The reactor purification of waste gases
(57) Abstract:The inventive reactor comprises a cylindrical chamber with a defined axis by a source of ultraviolet radiation and coaxial helical her catalytically active element profile loop, at least one of the parties which satisfies the equation describing the multitude of lines ravnovesnykh linear source connected to the power source and serving as a source of infrared radiation. The reactor eliminates the possibility of local overheating of the catalytically active element under the action of radiation and the exothermic effect of the reaction of oxidation of toxic impurities and advanced technological capabilities due to the possibility of oxidation of both gas and dust toxic impurities. 17 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il. The invention relates to techniques for thermal cleaning of waste gases from toxic impurities and can be used in industrial ecology in detoxification of exhaust air and in the food industry for drying of food products and flue gases.Known reactor purification of waste gases containing a cylindrical chamber with a catalytically active element is nogo radiation.The disadvantages of this device is the inability to oxidation of pulverized toxic substances, poor surface of the catalytically active element and due to the exothermic effect of the reaction of oxidation of toxic substances because of their uneven activation under non-uniform illumination, which leads to the formation of zones of local overheating and failure of the catalyst.The proposed reactor purification of waste gases containing a cylindrical chamber with a catalytically active element and a source of infrared radiation, provided along the chamber axis a source of ultraviolet radiation, and the catalytically active element is made helicoid with increasing towards the periphery of the thickness of the coil body, at least one of the sides of the profile which is made on a line satisfying the equation in elliptic coordinates with the center of coordinates on the axis camera
y(1-x2)y-x2+ _ y +
+ (y2-1)y2-x2+ 4a 0 where x and y coordinates,
and set the constant that determines the working conditions of the catalyst, m2made from a conductive material, is connected to the current source and the source of infrared radiation.This design is radiation, to develop the surface of the catalytically active element and to provide uniform heating of the catalytically active element due to the uniform Energobud from the current source, a uniform illumination of its surface by a source of ultraviolet radiation and uniform on the surface of the exothermic effect of the reaction of oxidation of toxic substances through the same probability of their activation, infrared and ultraviolet radiation and the same probability of oxidation with the same speed at any point on the surface of catalytically active element due to its shape.In a preferred embodiment, the source of infrared radiation is adjacent to the inner surface of the chamber.This reduces the consumption of the device by eliminating dead zones.In another preferred embodiment, the coils of the source of infrared radiation is made adjacent to the source of ultraviolet radiation.This prevents the formation of axial gas flow, in which toxic substances do not come into contact with a catalyst that improves the quality of gas purification.The surface is far from the camera axis to the edge of the coil it is advisable to perform with igodit to a sharp decline in the efficiency of the use of ultravio - violet radiation due to the fall of light catalytically active element.The angle of inclination of the surface coil in the middle to the axis of the camera the edge it is advisable to choose in the range of 5-85about.The change of this angle to the lower side similar to the above leads to lower efficiency of UV radiation and increase the diameter of the camera, and the increase above the maximum value leads to a sharp increase in the hydraulic resistance of the camera and increase the intensity of the process.To simplify manufacturing techniques catalytically active element can increase the thickness of the coil in one direction.You can run round symmetrical relative to the centerline, perpendicular to the camera axis.It aligns conditions oxidation of toxic components on the illuminated surfaces of revolution.In another preferred embodiment, the step of the helix is equal to the maximum thickness of the coils.This minimizes the consumption of the device, increasing the specific surface area of catalyst per unit length of the chamber, and increases the efficiency of the use of ultraviolet radiation.You can supply the reactor at least one additional catalytically active elementele and aligned.This allows you to turboservice gas flow intensifitsirovan it mass transfer and increasing the quality of cleaning.Possible installation of a catalytically active element in a removable cassette. This reduces the consumption of repairs in case of poisoning of the catalyst.You can perform the catalytically active elements mesh, perforated or porous.This increases the specific surface of the catalyst and improves the quality of purification of the gas stream through the