The method of obtaining zheleznorudnogo pigment and installation for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The inventive reactor EDM dispersion 1 load the granules of metallic iron, iron shavings or pieces of non-alloy steel, filled with water, but the electrodes serves pulse voltage from source 2. The products of erosion is sent to the hydrocyclone 3 for separating suspension of dispersed particles of iron from redispersion. The loss of iron in reatore 1 fill from the spout 5. Iron-containing suspension is filtered on the filter 6, the filtrate is directed to the collection of filtrate 8, add water, and fed into the reactor EDM dispersion 1. Iron pasta with filter 6 serves in the reactor oxidant 7, add water or filtrate. The suspension contains a solid phase in an amount of 10 to 20 wt. Pass carbon dioxide with stirring 6 24 hours then air or oxygen 1 24 hours of the Oxidized slurry is filtered at the filter 9. The filtrate in the collection of 10, add water and sent to the reactor oxidant 7. Sediment thermoablative in the furnace 11 and crushed in the mill 12. Completely no harmful effluents and emissions into the atmosphere. The pigment has the following molar specifications: mass fraction of VC connections the g/m2the pH of the aqueous slurry 7, the oil absorption of 30 g/100 g pigment dispersibility 28 μm, the residue, insoluble in HCl less than 0.1 wt. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 1 Il. table 1. The invention relates to the chemical industry, in particular the production of pigments.Closest to the claimed method is a method of obtaining micaceous iron pigment, which is that in a reactor filled with a solution of iron salts, in particular, sulphate of iron, immersed metallic iron in the form of chips or flakes, and through the reactor is purged with an oxidizing agent, in particular air, resulting in a partially digidrirovanny hydroxide of iron III, i.e., contains some basic salt, which is filtered, and the filtrate is returned to the cycle 
The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of washing the precipitate from soluble salts when used in the form of a 'green' product, which leads to the formation of wastewater, and to obtain calcined pigment from lepromatosa precipitate is formed a large amount of harmful gas emissions, which not only pollute the environment and require cleaning, but also increase the demands on the corrosion resistance of ventilation with what about the pigment, includes a reactor-oxidant iron-containing component with means for entering liquid and air, a filter device for conveying filtrate in the reactor, the oxidizing agent and furnace for the heat treatment sludge  the Disadvantages of the known method and the known installation.The invention solves the problem of elimination of harmful effluents and emissions.This is achieved by the fact that, as the iron-containing component used metal iron, subjected to electrical discharge to the dispersion, followed by processing the resulting suspension with carbon dioxide, as well as the fact that in the known installation also includes means for feeding CO2in the reactor-oxidant, reactor electrical discharge dispersion (RED) with electrodes and means for entering liquid phase, the dispenser for supplying metallic iron in RED, a source of pulse voltage to power the RED, hydrocyclone for separating dispersed and made of large particles of iron, proceedings of the suspension with a stirrer, a filter for separating dispersed particles of iron from the leachate collection leachate with a device for feeding water, a pump for supplying the working fluid (filtrate) in RED, and sborne is SS="ptx2">The appointment of additional circuit elements in the first stage electrical discharge dispersion is the provision of carrying out the oxidation reaction of iron hydroxide to Fe (III) in mild conditions without using substances that may cause environmental pollution. Note that in the cycles of the filtrate is drawn almost pure water, which allows in case of repairs to drain the working fluid without the use of treatment facilities, which is impossible in the method prototype.The drawing shows a diagram of the installation for micaceous iron pigment.The installation includes: reactor 1 EDM dispersion, source 2 pulsed voltage, the hydrocyclone 3 collection 4 suspension with a stirrer dispenser iron 5, the filter 6 suspensions of iron-containing component, the reactor oxidant 7 with a stirrer, a collection of filtrate 8 after primary filtration, the filter 9 suspension of intermediate, collection of leachate 10 after filtering the intermediate product, progulochnuju furnace 11, the mill 12.The device operates as follows.To download RED metallic iron in the form