The way we produce natural leather
(57) Abstract:The inventive raw hides soaked, Salat, tan, it is greased, painted a consistent application of the solution of iron chloride or copper sulfate and the solution hexacyanoferrate (II) potassium with their concentration is respectively equal to 3.0 to 3.5 and 5.6 6.0%, while consumption of their 55-65 g/m2and dried. table 1. The invention relates to leather production, in particular to the production technology of natural leather to get a fashionable color effect.To give the skin color effect, as a rule, used drum dyeing. The process drum dyeing is complex and depends on a number of factors: the acidity, the presence of the electrolyte, the concentration of the dye solution temperature, the degree of mechanical impact on the painted material. It can be viewed as consisting of four stages:
diffusion of particles of dye from aqueous dyeing solution to the surface of the fibrous material;
sorption of dye the outer surface of the fibers;
diffusion of the dye into the fibers;
binding dye.In the leather industry are mainly used synthetic is 2">The most common in the present method of dyeing is the drum dyeing, in which the drum is filled with water, loaded the skin and enter the solution of the dyes.However, application of this method of dyeing is time consuming and does not allow one to get particularly trendy effects on the skin type varenkov.Closest to the proposed technical essence and the achieved effect is to generate natural leather by holding otlochno-ash, tanning, dyeing and greasing and drying operations while after dyeing fatliquoring carry on roller ginning machine or the drum by the following composition, g/l: Dye 10-30 ethylene Glycol 1-3 Surface-active substance 1-5 Methenamine 1-5 Water the Rest
The disadvantage of this method of generating the skin is the low stability of the color of skin to wet friction (on a scale of gray standards, GOST 9733.0-83), and poor stability of the coating to wet friction on the device IPK-1 (GOST 939-75) through the use of the water-soluble dye that is adsorbed on the leather fibers and is not translated fully into water-soluble state.In addition, using the">The purpose of the invention to increase resistance to abrasion, wet leather, with fashionable color effect, while using less expensive and less scarce materials.For this purpose, the proposed method of generation of leather, including otlochno-ash, tanning, dyeing and greasing and drying operations, dyeing leather is carried out before drying by successively applying solutions of metal salts.In particular, as solutions of metal salts solution using ferric chloride or copper sulfate and the solution hexacyanoferrate potassium concentration of 3.0-3.5 and 5.1 to 6.0 wt. accordingly, when the flow rate their 55-65 g/m2.The proposed method of manufacture natural skin allows you to obtain a coating with a fashionable effect type varenkov, which has a stable color to wet friction on the gray scale standards (GOST 9733.0-83), and is also resistant coating to the wet friction on the device IPK-1 (GOST 939-75).This is achieved by the fact that in the interaction of metal salts, in particular of iron chloride or copper sulfate, hexacyanoferrate (II) potassium forms a water-insoluble colored precipitate, which is adsorbed on the wet fibers of the skin (in kucheci for dyeing leather with getting fashionable color effect in the sources of information are not known.P R I m e R 1. On the skin of the raw material calfskin after conducting otlochno-ash, tannins and greasing operations before the main drying sequentially applied to the unit covering dye "map" through the first cabin 3% solution of ferric chloride or copper sulfate, and through the second cabin 5,1% solution of hexacyanoferrate (II) potassium (yellow blood salt) at a flow rate their 65 g/m2. For a more vivid effect this operation dyeing again. Then hold the main drying skin.P R I m m e R 2. The semi-finished product from raw cattle "Splits" is produced as in example 1 at a concentration of components: a 3.2% solution of ferric chloride or copper sulfate and 5.5% solution of yellow blood salt at a flow rate of component 50 g/m2.P R I m e R 3. The semi-finished product from raw materials of cattle produced as in example 1 at a concentration of components: a 3.5% solution of ferric chloride or copper sulfate and 6.0% solution of yellow blood salt at a flow rate of component 50 g/m2.Physical-mechanical indicators developed skin in the table.As can be seen from the table, the color stability of the skin to wet friction (on a scale of gray standards) GOST 9733.0-83, obtained by the proposed method is higher by 1 b The stability of the coating on the skin to wet friction on the device IPK-1, obtained by the proposed method exceeds the stability of the coating on the skin to wet friction on the device IPK-1, obtained by a known method, 40 times.In addition, when developing natural leather on the proposed method using ferric chloride or copper sulfate and potassium hexacyanoferrate, which are non-deficient and low-cost materials. The WAY we PRODUCE NATURAL SKIN, comprising: soaking off of raw hides, liming, tanning, greasing, dyeing and drying, characterized in that the dyeing consistently applying the solution of iron chloride or copper sulfate and the solution hexacyanoferrate (II) potassium concentration of their respective 3,0 3,5 and 5.6 6.0%, while consumption of their 55 65 g/m2.