turbulence with the possibility of passage of the flow channel of the helix or through it.You can perform a helix with decreasing towards the outlet from the chamber step. This improves the efficiency of purification of the gas stream due to its turbulence by increasing the speed of expiration, especially when the catalytically active elements mesh, perforated or porous.You can also supply the reactor at least one removable flat catalyst cassette made of a mesh, a perforated or porous installed for helical catalytically active elements and fully overlapping section of the camera. This allows the x2">Advisable to install a flat catalyst cassettes angle 5-85aboutto the axis of the camera that allows you to achieve maximum turbulence in the gas flow on a flat catalyst cassettes without significantly increasing the length of the chamber and to improve the quality of purification of the gas stream.You can run flat catalyst cartridge of the catalytically active material with a conductive filler, which is connected with the power source and serving as a source of infrared radiation.This increases the efficiency of gas purification.Another preferred option is provided for supplying the reactor with a source of ultrasound, coupled with at least one catalytically active element. This increases the service life of the catalyst due to the oxidation of adsorbed toxic substances in the weight of the catalyst.The last option execution provided by the supply of reactor sources of ultraviolet radiation, combined in a removable cassette installed before or after the flat catalyst cartridge, preferably parallel to it. This improves the quality of gas purification.In Fig.1 depicts a reactor, a longitudinal section; Fig.2 a fragment of the helix, with symmetrical coil of Fig.4 reactor with three helical catalytically active elements with opposite direction of winding, longitudinal section; Fig.5 is the same, with a porous helical catalytically active elements, additional flat catalyst cassettes made of mesh, and additional sources of ultraviolet radiation.The reactor purification of waste gases comprises a cylindrical chamber 1 with helical catalytically active element 2, one (Fig.2) or two (Fig.3) side of the profile which is made on a line satisfying the equation, made of conductive material, connected to the current source 3 and serving as a source of infrared radiation, and located along the axis of the camera 1 channel 4 ultraviolet radiation.When running the reactor with multiple helical catalytically active elements 2 (Fig.4, 5) direction of winding of the adjacent elements 2 do the opposite.The coils of the element 2 is made (Fig.2, 3) adjacent to the inner surface of the chamber 1 and to the source 4 of ultraviolet radiation, and the surface on the far axis region is inclined to the axis and 5-85about. Step P of the helix is equal to the maximum thickness S turn.The catalytically active elements 2 are installed (Fig.5) in removable cassettes 5 and made porous with decreasing the output from the camera 1 step. In the reactor (Fig. 5) is fitted with removable mesh catalyst flat cassette 6, a fully overlapping section of the camera 1 and inclined to its axis at an angle in the range of 5-85aboutmade of a catalytically active material with a conductive filler and employees additional sources of infrared radiation, before and after which parallel them installed additional sources 7 ultraviolet radiation, combined in a removable cassette 8. The catalytically active elements 2 and 6 are connected to a source 9 of ultrasound and the current source 3.The reactor operates as follows.The gas stream containing the toxic impurities, enters the chamber 1 and is moved by it in the screw channel of the catalytically active elements 2. The activating radiation of the infrared spectrum emitted by the elements 2 by passing the current from source 3, activates the gas phase toxic impurities, oxidized on the surface of the element 2 and the ultraviolet light is Otok. The radiation source 4 and the exothermic effect of the reaction of oxidation of toxic impurities do not cause local overheating of the catalytically active elements 2 due to their uniform light source 4 and equal to the velocity of flow along their length oxidative reactions, which is achieved by execution of the form of their surface in accordance with the above equation. When placed in the chamber 1 of several elements 2 in the transition zone of the gas flow from one element 2 on the other changes the direction of the swirling gas stream, there are active turbulent swirling gas stream, there are active turbulent eddies contributing to the acceleration of mass transfer processes in the mixing layer of the gas flow, which increases the likelihood of exposure of toxic impurities from the catalyst and the quality of purification of the gas stream. The reduction step helical element 2 towards the output of the camera 1 when the mesh, perforated or porous (Fig.5) leads to the passage of the gas flow through the coils, which increases unit efficiency at the height of the catalytically active elements 2 and turbulence in the gas stream. Passed through the screw channel helix is yuusha section of the