of granules, chips or other form of pieces Nele what about the leads to the spark erosion of the metal. The products of erosion are carried by the flow of water from the RED and through the hydrocyclone 3, where the separated large particles of iron, are sent to the collector of the suspension with mixing device 4. The loss of metal in RED 4 is filled from the dispenser 5. This is followed by filtering the resulting suspension of iron-containing component on the filter 6. Filtered iron-containing paste is diluted in the reactor-oxidant 7.The filtrate (water) filter 6 is directed to the collection of filtrate 8, wherein the fill water loss, gone with the sediment and direct to the stage of dispersion. In the reactor-oxidant 7 receive a suspension with a solids content of 10-20% Through the suspension with stirring miss carbon dioxide within 6-24 h, and then the flow of carbon dioxide ceased and leak air or oxygen within 1-24 hours Of reactor-oxidant 7, the suspension is sent to the filter 9. The filtrate through a collection of 10 where replenish the loss of water gone with the sediment, direct to the stage of oxidation.The precipitate from the filter 9 calcined in a furnace 11 and grind in the mill 12.Since the reaction involves the dispersed particles of Fe and FeO may use as habitat (acidifying) substance carbon dioxide, in the Ktsia to the end, should the presence of an acid residues stronger acids, such as sulfuric or hydrochloric.The resulting product is a micaceous iron pigment, the characteristics of which are given in the table.The table shows that the obtained pigment none of the indicators is not inferior to the requirements of THE 6-10-602-74.The time of transmission of carbon dioxide and air determines the color of the obtained pigment dark brown with 6-time transmission of carbon dioxide and low time transmission of air and to red or 24-hour flue gases.Thus, the invention allows to completely eliminate harmful discharges and emissions, as well as to obtain a pigment, which correspond to modern requirements. 1. The method of obtaining micaceous iron pigment, comprising the oxidation of iron containing suspension with oxygen, the Department obtained precipitate from the filtrate, the last one on the oxidation of suspension and heat treatment of the filter cake, wherein the iron-containing slurry is prepared by electrical discharge dispersion of metallic iron and before oxidation through the resulting suspension is passed placode reactor-oxidant iron containing suspension with devices to enter the liquid phase and air, a filter device for conveying filtrate in the reactor, the oxidizing agent and furnace for the heat treatment of sludge, characterized in that the reactor-oxidant alternatively provided with a device for supplying carbon dioxide gas, and the installation further includes a reactor EDM dispersion, a dispenser for feeding metallic iron in the specified reactor, a source of pulse voltage for the power supply electrodes of the specified reactor, a cyclone for separating suspensions dispersed particles of iron and redispersion particles, proceedings of the suspension of dispersed particles of iron with a stirrer, a filter for separating dispersed particles of iron from the filtrate, the collection of filtrate, pump filtrate into the reactor EDM dispersion, as well as the collection of filtrate, mounted in front of the feeder of the filtrate in the reactor-oxidant.
FIELD: production of powders by electric explosion of wire.
SUBSTANCE: installation includes reactor for electric explosion of wire with high-voltage and low-voltage electrodes that are connected to pulse current sources; mechanism for feeding wire to reactor; gas and powder circulation system; unit for separating gas and accumulating powder. According to invention gas and powder circulation system is in the form of tubular gas discharging pipes communicated by their one ends with reactor in front of inter-electrode gap and by their other ends - with unit for separating gas and accumulating powder. Said unit is in the form of successively connected through branch pipes expanders. Each expander is provided with powder accumulator at providing relation Si/Si+1 ≥ 1.43 where i = 1, 2…, Si - total surface area of effective cross section of tubular gas discharging pipes; S2, S3 - surface area of connection branch pipes.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of product due to lowered agglomeration of powder.
2 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: production of nanodispersed powders of refractory inorganic materials and compounds, in particular, installations and methods for realization of plasmochemical processes of production of nanodispersed powder products.