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: semifinished product is degreased, neutralized, dyed, and lubricated. Dyeing is performed in two washing-interrupted steps with anionic black dye consumed in amount 0.5-0.6% of the weight of semifinished product in each dyeing step. Lubrication is followed by retannage with chrome tanner in amount 0.6-1.0% of the weight of semifinished product (calculated for chromium oxide) and treatment with 0.8-1.0% of spindle oil.
EFFECT: achieved deep black color and high performance characteristics.
1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: tannery or furry production.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of tannery or furry production and may be used for a piece by piece treatment of a tanning, furry semi-finished product with emulsions of "water in oil" type. The device for impregnation of sheets contains a mounted on the frame bath with a working compound, in which a corrugated roller is dipped, and also a feeding and auxiliary conveyers and a smoothing roller, a supporting means with a resilient counterbody, an actuator, a tool for removal of a finished semi-product, a device for creation of a hydrodynamic wedge and a pinch roller for engagement of the ribbed roller with the feeding conveyor. The problem of the presented invention is - development of the device simple in its servicing with a high reliability allowing to realize the process of impregnation more efficiently with a possibility of its installation in an automatic production line.
EFFECT: the invention presents a device simple in its servicing, having a high reliability, more efficient realization of the process of impregnation, a possibility of its usage in an automatic production line.
FIELD: tannery industry.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes treatment of chrome-tanned semi-finished product with antiseptic such as polymineral obtained from natural non-metal fossils (minerol), which is used in amount of 5-10 mass % based on semi-finished product. Minerol is also used as filler being introduced in retanning step with chrome compounds in amount of 5-10 mass % based on semi-finished product.
EFFECT: effective biological leather conservation after chrome tanning.
3 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to greasing and emulsifying substances used in fur, leather and other branches of industry. Invention describes a method for deep sulfonation of oxidized vegetable oils, fats and their mixtures, and oxidized mixtures with the nominal viscosity value in the range 33-75 by viscosimeter VZ-4 at 20°C in their treatment with sodium sulfite. The process is carried out in system consisting of oxidized component or mixture of oxidized components, sodium sulfite, water and soap additives, carboxylic acid, phenol and copper (II) salt as a catalyst in bead mill of vertical type at temperature of environment up to practically complete ceasing or quantitative consumption of sodium sulfite and charge of the latter is calculated by the following formula: mNA2SO3 = 0.006 x mOX x (I.N.)OX wherein mOX and (I.N.)OX mean mass and iodine number of oxidized component or mixture of oxidized components, respectively. The mass ratio of oxidized component and water varies in the range from 1:4 to 1:2.5. Dosing additives with respect to oxidized component are following: soap, 2%; carboxylic acid, 4%; phenol, 2.5%. Oxidized flax, sunflower, soybean and cotton oils, oxidized fish oil and mixtures of vegetable oils with fish oil or pig fat are subjected for sulfonation reaction with air in regimen of intensive bubble bubbling at 105 ± 5°. Soaps in indicated system are represented by sodium stearate and sodium oleate and by reaction mixtures of practically quantitative alkaline hydrolysis of fats and vegetable oils also. Benzoic, oxalic, malonic and citric acids are used as acid, and sulfate, acetate and other water-soluble salts of copper (II) are sued as a catalyst dosed in the amount (2-7.5) x 10-4 mole/kg of the parent charge. The sulfonation reaction degree is 33-40%.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: tanning industry.
SUBSTANCE: process is conducted in vertical mill to which soot, induline, kerosene and diesel fuel are introduced. Then components are mixed and slow heating the apparatus and its content is started after which mixing is switched off and slow heating of mill content is continued. Upon expiration of said time, acids or their compositions, white spirit and fatty additive are introduced and chemical mass-exchange process is performed at spontaneously fixed temperature due to thermal effects of this process and natural cooling at the beginning and at the end, as well as due to forced cooling at intermediate stage characterized by high rates of temperature at maximum of 140-150°C. At the moment when forced cooling is discontinued, 0.5-1.5 h before discontinuation of mixing and beginning of withdrawal at temperature of 80-115°C, 43-52-% solution of aluminum salts and C10-C20 of carboxylic acids is introduced into product being prepared.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure; increased amount of product.
1 tbl, 15 ex