chamber 1, what if they are available completely eliminates the possibility of leakage of separate streams of gas flow without contact with the catalyst. When similarly exposed to toxic impurities activating radiation flat catalyst cassette 6 by passing the current from the source 3 and source 7 of ultraviolet radiation in the cassette 8 by the gas flow decimals from residual quantities of toxic impurities. Installing cassettes 6 at an angle to the axis of the camera 1 provides a gas flow turbulization, intensifying it mass transfer processes and improve the quality of treatment, which is at an inclination of more than 85aboutis small, but increases with decreasing this angle, but the slope is less than 5aboutleads to a sharp increase in the length of the chamber 1, which dramatically reduces the specific efficiency of the reactor along its length. The purified gas stream is removed from the camera 1 in the case of use of the reactor in the food industry for drying food products of the combustion gases is fed into the drying chamber, and in the case of use in industrial ecology for purification of exhaust emissions of harmful plants is discharged into the atmosphere.To reduce the risk of poisoning of the catalyst with the which activates the adsorbed catalyst toxic substances, oxidized to harmless directly in the mass of the catalyst.When the failure of a single catalytically active elements 2 or 6 possible repair of the reactor by changing the respective cassettes 5 or 6, allowing the use of other healthy catalytically active elements 2 and 6 without change, which reduces the consumption of repairs.Thus the proposed reactor enables high reliability to purify the waste gases from toxic impurities in the absence of the possibility of failure of the catalyst under the action of local overheating, reducing the risk of catalyst poisoning. The reactor has a wide range of actions by expanding the range of activating radiation, which allows you to oxidize it as gaseous and pulverulent toxic impurities, reduced consumption of materials and repairs increased specific efficiency along the length of the reaction chamber. 1. The REACTOR PURIFICATION of WASTE GASES containing a cylindrical chamber with a catalytically active element and a source of infrared radiation, characterized in that it has located along the axis of the chamber with a source of ultraviolet radiation, and a catalytically active element violago made on line, satisfying the equation in elliptic coordinates with the center of coordinates on the axis camera
< / BR>< / BR>where x and y coordinates;
a specified constant that determines the working conditions of the catalyst,
made from a conductive material, is connected to the current source and the source of infrared radiation.2. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that the coils of the source of infrared radiation is made adjacent to the inner surface of the chamber.3. Reactor PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the coils of the source of infrared radiation is made adjacent to the source of ultraviolet radiation.4. Reactor PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the surface is far from the camera axis to the edge of the spiral inclined to it not more than 85o.5. Reactor PP.1 to 4, characterized in that the angle of inclination of the surface coil in the middle to the camera axis region is 5 85o.6. Reactor PP.1 to 5, characterized in that the thickness of the coil is increased in one direction.7. Reactor PP.1 to 5, characterized in that the coil is made symmetric about the midline, perpendicular to the camera axis.8. Reactor PP.2 to 7, characterized in that the step Galicia least one additional catalytically active element, made with the opposite direction of winding of the helix and established for the previous in series and coaxially.10. Reactor PP.1 to 9, characterized in that the catalytically active elements are mounted in removable cassettes.11. Reactor PP. 1 to 10, characterized in that the catalytically active elements are made of mesh, perforated or porous.12. Reactor PP.1 to 11, characterized in that the helix is made with decreasing in the direction of the output from the camera move.13. Reactor PP.1 to 12, characterized in that it is provided with at least one removable flat catalyst cassette made of a mesh, a perforated or porous installed for helical catalytically active elements and fully overlapping section of the camera.14. The reactor under item 13, characterized in that the catalyst flat cassette is installed at an angle of 5 to 85oto the axis of the camera.15. Reactor PP.13 and 14, characterized in that the catalyst flat cassette is made of a catalytically active material with a conductive filler, is connected with the power source and serves as a source of infrared radiation.16. Reactor PP.13 to 15, of Otley, the s cassette, installed before and/or after the flat catalyst cartridge.17. The reactor under item 16, characterized in that the cassette with additional sources of UV radiation are parallel to the flat catalyst cassette.18. Reactor PP.1 to 17, characterized in that it is provided with a source of ultrasound, coupled with at least one catalytic element.
