Reverse osmosis installation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to desalination of natural salt and brackish water reverse osmosis. The technical result consists in increasing the reliability and reducing energy consumption. The installation includes obratnoosmoticheskie apparatus 1, is divided into the cavity 2 of the feed water from the inlet 3 and outlet 4 and the cavity 5 of desalinated water outlet 6, a pump 7, which consists of the working cylinder 8 and a piston 9, the compensating cylinder 10 with a piston 11 and piston rod 12 connected to the free end of the actuator 13, and the control unit 14. The slave cylinder 8 is delimited by the piston 1 on the first and second areas 15 and 16 to the inputs of respectively 17, 18, outputs, respectively, 19, 20 and pulse outputs 21 and 22. Compensation cylinder separated by the piston 11 on the first and the second region 23 and 24 to the inputs-outputs 25 and 26, respectively. The installation includes piping: 27 and 28 of the feed water, 29 - 32, pickle, 33 desalinated water, 34 and 35 of the pulse. Block 14 contains the first logical element PROHIBITION 36, and the element 37,the second logical element PROHIBITION element 38 and 39, the signal input 40, the first and second control inputs 41 and 42, the first and second inputs and outputs 43 and 44 and outlet 45.Installation sabishisa to the separation of solutions using semi-permeable membranes, in particular, to devices for desalination of natural salt and brackish water reverse osmosis. The invention can be applied to other industries that use similar installation.The purpose of the invention improve the reliability and reduce energy consumption installation.The drawing shows a schematic diagram of reverse osmosis plants.The system includes a reverse osmosis apparatus 1, separated by semi-permeable membranes in the cavity 2 of the feed water from the inlet 3 and outlet 4 and the cavity 5 of desalinated water outlet 6, a pump 7, which consists of the working cylinder 8 and a piston 9, the compensating cylinder 10 with a piston 11 and piston rod 12 connecting the pistons 9 and 11 and the free end associated with the actuator 13, for example with manual transmission, electric motor, turbine or other, and the control unit 14. The slave cylinder 8 is delimited by the piston 11 to the first and second areas 15 and 16 to the inputs 17 and 18, respectively, provided with suction valves, outputs, respectively 19 and 20, provided with a discharge valve, and with pulse outputs 21 and 22, respectively. The compensating cylinder 10 is delimited by the piston 11 on the first and the second region 23 and 24 to the inputs-outputs Solnymi, 33 desalinated water, 34 and 35 of the pulse. The control unit 14 contains the first logical element PROHIBITION element 36 and 37, the second logical element PROHIBITION 38 and the element And 39. The block 14 is provided with a switching input 40, the first and second control inputs 41 and 42, first and second inputs-outputs 43 and 44 and outlet 45. The plant is equipped with a nutrient inlet 46 and outlet 47 of desalinated water and drain outlet 48. Prohibiting the input of the first element PROHIBITION 36 and enables the input of the first element And 37 through the first control input 41 of the block is connected by a pipe 34 with pulse output 21 of the first region 15 of the working cylinder 8, the second area 16 which is connected through pulse output 22 by a pipe 35 with the second Manager of the entrance 42 of the block and through him with prohibiting input of the second element PROHIBITION 38 and permitting the input of the second element And 39. Switching the inputs of the first and second elements 37 and 39 through the signal input 40 of the block are connected by a pipe 29 with the output 4 of the cavity 2 of the feed water of the reverse osmosis apparatus 1. The first item 37 is connected by its output to the switching input of the first element PROHIBITION 36 and through the first input-output 43 of the block conduit 30 to the first input-output 25 of the first region 23 of the compensation cylinder 10 through him with the output of the second element And 39 and the switching input of the second element PROHIBITION 38. The first and second elements PROHIBITION 36 and 38 are connected by their outputs through the output 45 of the block and the pipe 32 to the drain outlet 48 installation. The entrance 46 of the installation connected to the source of feed water, is connected by a pipe 27 to the inputs 17 and 18 respectively of the first and second regions 15 and 16 of the working cylinder 8, the outputs 19 and 20 which are connected by pipe 28 to the input 3 of the cavity 2 of the feed water of the reverse osmosis apparatus 1. The cavity 5 of desalinated water to its outlet 6 is connected through a pipe 33 with the output 47 of desalinated water from the plant. Hydraulic logic elements 36-39 can be implemented by known technical means, such as hydraulic Bolotnikova and membrane elements.Reverse osmosis installation operates as follows.During operation of the actuator 13, for example, manually act on the rod 12, forcing the pistons 9 and 11 to make a reciprocating motion. When the pistons are moved to the right (as shown in the drawing) in region 16 of the working cylinder 8 causes the pressure to be passed through impulse piping 35 and causing the