Reverse osmosis installation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to desalination of natural salt and brackish water reverse osmosis. The technical result consists in increasing the reliability and reducing energy consumption. The installation includes obratnoosmoticheskie apparatus 1, is divided into the cavity 2 of the feed water from the inlet 3 and outlet 4 and the cavity 5 of desalinated water outlet 6, a pump 7, which consists of the working cylinder 8 and a piston 9, the compensating cylinder 10 with a piston 11 and piston rod 12 connected to the free end of the actuator 13, and the control unit 14. The slave cylinder 8 is delimited by the piston 1 on the first and second areas 15 and 16 to the inputs of respectively 17, 18, outputs, respectively, 19, 20 and pulse outputs 21 and 22. Compensation cylinder separated by the piston 11 on the first and the second region 23 and 24 to the inputs-outputs 25 and 26, respectively. The installation includes piping: 27 and 28 of the feed water, 29 - 32, pickle, 33 desalinated water, 34 and 35 of the pulse. Block 14 contains the first logical element PROHIBITION 36, and the element 37,the second logical element PROHIBITION element 38 and 39, the signal input 40, the first and second control inputs 41 and 42, the first and second inputs and outputs 43 and 44 and outlet 45.Installation sabishisa to the separation of solutions using semi-permeable membranes, in particular, to devices for desalination of natural salt and brackish water reverse osmosis. The invention can be applied to other industries that use similar installation.

The purpose of the invention improve the reliability and reduce energy consumption installation.

The drawing shows a schematic diagram of reverse osmosis plants.

The system includes a reverse osmosis apparatus 1, separated by semi-permeable membranes in the cavity 2 of the feed water from the inlet 3 and outlet 4 and the cavity 5 of desalinated water outlet 6, a pump 7, which consists of the working cylinder 8 and a piston 9, the compensating cylinder 10 with a piston 11 and piston rod 12 connecting the pistons 9 and 11 and the free end associated with the actuator 13, for example with manual transmission, electric motor, turbine or other, and the control unit 14. The slave cylinder 8 is delimited by the piston 11 to the first and second areas 15 and 16 to the inputs 17 and 18, respectively, provided with suction valves, outputs, respectively 19 and 20, provided with a discharge valve, and with pulse outputs 21 and 22, respectively. The compensating cylinder 10 is delimited by the piston 11 on the first and the second region 23 and 24 to the inputs-outputs Solnymi, 33 desalinated water, 34 and 35 of the pulse. The control unit 14 contains the first logical element PROHIBITION element 36 and 37, the second logical element PROHIBITION 38 and the element And 39. The block 14 is provided with a switching input 40, the first and second control inputs 41 and 42, first and second inputs-outputs 43 and 44 and outlet 45. The plant is equipped with a nutrient inlet 46 and outlet 47 of desalinated water and drain outlet 48. Prohibiting the input of the first element PROHIBITION 36 and enables the input of the first element And 37 through the first control input 41 of the block is connected by a pipe 34 with pulse output 21 of the first region 15 of the working cylinder 8, the second area 16 which is connected through pulse output 22 by a pipe 35 with the second Manager of the entrance 42 of the block and through him with prohibiting input of the second element PROHIBITION 38 and permitting the input of the second element And 39. Switching the inputs of the first and second elements 37 and 39 through the signal input 40 of the block are connected by a pipe 29 with the output 4 of the cavity 2 of the feed water of the reverse osmosis apparatus 1. The first item 37 is connected by its output to the switching input of the first element PROHIBITION 36 and through the first input-output 43 of the block conduit 30 to the first input-output 25 of the first region 23 of the compensation cylinder 10 through him with the output of the second element And 39 and the switching input of the second element PROHIBITION 38. The first and second elements PROHIBITION 36 and 38 are connected by their outputs through the output 45 of the block and the pipe 32 to the drain outlet 48 installation. The entrance 46 of the installation connected to the source of feed water, is connected by a pipe 27 to the inputs 17 and 18 respectively of the first and second regions 15 and 16 of the working cylinder 8, the outputs 19 and 20 which are connected by pipe 28 to the input 3 of the cavity 2 of the feed water of the reverse osmosis apparatus 1. The cavity 5 of desalinated water to its outlet 6 is connected through a pipe 33 with the output 47 of desalinated water from the plant. Hydraulic logic elements 36-39 can be implemented by known technical means, such as hydraulic Bolotnikova and membrane elements.

Reverse osmosis installation operates as follows.