SUBSTANCE: the installation comprises production-linked: microwave oscillator 1, microwave plasmatron 2, gas-flow former 3, discharge chamber 4, microwave radiation absorber 5, reaction chamber 6, heat-exchanger 7, filter-collector of target product (powder) 8, device for injection of the source reagents in a powdered or vapors state into the reaction chamber, the installation has in addition a device for injection of the source reagents in the liquid-drop state, it has interconnected proportioner 9 in the form of cylinder 10, piston 11 with gear-screwed electric drive mechanism 12 adjusting the speed of motion of piston 1, evaporative chamber 13 with a temperature-controlled body for regulating the temperature inside the chamber that is coupled to the assembly of injection of reagents 14 in the vaporous state and to the assembly of injection of reagents 15 in the liquid-drop state, injection assembly 14 is made with 6 to 12 holes opening in the space of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45 to 60 deg to the axis of the chamber consisting at least of two sections, the first of which is connected by upper flange 16 to the assemblies of injection of reagents, to discharge chamber 4, plasmatron 2, with valve 17 installed between it and microwave oscillator 1, and by lower flange 18, through the subsequent sections, it is connected to heat exchanger 7, the reaction chamber has inner water-cooled insert 20 rotated by electric motor 19 and metal scraper 21 located along it for cutting the precipitations of powder of the target product formed on the walls of the reaction chamber, and heat exchanger 7 is made two water-cooled coaxial cylinders 22 and 23, whose axes are perpendicular to the axis of the reaction chamber and installed with a clearance for passage of the cooled flow, and knife 24 located in the clearance, rotating about the axis of the cylinders and cleaning the working surfaces of the cylinders of the overgrowing with powder, powder filter-collector 8 having inside it filtering hose 25 of chemically and thermally stable material, on which precipitation of powder of the target product from the gas flow takes place, in the upper part it is connected by flange 26 to the heat exchanger, and in the lower part the filter is provided it device 27 for periodic cleaning of the material by its deformation, and device 28 with valve 29 for sealing the inner space of the filter. The method for production of nanodispersed powders in microwave plasma with the use of the claimed installation consists in injection of the source reagents in the flow of plasma-forming gas of the reaction chamber, plasmochemical synthesis of reagents, cooling of the target product and its separation from the reaction chamber through the filter-collector, the source reagents are injected into the flow of plasma-forming gas, having a medium-mass temperature of 1200 to 3200 K in any state of aggregation: vaporous, powdered, liquid-drop or in any combination of them, reagents in the powdered state are injected in the form of aerosol with the gas-carrier into the reaction chamber through injection assembly 35 with a hole opening into the space of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45 to 60 deg to the chamber axis, reagents in the liquid-drop or vaporous state are injected into the reaction chamber through injection assemblies 15 or 14, respectively, in the form of ring-shaped headers, the last of which is made with 6 to 12 holes opening into the space of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45 to 60 deg to the chamber axis, each of them is blown off by the accompanying gas flow through the coaxial ducts around the holes, at expenditure of the source reagents, plasma-forming gas, specific power of microwave radiation, length of the reaction zone providing for production of a composite system and individual substances with preset properties, chemical, phase composition and dispersity.
EFFECT: universality of the industrial installation, enhanced capacity of it and enhanced duration of continuous operation, as well as enhanced yield of nanodispersed powders and expanded production potentialities of the method.
20 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely apparatuses for producing powders of electrically conducting materials.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes dielectric vessel with opening in lower portion for supplying working liquid in it, additional bottom of dielectric material made of mutually parallel rods or prisms, plate-type electrodes connected with electric pulse generator. In order to decrease breakdown voltage of inter-electrode gap apparatus includes three plate electrodes connected in parallel with electric pulse generator and movable dielectric blinds covering electrodes for controlling electric current density. Mean electrode serves as cathode; boundary electrodes serve as consumable anodes.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency, lowered specific energy consumption, improved stability of process.
3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely process for producing sub-micron and nanometer size aluminum powder by plasma evaporation.
SUBSTANCE: plasma-arc reactor for producing powder of solid material such as wire includes first electrode and second electrode that may be spaced from first electrode by distance sufficient for plasma arc occurring in space between first and second electrodes. First electrode has duct passing through it; outlet opening of said duct is open to space between first and second electrodes. Reactor includes unit for feeding solid material such as wire through said duct into space between electrodes. If it is necessary to produce passivated aluminum powder, in reactor aluminum wire is fed to inert-gas plasma where aluminum evaporates. Evaporated aluminum is cooled by inert gas for condensing aluminum powder and oxidizing surface of aluminum powder particles with passivating gas.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency, possibility for producing fine powders of highly constant size and small cohesion forces of particles.
