The method of opening business horizons quarries

 

(57) Abstract:

Application area: mining, mining in quarries. At autopsy, business horizons career steeply inclined trench for rail or road transport berm in the Board trench is formed with a guiding slope, lower steering slope of the bottom of the trench. 2 Il.

The invention relates to the mining industry and may find application in open development of mineral deposits.

There is a method of opening quarries using steeply train trips where the purpose of rational use of steep slopes pit depth is divided into several zones, each of which shall be opened independent of the trench, the trench exposing the upper zone, is formed with flat slopes (up to 40%), and the trench exposing the lower zone with a steep slope (over 40%) (Fesenko S. L. Substantiation of parameters and development of technical means of rail transport systems with gradients ways 60%in deep pits. Summary of the doctoral thesis. M. Institute of problems of complex development of nesih workings, that requires an increase in the cost of excavation and transport additional volumes of overburden sinking tranches in the period of their construction.

Known used on most existing quarries way of opening the inner or outer trench, in the Board which form the horizontal transport berm connecting breakable working levels with the common main exit. The application of this method for steeply inclined opening of the railway transport carried out Lebedinsky GOK with sinking steeply (50%) of the railway trench (A. T. Kalashnikov, V. F. Muranowski. The use of steep gradients at the opening of the quarries. Mining magazine, 1986, No. 9, S. 20-22), and a steeply opening by road with slopes up to 15%of the number of quarries USA (Vasiliev M. the height of the Veres, F. I. and other Experience in open pit mining of ore deposits of the United States. M. Nedra, 1981, S. 153).

The disadvantage of this method when it is used for steeply inclined opening is irrational use of steep slopes, which revealed both the lower and upper levels, as each horizontal transport berm in the Board trench regardless of its location on the high side, Prime operation of steep slopes, takes place during transportation from the lower horizons, and from the top, and the positive effect from the use of steep slopes is manifested only at the lower levels.

There is a method of forming transport workings with variable slope, when under the steep gradient is formed in the lower part of the transport output. This method is implemented in Korkino, Lebedinsky, Sarbai and several other mines by drilling a separate hole dead ends in the lower zone of the quarry with a slope of up to 60%on (C. L. Yakovlev, S. L. Fesenko. The transport of deep pits. Mining magazine, 1988, No. 12, S. 24-27).

The disadvantage of this method is either a decrease in throughput transport output limiting steeply inclined section when using vehicles that are not designed to operate on steep grades, or the underutilization of the traction capabilities of the transport, designed for operation on steep slopes, while moving on slightly sloping and inclined part of the track in any case, the increase in the cost of haulage.

Closest to the present invention is a method of opening business horizons quarries capital trench side cotransporter visits (sesco E. C. Rzhevsky centuries the Main open pit planning. M Whiteheat, 1958, S. 232).

At autopsy career steeply inclined road or rail trench prototype with steep slopes (>40%for rail transport and more than 80%of road transport) will be formed as the bottom of the trench and sloping transport berm in its sides, i.e., all working levels of the quarry, opened a trench revealed a steeply transport workings. However, with increasing bias, the speed of the vehicle decreases, respectively, decreases their productivity and throughput transport workings. To maintain performance, it is necessary to increase the individual capacity of the engine of the vehicle with a corresponding increase of consumption of electricity or fuel, i.e., to produce additional costs for haulage. For rail transport the additional cost will also need to upgrade the brake devices of the rolling stock and anticreeping means topside ways to purchase special accessories (photoperiodicity, cranes and other), lighting is this increase in slope, pay mainly for the lower group business horizons, opened steeply inclined trench, i.e., for horizons, the opening of which were achieved due to steep slopes. For this bottom group of horizons effect is achieved by increasing the number of horizons, open rail with a corresponding reduction in area of more expensive (6-8 times) road transport, reducing the number of internal logistic reduce the number of stations and posts, reducing the total length of railway tracks and contact networks (at autopsy steeply inclined railway trench); steeply inclined road trench effect is achieved due to a significant reduction in the volume of construction trench (with double-breasted trench) or reduce additional separation Board (with single-breasted trench) and reduce transport cycle by reducing the length of the transport output.

The higher is breakable horizon, the less the effect of the use of a steep slope. For the upper horizons of a slight gain in volumes revealing a steeply production in the period of its construction will be fully peracre the CSOs, at the upper levels covered by rail, regardless of the slope of the trench, there is no substitution effect by rail car.

Thus, at the opening steeply inclined trench prototype always have a group of top business horizons, which opening steeply inclined workings causes an increase in the cost of haulage, and that is the disadvantage of the prototype.

The aim of the invention is to reduce the cost of haulage.

The objective is achieved by the fact that at the opening of business horizons quarries rail or road steeply inclined trench forming in the side of the trench transport sloping berms, transport sloping berm in the Board trench is formed with a guiding slope, lower steering slope to the trench.

In Fig.1 shows a diagram of the trench of Fig.2 section a-a in Fig.1.

Figures 1-5 marked oblique transport of the berm in the side of the trench. Figure 6 marked the bottom of the trench. Axial line shows the axis of the trench bottom, and the vertical dashed line to the mouth of the trench, which slope excavations revealing 1-6 adjacent the, the transport sloping berm 1-5 in the Board trench is formed with a guiding slope i - i, lower steering slope to the trench i by an amount equal to i, while maintaining the minimum total length of the trench on the bottom of the required steeply when the opening of the deep horizons. Additional transportation costs associated with increased gradients, are excluded during the transportation of the ore from the upper horizons group +45 (+105 m), reveal a slightly inclined berms 1-5.