During operation of the actuator 13, for example, manually act on the rod 12, forcing the pistons 9 and 11 to make a reciprocating motion. When the pistons are moved to the right (as shown in the drawing) in region 16 of the working cylinder 8 causes the pressure to be passed through impulse piping 35 and causing the appearance of a signal on prohibiting the input of the second element PROHIBITION 38 and allows the input of the second sabotage cylinder 8 through the valve discharge outlet 20 is displaced by the pipe 28 through the reverse osmosis apparatus 1, the pipe 29 and then through the element And 39 through the conduit 31 into the region 24 of the compensation cylinder 10. At the same time, feed water from a source through the pipe 27 through the valve of the suction inlet 17 is in the area 15 of the working cylinder 8, and previously in the area 23 of the compensation cylinder 10 water is displaced by moving the piston 11 through the conduit 30 through the first element PROHIBITION 36 and then through the pipeline 32 is discharged into the drainage, for example, a source of natural salt water (lake, sea, etc). In this case, given that the diameter of the piston 9, and accordingly the flow rate of the displaced them water larger than the diameter of the piston 11 and flow sucked them water by the amount ultimately dependent on the permeability of semi-permeable membranes and the performance of the reverse osmosis apparatus 1, the cavity 2 of the reverse osmosis apparatus 1 and the mirror-located areas 16 and 24 of the pump 7 is the operating pressure. This is the working pressure exceeds the osmotic pressure of the nutrient salt water in an amount which provides the aforementioned specified performance of the reverse osmosis apparatus. In areas 15 and 23 of the pump 7 is set working pressure close to the pressure source patternwelded force, proportional only to the difference of the squares of the pistons 9 and 11 (cross-sectional areas of compensation and working cylinders), i.e., energy expended only for pumping water consumption, equal the performance of the installation. Through the reverse osmosis apparatus 1 is pumped more water flow rate required to ensure depolarization of the hydrodynamic modes in the cavity 2 of the feed water of the reverse osmosis apparatus 1. The ratio of the areas of cross-sections of the compensation cylinder 10 and the working cylinder 8 is determined by the formula StoSp(1 to G), where Sto, Spsquare cross-sections of the compensation and working cylinders, G plant capacity, it is an empirical coefficient depending on the design of the reverse osmosis apparatus (< G-1). When reaching the pistons 9 and 11 at their position moves the actuator 13 in the opposite direction (in this case from right to left). In areas 16 and 24 creates a pressure equal to the pressure in the source of feed water, and in areas 15 and 23 of the pump 7 is the operating pressure. The control signal pulse in the pipe 35 and inputs the second element of the BAN 38 and the second element And 39 disappears, and the pulse is, I can pay tithing element And 37 appears. Feed water from the area 15 of the working cylinder 8 is supplied through the valve discharge outlet 19, the pipe 28, through the reverse osmosis apparatus 1 via the pipeline 29 and then through the first element And 37 of the conduit 30 in the region 23 of the compensation cylinder 10. Feed water from a source through the pipe 27 through a valve suction inlet 18 flows into the region 16 of the working cylinder 8, preparing it for further work, and the water from the area 24 of the compensation cylinder 10 is displaced by the piston 11 through the conduit 31 through the second element PROHIBITION 38 and further through the pipeline 32 in the drainage. In the exercise by the actuator 13 of the reciprocating movement of the rod 12 and the piston 9 and 11, the system continues to operate in the manner described above, and desalinated water from the reverse osmosis apparatus 1 via line 33 is given to the consumer, for example, in the supply tank.

Reverse osmosis INSTALLATION comprising a work and compensation cylinders with installed pistons dividing each cylinder into two parts and mounted on a common shaft connected to the actuator, reverse osmosis unit and the control unit, the input unit through the suction valves connected to the inputs of the first and the psychical apparatus, separated by a semi-permeable membrane in the cavity of the feed water and the cavity of desalinated water, the outputs of which are connected respectively with the switching control unit and the output of desalinated water installation, the pulse outputs of the first and second areas of the working cylinder are connected respectively with the first and second control inputs of the control unit, the output of which is connected to a drainage installation exit, and the first and second inputs and outputs are connected respectively to the inputs-outputs of the first and second regions of the compensation cylinder, characterized in that the control unit is made on the hydraulic elements performing the functions of the first and second elements And the first and second elements of the BAN, moreover, the signal input unit is connected to the switching inputs of the first and second elements And the outputs of which are connected respectively with the first and second input-output unit and the switching inputs respectively of the first and second elements of the BAN, the outputs of which are connected with the output unit, the first and second control inputs of the block are connected to allow inputs respectively of the first and second elements And prohibiting inputs respectively of the first and second element

 

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