FIELD: burning waste gases of pyrolysis furnaces in reworking solid domestic wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed combustion chamber includes mixing chamber with active and passive nozzles mounted at its inlet; active and passive nozzles are connected respectively to compressed air source and to waste gas source; mixing chamber is made in form of diffuser at aperture angle of 10-18 deg; ratio of diameters of active and passive nozzles is equal to: Dact:Dpas=0.35-0.4.
EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency of use of vapor-and-gas cycle.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to apparatus of regenerative thermal oxidation with multi pass valves.
SUBSTANCE: the apparatus for regenerative thermal oxidation for gas processing has a combustion zone, the first heat exchanging layer keeping heat exchanging surroundings and connecting with the combustion zone; the second heat exchanging layer keeping heat exchanging surroundings and connecting with the combustion zone; a valve for alternate direction of the gas flow between the first and the second heat exchanging layers. At that the valve has the first valve passage and the second valve passage separated from the first valve passage; a flow distributor having an admission passage communicates with the help of fluid medium with the admission opening of the surroundings and an exhaust passage communicates with the help of fluid medium with exhaust opening of fluid surroundings. At that the distributor is fulfilled with possibilities of its the first and the second valve passages between the first position in which the first valve passage communicates with the help of liquid with the admission passage and the second valve passage communicates with the help of liquid surroundings with exhaust passage and the second position in which the indicated the first valve passage communicates with the help of the fluid surrounding with exhaust passage and the second passage of the entry of the valve with the help of liquid surroundings communicates with the admission passage. At that the distributor of flow has a blocking surface which blocks the flow through the first part of the first valve passage and through the second part of the second valve passage when the distributor of the flow is between the first and the second positions and is fulfilled with possibility of its turning to 180o between the first and thesecond positions. At that valve passage is divided as the first so is the second at least into two chambers and the first and the second parts of the valve passages are congruous.
EFFECT: simplifies the construction, provides comfort of controlling and exploitation and deep removal of volatile organic combinations.
22 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: technologies for combustion of flush gases, including those under high pressure, during extraction and processing of natural gas and oil.
SUBSTANCE: body of burner, mounted on gas inlet pipe, is made conical with widened portion at upper portion, in the body additionally mounted are two catalyst elements, at lower portion on inlet section first catalyst element is positioned, and above on outlet section - second catalyst element, rotary shutters are mounted on base of conical body in additional way, so that in closed position they are in contact with first catalyst element, and open position between first catalyst element and body gap is formed, also, device is additionally provided with one or more main torches, mounted in gas inlet pipeline below rotary shutters and first catalyst element. Relation of diameters of first and second catalyst elements matches relation of debits of hydrocarbon gas, fed in normal mode and during salvo exhaust. Catalyst elements are manufactured either in form of cell-like structured blocks with direction of channels in parallel to direction of feeding of flush gases, or in form of block sections with granulated catalyst, for example, Rachig rings, or in forms of block sections with active-catalyst metallic shavings, or in form of blocks with active-catalyst metallic meshes.
EFFECT: higher ecological safety and fullness of combustion of flush gases in broad flow range, simplified construction and comfort of maintenance.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to industrial ecology and may be used for flameless purification of ejections of industrial enterprises.
SUBSTANCE: the reactor for catalytic purification of gaseous ejections has a cylindrical body, which interior surface is covered with a catalyst with a source of infrared radiation placed in the body, a tube heat exchanger located in the lower part of the body, a turbine mixer located in the upper part of the body and additionally - a permeable cylindrical drum out of the catalyst so that the axles of the symmetry of the drum and body coincide. The drum embraces the mixer and the source of infrared radiation fulfilled in the shape of a six-ends star is installed in the middle of the body so that its flatness is perpendicular to the axle of the symmetry of the reactor. The drawing off socket is connected with the tube space of the heat exchanger, and the feeding socket is located so as to provide heating of gaseous ejections with the heat of the gases moving out of the reactor.
EFFECT: increases effectiveness of purification of gaseous flow and reduces power inputs for heating the gas flow.
