The method of disposal of metal shavings
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of waste management industry, namely the processing of metal shavings. The product of the refining process may find application in the production of secondary alloys, metallurgical production in the doping. The disposal method is that the metal shavings, mainly titanium, pressed with simultaneous annealing, while the residual pressure in the chamber is 1.33 (10-1-10-3) PA temperature of 0.6 to 0.8 times the melting temperature of metal shavings and at specific pressing force 1 3 from the yield strength of the metal shavings at the temperature of extrusion. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab. The invention relates to the field of waste management industry, namely the processing of metal, in particular titanium, chip. The product of the refining process may find application in the production of secondary titanium alloys, ferrous metallurgy during the alloying and deoxidation of steels.The most common (45% of the total mass of waste) and the hardest to treat form of waste is chips. The difficulties arising in its preparation for use, due to the fact that allow by processing them into briquettes, for example briquettes for the inoculation of cast iron briquettes for the production of metals.Closest to the present invention is a method of disposal of titanium waste using cold briquetting figured punch at specific pressing force 450-600 MPa. These briquettes can then be used as electrode for melting ingots. This method allows you to enter in the electrode up to 70% of the chips. The resulting briquettes are bendingtechnology4mpa, density of 0.6-0.7 from theoretical.A significant drawback of analogs and prototypes are limits on the amount of input waste (70%), low density electrode (0,6-0,7), which significantly reduces the mechanical properties of briquettes and performance during the smelting process; causing the need for a separate operation of vacuum annealing chip, without which the melting is almost impossible because of the strong outgassing.The aim of the invention is to provide a method of recycling of metal waste, providing the product with a 100% content of the waste, the increase in strength properties and density.The aim is achieved in that a mixture consisting solely of metal scrap, compressed with dela flow of metal at the temperature of extrusion, at a residual pressure in the chamber of 1.33 (10-1-10-3) PA within 30-60 min, while in the process of heating under pressing is carried out by vacuum annealing chips for removal of gases.The method is as follows.Metal chips, such as titanium alloy, are crushed in a hammer mill type 188 OTHERS to the size of individual particles (5-10)x(5-15) mm Milled chips are subjected to magnetic separation on the installation type, PBS-40 to remove iron particles, and then washed in a degreasing solution, for example containing 20 g/l of sodium carbonate and 30 g/l of trinacria phosphate, and then washed in water and dried. The thus prepared chips bitteroot in the press with force 6300 kN with evacuation zone pressing to a pressure of 1.33(10-1-10-3) PA, within 30-60 min Temperature briquetting for titanium alloys is chosen in the range 1000-1150aboutWith a specific pressing force is from 10 to 30 MPa. In the process of pressing to a density of briquette 0,8-0,9 from theoretical happens diffusion welding of the particles.The materials used in the mixture are shown in table.1, which shows the parameters of the proposed method and the properties of the obtained brickw the briquette is provided, compared with the prototype, the increase in the density of 30-50% and the Flexural strength is 5-6 times. In the case when the parameters of the process are outside the lower limit (option 4), briquette properties in comparison with the prototype has no advantages. When the parameters for the upper limit (option 5) properties of the briquette is reflected at the level of the material obtained by the present settings. The provision of these parameters is associated with the complexity of the process (in particular, vacuum equipment) and a noticeable increase in energy costs that are not compensated for the resulting effect.Options 6-9 show that similarly can be disposed of chips titanium alloys and other active metals such as zirconium and niobium.The proposed method allows the use of metal waste by 100% compared to the prototype.These briquettes are suitable for secondary smelting ingots, while melting of ingots is carried out in a standard vacuum-arc furnaces, in which melted almost all titanium alloys.When implementing the proposed method there is no need to create new expensive metallurgical furnaces with electron-beam or plasma ISAT increased compared with serial alloy 0.05-0.1% impurity introduction, such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon (table.2), which reduces their plastic characteristics. However, to apply such materials to the needs of the economy feasible and economically justified.These briquettes can be used in ferrous metallurgy instead of ferrotitanium for alloying and deoxidation of steels. Replacement ferrotitanium on briketirovannogo titanium shavings gives you the opportunity to gain significant economic benefits as a result of sharp decline in the energy intensity of processes for the preparation of titanium-containing materials used in the steel industry, the release of smelting capacity for the production of ferrotitanium. 1. The METHOD of disposal of METALLIC CHIPS, including the preparation of the charge, vacuum annealing and pressing, characterized in that the extrusion is carried out in vacuum with simultaneous annealing.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the extrusion is carried out at a residual pressure in the chamber of 1.33(10-110-3) PA, a temperature of 0.6 to 0.8 times the melting point of the material of the chip, with specific pressing force 1 3 from the yield stress of the material of the chip.
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely apparatuses for pressing powders.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes movable and stationary plates, upper and lower punches, pressing block in which die is arranged. Pressing block has two part; upper of said two parts is secured to movable plate and lower part is secured to stationary plate. In one part of block there is additional drive unit for moving punch in plane normal relative to motion direction of movable plate. Pressing block is provided with two carriages placed in guides with possibility of motion in two mutually normal directions. One carriage is arranged in guides of second carriage. Each part of pressing block has four profiled supports. Die is in the form of four shaping members with flat working surfaces. Said members are mounted on profiled supports in such a way that their working surfaces form closed loop. Each member has slit guide normal relative to its working surface and stem mounted in slit guide of adjacent member. Working surface of shaping member coincides with one surface of its stem.
