFECT: simplified technology and increased efficiency and reliability of heaving protection along with decreased labor inputs and costs.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: construction, particularly methods for building foundation protection against frost heave in seasonally freezing ground.
SUBSTANCE: method involves controlling natural seasonal freezing of ground surrounding building foundation by artificial retarding of natural seasonal ground freezing through depth equal to that of seasonally frozen ground sitting and width equal to foundation width. Artificial retarding of natural seasonal ground freezing is initiated when mean daily temperature of ambient air becomes equal to negative value. Said artificial retarding is carried out simultaneously from all foundation sides through total seasonally freezing ground layer with speed less than natural seasonal freezing speed and equal to 0.5-1 cm/day. Said freezing speed is kept up to natural freezing of ground through all sitting depth.
EFFECT: simplified technology of heaving protection, increased capacity, decreased labor inputs and costs, increased efficiency and reliability.
5 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: construction, particularly foundations for all buildings or building structure types in permafrost ground with ground base conservation in permafrost condition during total building or building structure usage time.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling hole in permafrost ground with loosened ground removal from well; filling the hole with previously removed ground along with metal pile installation in hole; leaving the pile in unloaded state up to pile adhering by freezing with surrounding permafrost ground. Metal pile is made as shaft with expanded lower part to be inserted in hole. Lower pile part consists of horizontal support member fixedly connected to power pile shaft end. The horizontal support member is metal sheet and metal vertical stiffening ribs fixedly secured to upper surface of the support member and to shaft and extending in radial direction therefrom. Crushed stone, gravel or sand layer is placed on hole bottom before pile installation in hole. Said layer is compacted by dropping pile from height enough for said material compaction with expanded pile part or by pile insertion in hole and vertical load application thereto, wherein the load is enough for material compaction by expanded pile part. After that metal pile is installed in well and space between pile and hole wall is filled with several layers of thawed or frozen ground removed from hole. Frozen ground layers are thawed inside hole with the use of steam jets or other heaters. After each layer laying thawed ground between pile shaft and hole wall is compacted with ramming. After upper ground layer compaction pile is left in unloaded state up to pile freezing into surrounding ground.
EFFECT: increased quality and decreased time of pile foundation construction in permafrost ground, decreased constructional costs.
9 cl, 4 dwg