(57) Abstract:Usage: in laser technology, in the optical path of the laser processing units. The inventive mirror includes a substrate with an optical surface and a base with a through channels located between the rear and the reflecting surfaces of the mirror. From the back side of the Foundation made channels to the intersection with through channels located between the rear and the optical surfaces. The ratio of the number of through channels to the number of channels on the backside of the basis chosen is 0.5, and the ratio of their diameters in the range of 1 to 3. The diameter of the through channels selected from a ratio of 0.3 to 0.6 of the height of the mirror H and the number selected from (1 to 2.5) D /H where D is the diameter or the diagonal mirror, H the height of the mirror. The surface of the through-channels can be made developed. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to laser technology and can be used in measuring equipment, astronomical instruments, solar concentrators, in the optical path of the laser processing units.Known optical mirror  is a monolithic block with reflective working and tyleno with them cylindrical cavities of different shapes, in which the distance Z between the axes of the cavities due to their diameter ratio
The disadvantage of this mirror is considerable porosity of the monolithic mirror and the presence of closed volumes, which consequently reduces the rigidity of the mirror and creates uneven heating it under load in the thickness and diameter of the mirror, resulting in a loss of geometric stability of the mirror.Closest to the proposed technical solution is lightweight optical mirror  contains end-to-end internal cavity located between the rear and the reflecting surfaces, the axes of which are connected with each other at the intersection.A disadvantage of the known mirror is the large porosity of the basics that impedes heat transfer from the warmer upper part of the basis to the less heated rear side of the base, creating a significant temperature drop across the thickness of the base, leading to large bending stresses mirrors, reducing its efficiency.The objective of the invention increase the geometric stability and health of a mirror with forced air cooling.Tasked with resetselection mirrors, as well as lowering the average temperature of the mirror.This is achieved by the fact that in the known mirror containing a base with a through channels located between the rear and reflective surfaces on the back side of the Foundation made channels to the intersection with through channels, the ratio of the number of through channels to the channels on the backside of the basis chosen is 0.5, and the ratio of their diameters, respectively, in the range of 1-3, with part of the surface through channels adjacent to the rear side of the base, made of insulating screens, and the outer side of the mirror is thermally insulated. The diameter of the through channels selected from a ratio of 0.3 to 0.6 of the height of the mirror N, and the number of through channels selected from (1-2,5).D/H where D is the diameter or the diagonal mirror; H the height of the mirror. On part of the surface through channels adjacent to the working surface mirrors made grooves trapezoidal, triangular or rectangular shape.The invention consists in that the mirror system of ducts for forced air cooling or efficient use of natural convection for cooling internal cavities and heat distribution within the grain is Ginnie voltage, because teploizolyatsii the lower part of the base with one hand insulating screens mounted on the side surface of the through channels, and on the other hand the insulation located on the outer side of the mirror, and the upper part of the base, adjacent to the optical surface, intensively cooled by the entry of air through the channels and the channels located on the rear side of the base. To minimize the influence of the porosity of the framework in the form of through-channels, it is suggested to run the system through the cooling channels mainly in the field neutral plane of the mirror, in this implementation porosity influence on the rigidity of the mirror is at a minimum and this will lead to a minimal increase in Flexural components of stress and displacement, and at the same time, thermal barriers are arranged on the side surface of the through channels adjacent to the rear side of the base, to reduce heat transfer into the environment from the rear surface of the mirror, and embossing is performed on part of the surface through the cooling channels adjacent to the working surface of the mirror, increase heat dissipation from the top of the mirror, as if to force the heat transfer on the surface of the channels, adjacent to the reflective surface, when the force of the air flow in the channels can be increased about 10 times. In addition, the heat exchange surface of the upper part of the basis increases due to the introduction of riffles in the form of grooves on the surface of the channels, which, in addition, create an additional turbulization of air. In the complex all this improves the redistribution of heat in the mirror, the reduction of the average temperature, reducing the temperature difference, and thus reducing the bending component of the stresses and displacements of the optical surface in comparison with the prototype, i.e., increases the geometric stability of the mirror.The ratio of the number of channels 0.5 and their diameters in the range of 1-3 selected from conditions ensure effective cooling of the upper part of the basics of air, by increasing the heat