Not regulated method of forming revealing the workings for the lower group of horizons between the horizon, revealing the bottom of the trench, and the bottom of the horizons opened flat berms. In shown in Fig. 1 the example of these two horizons: +15 and +30 m, and the larger the difference of the slopes i and more than the total depth of the trench, the topics of these horizons will be more. However, the method of opening does not affect the goal, as these horizons within the trench can be opened only with a steep slope or horizontal berms adjacent to the trench (Fig.1), or flat berms, which will also join the bottom of the trench, but at higher points (this will require larger spacing is length of the transport tunnels placed in the side of the trench for the opening of horizons +15 and +30 m, will have a steeply plot. It is also possible accommodation revealing the workings of horizons +15 and +30 m outside of the trench in the working area of the quarry (then it will be moving congresses) or directly in the target Board (if one of the sides of the trench is passed on to the final contour). If you do revealing generation (congresses) horizons +15 and +30 m and slightly sloping and inclined to connect them with slightly sloping and inclined the berm 5 in the side of the trench, the number of horizons, opened with a gentle slope will be increased, which can be obtained additional effect of reducing the cost of transportation. However, this additional effect can be obtained in the final result due to the presence in the Board trench slightly sloping and inclined berms, one of which (the fifth in Fig.1) and may haulage with the lower group of horizons. Thus the goal is reducing the cost of transportation is achieved by the proposed method of forming a steeply trench regardless of how the opening of the lower group of horizons, not grasp slightly sloping and inclined berms within the trench.

Reducing the cost of transport is s carried out with a smaller angle of tilt travel roads compared with the angle of inclination of the bottom of the trench and is achieved by increasing the performance of vehicles by increasing speed and / or reduce engine power with a corresponding reduction of consumption of electricity or fuel; to increase the useful life of vehicles that are not fit for work on steep slopes; reduce the brake force to prevent the costs of replacing the brake devices; reduce shifting (theft) efforts wheels on the rails, allowing to reduce or eliminate the cost of additional installation of anti-theft devices reduce wear and tear of vehicles and superstructure of the railway tracks; reduce repair and maintenance of vehicles; reduce the need for expensive auxiliary equipment designed specifically for use steep slopes (photoperiodicity, cranes and other); the possibility of reducing the reconstruction of water supply railway transport during the transition to a higher voltage contact networks required for operation of steep slopes or assignment deadlines reconstruction at a later period; the possibility of referring the additional costs associated with the operation of a steeply revealing the workings, at a later period due to the possibility of sequential, starting from the upper horizons, commissioning flat, transportinae.

The main features of the proposed methods, both known and new, are significant because the absence of any of them does not allow to achieve this goal.

No sign of a steeply trench will lead to the necessity of gaining the gradients used in the quarry to the construction of the trench. This will lead to underutilization of the possibilities of transport equipment that is not designed to operate on steep grades, and unnecessary increase in the construction of the trench. Although in some cases some economic effect can be achieved, and its value will be much lower than when using the steep slope.

No sign of the inclined transport berm in the Board trench will make it structurally impossible for the organization of independent transport trips with business horizons, as for inclined transport berms exist only alternative horizontal berm. And when the horizontal berms organization of transport and communication business horizons to the surface can be accomplished only through the bottom of the trench, i.e., each horizontal berm adjacent to the respective vertical is Thus in the absence of sloping berms transport departure from any horizon will always be steeply inclined section, coming on the bottom of the trench, without the possibility of gaining this area, which will lead to fundamental impossibility of achieving this goal.

The characteristic transport sloping berm is formed with a guiding slope, lower steering slope of the bottom of the trench is the main feature.

The novelty of the proposed method of opening business horizons quarries steeply inclined road or railway trench with transport sloping berms in the sides of the trench consists in placing within the same trench, for the same type of transport inclined transport berms with different guiding slope constant for each of the sloping berm along its entire length from the open horizon to the surface, with a steeper slope opened the bottom group of workers horizons, and under less steep upper horizons group (which is the most rational use of steep slopes), reducing the overall minimum length of the trench (at the bottom).

The relevance of the proposed methods is due, on the one hand, an objective necessity in the near future on a steeply opening in deep pits, in Oia uglubki career and, on the other hand the willingness currently factories for the mass production of domestic equipment specifically designed for use on steep slopes. There are positive 10-year experience of operating a steeply train travel roads with gradients up to 60%on experimental plots of a number of deep pits, such as Korkino, Lebedinsky, Sarbai and some others. Science has proven the feasibility of increasing train slopes of up to 160%of that of 4-8 times higher than the currently used gradients. For vehicles have experience operating vehicles workings with gradients of up to 150% (career USA).

The METHOD of OPENING BUSINESS HORIZONS QUARRIES, including the sinking of a steeply trenches for rail or road transport, the formation of the Board of the trench inclined transport berms, characterized in that, to reduce the cost of haulage, transport sloping berm in the Board trench is formed with a guiding slope, lower steering slope of the bottom of the trench.

 

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