FIELD: burning combustible gas at pressure above atmospheric.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant is used for burning lean gases; it consists of unit for burning gas at pressure above atmospheric including lean gas chamber, combustion chamber, heat regeneration section and exhaust; pipe line supplying lean gas to lean gas chamber; heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber and preheated air chamber; plant is also provided with pipe line supplying the compressed surrounding air to heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber, preheated air pipe line for delivery of preheated air to preheated air chamber; provision is made for hole for delivery of lean gas from lean gas chamber to combustion chamber and hole for delivery of preheated air from preheated air chamber to combustion chamber. Heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber is made for heat exchange between lean gas chamber, preheated air chamber and combustion chamber and compressed surrounding air; lean gas and preheated air are burnt in combustion pressure at pressure above atmospheric.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; minimum difference in pressure between gas and air chambers.
12 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: arrangements or devices for treating smoke or fumes.
SUBSTANCE: head comprises gas supply pipe with gas gate and protecting shield mounted outside and coaxially at the top end of the gas supply pipe. The protecting shield is composed of two baffles made of two hollow trancated cones mounted one on the other. The grater base of the top baffle faces downward, and that of the bottom baffle faces upward. The smaller base is connected with the gas supply pipe.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: valve comprises rotatable housing provided with passage, outer unmovable ring seal of the housing, ring seal between the rotatable housing and outer unmovable ring seal of the housing that has bore made for permitting gas to flow to the passage or from the passage. The ring seal is movable with respect to the outer ring seal of the housing. The passage and the bore are made for permitting receiving the compressed gas to provide continuous sealing between the outer ring seal of the housing and ring seal when the housing rotates. The valve is additionally provided with means for permitting gas to flow through the radial passage and between the ring seal and outer unmovable ring seal of the housing and setting ring connected with the rotatable housing and locking ring that is mounted at a distance from the setting ring and connected with the rotatable housing. The ring seal is interposed between the setting ring and locking ring.
EFFECT: simplified structure and enhanced efficiency.
16 cl, 30 dwg
FIELD: toxic flue gas combustion technology for fuel-burning units.
SUBSTANCE: flue gases are neutralized in combustion chamber; total fuel flow is bifurcated; first fuel flow is mixed up with flue gases supplied to combustion chamber and second one is conveyed to combustion-chamber burners wherein it is burned in air environment and then passed to combustion chamber. Coke gas, flue gas, or blast-furnace gas, or generator gases, or mixture thereof can be used as fuel; total flowrate of flue gases (B"G) at combustion chamber outlet, total flowrate of fuel (BF) supplied to combustion chamber, flowrate of air (BA) supplied to combustion chamber, and flowrate of fuel (BF BRN) supplied to burners are found from following set of equations (1), (2), (3), (4):
, where B'G is flowrate of flue gases from combustion chamber outlet, kg/h; T'G is temperature of flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, °C; O'2 is oxygen content in flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, %; C'G is heat capacity of flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, kcal/kg; B"G is total flowrate of flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, kg/h; BF is total flowrate of fuel supplied to combustion chamber, kg/h; BF BRN is fuel flowrate to burners, kg/h; QF L is fuel low heating value as fired, kcal/kg; O2" is oxygen content in flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, %; VA O is theoretical air flowrate for burning 1 kg of fuel, kg/h; BA is air flowrate to combustion chamber, kg/h; TG" is gas temperature at combustion chamber outlet, °C; CG" is heat capacity of flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, kcal/kg; α is excess air coefficient. Temperature within combustion chamber is maintained between 850 and 1150 °C.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of flue gas neutralization in fuel-burning units.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: chemical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises using gas made of a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the plasma burner. The plasma burner ionizes gas thus producing carbon monoxide and reactive oxygen that removes ash from the gas. Oxygen and vapor are sprayed and injected to chamber (3) that receives the device with plasma burner. The control system (6) is provided with feedback and controls the concentration of the production gas, nozzle, and plasma burner.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
29 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the invention is designed for ventilation and may be used at equipping industrial objects.
SUBSTANCE: the system of ventilation of an industrial object has local units of suction air with polluting substances, an airway connecting the local suction units with the suction branch pipe of a boiler's blow fan. The airway is connected through drainage with the pipeline located below it with condensed and liquid fractions of polluting substances. The pipeline is switched to the suction branch pipe of the boiler's blow fan.
EFFECT: increases reliability, economy of the ventilation system of an industrial object.
3 cl, 1 dwg