transfer coefficient while maintaining sufficient rigidity of the mirror.The diameter of the through channels selected in the range of 0.3 to 0.6 of the height of the mirror, and the number of relationship (1-2,5) D/H of conditions maximize heat removal from the upper part of the base, adjacent to the optical surface, and heat transfer through the substrate from the upper part to the lower back when Tanami, the surface-mounted through-channels, and the insulation on the outside of the mirror.The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows a base 1, a substrate with an optical surface 2, the through channels 3 with grooves trapezoidal, rectangular or triangular form 4, channel 5 from the back side of the mirror, insulating screens 6, the insulation 7.The device operates as follows.The base 1 is heated by rays absorbed by the optical surface 2. Part of the heat is transferred to the bottom of the base, and a part of the heat removed from the outer surfaces of the mirrors and from the surfaces of the channels.Heat transfer by convection is enhanced by increasing the heat exchange surface due to implemented on the channel grooves 4 different shapes, such as rectangular, but also because of the turbulence of the air in the channels.The amount of heat penetrating from the heated parts of the stem adjacent to the optical surface to the rear is limited by the insulating screens 6. The air entering through the channels 5, with the back side of the Foundation increases the local heat transfer coefficient and thereby helps to equalize the temperature of the upper>A specific example is the number of mirrors with a diameter of 260-500 mm Material mirrors copper, molybdenum, height mirrors 100-150 mmFor example, in the mirror of diameter 350 mm, height 120 mm in the basis of the executed 4 through overlapping holes with a diameter of 60 mm and at the rear side of the framework 4 holes with a diameter of 60 mm to the intersection with the hole. On the surface of the through holes are ring groove depth of 1-3 mm, width 3 mm, pitch 10 mm On a side surface of the through channels glued to the screens of steel 12 18CR10NITI thickness of 0.5-1 mm with insulation absorbing coating. On the back of the bases attached heat insulating screen of 12CR18NI10TI steel thickness of 1 mm with the insulating coating.On the rear side of the base, around the holes formed mounting holes to attach the hose system for the forced cooling of mirrors air.Thus, the proposed design mirrors with forced air cooling provides efficient heat removal from the heated part of the framework, the transfer of heat to the rear of the base, which helps to equalize the temperature across the thickness of the mirror and reduced average temperature without reducing Indorama substrate with an optical surface and a base with a through channel, located between the rear and the reflecting surfaces, characterized in that the back side of the Foundation made channels to the intersection with through channels, the ratio of the number of through channels to the channels on the backside of the basis chosen is 0.5, and the ratio of their diameters, respectively, in the range of 1 to 3, with part of the surface through channels adjacent to the rear side of the base, made of insulating screens, and the outer side of the mirror is thermally insulated.2. Mirror under item 1, characterized in that the diameter of the through channels selected from a ratio of 0.3 to 0.6 of the height of the mirror.3. The mirror on the PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the number of channels selected from (1 to 2.5) D / H where D is the diameter or the diagonal mirror, H is the height of the mirror.4. The mirror on the PP. 1 to 3, characterized in that part of the surface through channels adjacent to the working surface mirrors made grooves of trapezoidal, triangular or rectangular shape.
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: at least two dielectric layers are produced with preset thickness. Layers are disposed one onto the other to form pack of layers. Thickness of layer packs is subject to reduction and thicknesses of separate layers are similarly reduced by means of deforming layer packs to keep relation of thicknesses or relation of thicknesses of layers. Layer pack is disposed between two carrying layers before subjecting the layers to deformation. At least one carrying layer is formed from several separate layers, which are supposed to be disposed subsequently at the end of process of partial deformation at any previous layer of carrying layer. Separate layers of carrying layer can be overlayed onto previous separate layers of carrying layer.
EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; improved reflection factor.
FIELD: mirror systems of observation.
SUBSTANCE: coordinates of point of driver's eye and reference point at object to be observed in the driver mirror are measured by rule as well as reference point at mirror of transportation vehicle. Angles of inclination of mirror to coordinate planes are found from relations mentioned in formula of invention. Inclination of driving mirror to coordinate planes is determined. Random point at object of observation is preset and its coordinates are measured by means of measuring tape. Coordinates of point in mirror are calculated where the light beam reflects from the mirror and enters driver's eye. Procedure repeats many times for many random points at object of observation and coordinates of corresponding points of reflection at plane of mirror are found. Shape and sizes of mirror are determined by end points of reflection.