46 cl, 8 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely processes for producing metallic and oxide nano-particles.
SUBSTANCE: process comprises steps of placing electrodes in chamber with dielectric liquid; realizing pulse electric discharge between them for generating electric arc; measuring spacing between electrodes for fixing its value; creating flow-through motion of dielectric liquid in chamber; measuring temperature of dielectric liquid at inlet and at outlet of chamber; providing preset temperature range of dielectric liquid at inlet and at outlet of chamber due to changing flow rate of said liquid passing through chamber. Temperature difference of dielectric liquid at inlet and outlet of chamber is no more than 7°C. Invention provides increased quantity of nano-particles with fraction size 5 -50 nm.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of nano-particles.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: metallurgy, namely systems for producing metal powders.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes housing in the form of working chamber with controlled temperature of certain portion of its wall; unit for creating gaseous medium in volume of working chamber; electric power source; at least two electrodes; unit for continuous supply of dispersed metal. Apparatus includes in addition drive unit for rotating in horizontal plane. Said unit is provided with control circuit and electric power supply system. Working chamber is in the form of built-up sleeve having outer and inner members. Inclination angle (from outside) of wall of outer member is in range 16 - 135° relative to rotation plane. Built-up sleeve is fastened by means of bottom portion of outer member with cooled shaft of drive unit for rotating in horizontal plane. Outer metallic member of built-up sleeve has turning for passing cooling agent. Inner member of built-up sleeve is made of high-temperature ceramic material and it has chamfer formed along upper edge of sleeve. Said chamfer is inclined by angle 2 - 68° relative to rotation plane of sleeve.
EFFECT: automatic sizing of discrete particles of fibers, stable production process.
6 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: processes for preparing finely and ultra-dispersed powders of metals and alloys.
SUBSTANCE: process comprises steps of electric erosion dispersing metals in working liquid; using as working liquid low electrically conducting electrolytes containing alloying components in the form of solutions of their compounds.
EFFECT: simplified manufacturing process, improved ecological condition of said process, lowered power consumption.
2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: inorganic protective coatings.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides preparation of chemically homogeneous powder suitable for thermal spraying. Zirconium dioxide is first subjected to electric fusion using up to 60% by weight of oxide appropriate to stabilize zirconium dioxide in tetragonal phase followed by sharp cooling of thus obtained stabilized zirconium dioxide and heat treatment to form mainly spherical hollow particles of stabilized zirconium dioxide 200 μm or less in size. Powder suitable for applying thermal barrier-forming coating onto a substrate contains morphologically and chemically uniform stabilized zirconium dioxide including spheroidized hollow particles.
EFFECT: optimized preparation process.
7 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, in particular, to production of powder materials with particle sizes below 0.2 mcm used in manufacturing cermet and composite materials, as well as those intended for use as fuel for thermite and pyro compositions. An aluminum wire is exploded in a gaseous chemically inert atmosphere. The aluminum powder thus produced is wetted with a solution of boric acid in ethanol with a 0,5 mole/l concentration, the powder being separated from solution in no less than an hour after wetting.
EFFECT: increase in thermal stability of aluminum powder to 580 °C.
2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to plasma technology, and specifically to methods of obtaining metal powder. The method involves igniting a discharge between two electrodes, one of which is an anode, made from the spray material, with diameter of 10-40 mm. The cathode is in form of an electrolyte. The process is carried out under the following parameters: voltage between electrodes - 800 - 1600 V, discharge current - 750-1500 mA, distance between the anode and the electrolyte - 2-10 mm. According to the alternative method, the spray material is the anode, and the cathode is the electrolyte. The process takes place under the following parameters: voltage between electrodes - 500-650 V, discharge current - 1.5-3 A, distance between the cathode and electrolyte - 2-10 mm. The technical outcome is the increased efficiency of obtaining metal powder.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of obtaining metal powder.
2 cl, 8 dwg