EFFECT: increased density of pressed blanks, enhanced uniformness of density distribution in volume of blank.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: production of quickly cooled magnetic alloy for making nano-composite magnets and magnets with binder used in electric motors, sensors and so on.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing melt and forming quickly crystallized alloy. Composition of melt has common formula: (Fe1-m Tm) 100-x-y-z Qx Ry Mz where T is Co and(or) Ni; Q is B and/or) C; R - rare earth element; M is selected from Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ga, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Hf, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Pb; mole fractions x, y, z and m satisfy next inequalities: 10 at.% ≤ x ≤ 35 at.%; 2 at.% ≤ y ≤ 10 at.%; 0 at.% ≤ z ≤ 10 at.%; 0 ≤ m ≤ 0.5. At stage of producing quickly solidified alloy, melt is poured onto guiding member whose guiding surface is inclined relative to horizontal plane. Melt flowing down on guiding surface is fed through opening at least of one casting duct onto contact zone of cooling roll surface.
EFFECT: possibility for providing uniform structure of magnetic alloy.
33 cl, 6 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely processes for pressing elongated complex-shape articles, possibly in machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is used for pressing elongated articles of powder in press-molds with die having horizontal parting. Method comprises steps of pouring powder to lower part of die, drawing together upper and lower parts of shaping die; shifting powder by moving lower punch to upper part of die and pressing it. At extraction article from press-mold its upper part is released due to opening upper part of die along one or several planes passing along (or parallel to) vertical and(or) inclined axis of upper part of pressed article. Simultaneously upper and lower parts of press-mold are opened along horizontal parting plane.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of article, enlarged manufacturing possibility at making complex-shape articles.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely processes for removing plasticizing agent.
SUBSTANCE: method for capillary type removing of binder comprises steps of preparing mixture, mixing it with plasticizing agent, pressing prepared mixture and heating it for removing plasticizing agent. Before pressing, highly volatile liquid is added to mixture in quantity consisting 0.4 - 0.6 of pore volume of pressed material for dissolving plasticizing agent. Heating is realized before sintering until volatile liquid separation is ended and plasticizing agent appears on surface of pressed material.
EFFECT: shortened time period for removing plasticizing agent, improved quality of articles.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely methods for pressing powder material at presence of liquid.
SUBSTANCE: method for pressing powder material comprises steps of introducing to powder volatile liquid and pressing powder; supplying liquid at side of pressing punch in quantity consisting of 2 - 3 volumes of pores of pressed blank. It is possible to perform pressing at simultaneous supply of liquid till termination of process. Method allows press non-plastic powders without plasticizer, partially remove plasticizer and perform impregnation. Press-mold includes die with upper portion having inner cavity, cavity for liquid and outer part. Apparatus for feeding liquid is in the form of cylinder with symmetrical through openings in walls and it includes piston for supplying liquid to inner cavity of die.
EFFECT: improved quality of articles.
7 cl, 11 dwg, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely preparation of hard-alloy charge.
SUBSTANCE: method for plasticizing charge with paraffin comprises steps of preparing mixture containing hard-alloy components; adding paraffin and diluting agent to prepared mixture; using gasoline as diluting agent while dispersing paraffin in gasoline in quantity no more than 5%. Quantity of paraffin in relation to quantity of hard-alloy components is in range 0.5 - 1%. Hard alloy mixture with gasoline-dispersed paraffin is prepared in cavitation zone of ultrasound field.
EFFECT: improved density and strength of charge.
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely pressing blanks of charge with low content of plasticizer.
SUBSTANCE: method for pressing blanks from charge comprises steps of adding plasticizer in quantity 0.5 -1.0% to hard-alloy mixture; then pressing mixture.; before extracting blank from press-mold acting upon it by means of force impulse or set of force impulses whose value consists at least of 0.1 - 0.15% of specific pressing effort.
EFFECT: enhanced density, strength and strength uniformity of blank.
9 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely manufacture of hard alloy rods with cross section variable along axis, possibly production of end tools such as end milling cutters, reamers, broach bits.
SUBSTANCE: method for forming hard alloy blank for making end tool comprises steps of adding to powder of hard alloy mixture plasticizing agent in quantity 1.8 - 2.5 %; pressing slab blank whose density is by 30 - 40% less than that of final blank and whose cross section less than that of final blank; pressing prepared slab blank in die whose inner cavity corresponds to configuration of final blank. Mass values of slab blank and final blank are the same.
EFFECT: manufacture of articles having uniform texture and strength equal along their length and cross section.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: metallurgy; semi-continuous molding of consumable electrodes from high-reaction metals and alloys, for example, titanium alloys; making large-sized ingots from alloys.
SUBSTANCE: last portion of charge is molded simultaneously with adapter whose end surface is joined with electrode and is provided with taper projections at inclination of 1-10°. According to this method furnace time is reduced by 20% due to avoidance of furnace evacuation procedures and welding of electrode to adapter.
EFFECT: increased productivity of vacuum electric-arc furnaces.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely processes for semi-continuous pressing of consumable electrodes and die for making such electrodes.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of pouring charge into cylinder-cone die by dozes and pressing each doze of charge with use of pressure plate having dents and indentations; preliminarily compacting charge particles in cylindrical inlet portion of die by main effort of pressure plate and shifting them along circumference direction. At final compaction of charge in cone part of die particles are shifted in addition along radius successively in several directions. On cylindrical inlet part of die helical profiled grooves are formed; said grooves have lead angle less than friction angle. On cone squeezing part there are annular portions with variable conicity degree successively turned one relative to other.
EFFECT: production of high-strength electrode.
3 cl, 1 dwg