EFFECT: simplified determining of shape and sizes of mirror; improved precision of orientation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: optical instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for wide-band light reflecting. Reflecting surface has dielectric layers A, B and C. A layer is made of material having low refractivity, B layer is made of material with average refractivity and C layer is made of material having high reflectivity. Optical thickness of layers equals to λr/4, where λr is wavelength of middle part of interval having high refractivity. Sequence of layer alternation looks like (CDCABA)KCBC, where K>=and has to be integer. Spectrum range with high reflectivity is widened due to shift in adjacent bandwidths at opposite sides along wavelength scale.
EFFECT: widened spectrum range with higher refractivity.
FIELD: optical industry.
SUBSTANCE: mirror can be used when producing optical reflecting systems in lasers and experimental physics. Mirror has transparent dielectric base. Metal coating is applied onto the base. Coating has to nanoparticles, for example, silver nanoparticles, which have plasma resonance at electromagnet radiation frequency. The mirror intends to reflect the radiation. Linear dimensions are far smaller than the radiation wavelength. Nanoparticles are applied uniformly onto surface of the base to cover 15% of its area. Thickness of mirror is reduced to minimal size; size of spot of reflected radiation in focus is reduced.
EFFECT: reduced thickness of mirror; improved precision.
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: integral micromechanical mirror has substrate to place four electrodes onto it. Four additional electrodes of capacitive movement converters are disposed onto the substrate in such a manner to form flat capacitor with mirror element. One additional fixing plate is disposed under mirror element directly onto substrate. There are torsion beams placed in such a way that they connect mirror element with fixing plate. Mirror element, torsion beams, electrodes of electrostatic drives and capacitive converters as well as fixing plate are made of semiconductor material. Area of substrate used for placing integral mirror is reduced. Position of mirror element is subject to control relatively the substrate.
EFFECT: improved reliability of operation.
FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.
EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical observation devices for use on automobiles and other vehicles. proposed system of mirrors contains rear view mirror 7, outer side mirrors 8, 9 and inner side mirror 5, 6, additional mirrors 10, 11, 12 and front mirror 4. Front mirror 4 and inner side mirrors 5, 6 are arranged in driver's field of vision. Front mirror 4 consists of separate adjustable parts 4а, 4б, 4в and it reflects panorama of spaces behind and at both sides from driver from rear view mirror 7 and outer side mirrors 8, 9. Inner side mirrors 5, 6 reflect directly parts of spaces arranged at both sides from driver which are not seen in outer side mirrors 8, 9.
EFFECT: provision of safety on the road owing to panoramic reflection of rear and side spaces around vehicle.
5 cl, 25 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical devices of automobiles, particularly, to front view mirrors. Front view device for automobiles with steering wheel at right side contains two mirrors installed inside automobile at angle relative to each other with possibility of providing periscopic effect and reflecting front part of road. Like sizes of mirrors and distance between mirrors and between mirrors and driver are in following relationship: B1:B2=(L1+L2):L2 where B1, B2 are like sizes of reflecting surfaces of first and second mirrors, respectively; L1, L2 are distances from first mirror to second mirror and from second mirror to driver, respectively.
EFFECT: improved quality of picture and reliability of front view device.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the group of inventions refer to laser technique and may be used in mirror elements of laser resonators and in arrangements for transmission of laser radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the laser mirror has two identical, not communicating between themselves, symmetrical priming contours of heat-carrying agents located between the front plate on whose exterior side a reflective surface is fulfilled, and the rear plate on both sides of the diagram located in the symmetry plane of the arrangement. Each of the priming contour of the heat-carrying agents is fulfilled in the shape of in-series located, beginning from the diagram, a driving collector, a draining collector, a heat exchanger whose exterior surface adjoins to the inner surface of the corresponding plate. The cavity of the driving collector is connected via channels passing through the draining collector with the heat-exchanger which is connected with the cavity of the draining collector. In the second variant of the arrangement the reflective surfaces of the laser mirror are fulfilled on the exterior sides of the front and the rear plates. The heat exchangers are fulfilled in the shape of identical infiltration elements of the same sizes and forms correspondingly to the front and the rear plates.
EFFECT: reduces thermal distortions of the reflective surface and also increases the service term of the laser mirror.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: controlled optics.
SUBSTANCE: semi-passive bimorph flexible multiplayer mirror can be used as corrector in adaptive systems for dynamic controlling of radiation wave front. Deformed controlled bimorph semi-passive mirror has passive substrate and at least two layers of control electrodes provided with piezo-ceramic discs, which discs are separated by "ground electrodes". Shape and disposition of electrodes of all layers are specified independently to compensate specific type of aberration.
EFFECT: improved sensitivity; reduced sizes; reduced applied voltages.