appearance of a signal on prohibiting the input of the second element PROHIBITION 38 and allows the input of the second sabotage cylinder 8 through the valve discharge outlet 20 is displaced by the pipe 28 through the reverse osmosis apparatus 1, the pipe 29 and then through the element And 39 through the conduit 31 into the region 24 of the compensation cylinder 10. At the same time, feed water from a source through the pipe 27 through the valve of the suction inlet 17 is in the area 15 of the working cylinder 8, and previously in the area 23 of the compensation cylinder 10 water is displaced by moving the piston 11 through the conduit 30 through the first element PROHIBITION 36 and then through the pipeline 32 is discharged into the drainage, for example, a source of natural salt water (lake, sea, etc). In this case, given that the diameter of the piston 9, and accordingly the flow rate of the displaced them water larger than the diameter of the piston 11 and flow sucked them water by the amount ultimately dependent on the permeability of semi-permeable membranes and the performance of the reverse osmosis apparatus 1, the cavity 2 of the reverse osmosis apparatus 1 and the mirror-located areas 16 and 24 of the pump 7 is the operating pressure. This is the working pressure exceeds the osmotic pressure of the nutrient salt water in an amount which provides the aforementioned specified performance of the reverse osmosis apparatus. In areas 15 and 23 of the pump 7 is set working pressure close to the pressure source patternwelded force, proportional only to the difference of the squares of the pistons 9 and 11 (cross-sectional areas of compensation and working cylinders), i.e., energy expended only for pumping water consumption, equal the performance of the installation. Through the reverse osmosis apparatus 1 is pumped more water flow rate required to ensure depolarization of the hydrodynamic modes in the cavity 2 of the feed water of the reverse osmosis apparatus 1. The ratio of the areas of cross-sections of the compensation cylinder 10 and the working cylinder 8 is determined by the formula StoSp(1 to G), where Sto, Spsquare cross-sections of the compensation and working cylinders, G plant capacity, it is an empirical coefficient depending on the design of the reverse osmosis apparatus (< G-1). When reaching the pistons 9 and 11 at their position moves the actuator 13 in the opposite direction (in this case from right to left). In areas 16 and 24 creates a pressure equal to the pressure in the source of feed water, and in areas 15 and 23 of the pump 7 is the operating pressure. The control signal pulse in the pipe 35 and inputs the second element of the BAN 38 and the second element And 39 disappears, and the pulse is, I can pay tithing element And 37 appears. Feed water from the area 15 of the working cylinder 8 is supplied through the valve discharge outlet 19, the pipe 28, through the reverse osmosis apparatus 1 via the pipeline 29 and then through the first element And 37 of the conduit 30 in the region 23 of the compensation cylinder 10. Feed water from a source through the pipe 27 through a valve suction inlet 18 flows into the region 16 of the working cylinder 8, preparing it for further work, and the water from the area 24 of the compensation cylinder 10 is displaced by the piston 11 through the conduit 31 through the second element PROHIBITION 38 and further through the pipeline 32 in the drainage. In the exercise by the actuator 13 of the reciprocating movement of the rod 12 and the piston 9 and 11, the system continues to operate in the manner described above, and desalinated water from the reverse osmosis apparatus 1 via line 33 is given to the consumer, for example, in the supply tank. Reverse osmosis INSTALLATION comprising a work and compensation cylinders with installed pistons dividing each cylinder into two parts and mounted on a common shaft connected to the actuator, reverse osmosis unit and the control unit, the input unit through the suction valves connected to the inputs of the first and the psychical apparatus, separated by a semi-permeable membrane in the cavity of the feed water and the cavity of desalinated water, the outputs of which are connected respectively with the switching control unit and the output of desalinated water installation, the pulse outputs of the first and second areas of the working cylinder are connected respectively with the first and second control inputs of the control unit, the output of which is connected to a drainage installation exit, and the first and second inputs and outputs are connected respectively to the inputs-outputs of the first and second regions of the compensation cylinder, characterized in that the control unit is made on the hydraulic elements performing the functions of the first and second elements And the first and second elements of the BAN, moreover, the signal input unit is connected to the switching inputs of the first and second elements And the outputs of which are connected respectively with the first and second input-output unit and the switching inputs respectively of the first and second elements of the BAN, the outputs of which are connected with the output unit, the first and second control inputs of the block are connected to allow inputs respectively of the first and second elements And prohibiting inputs respectively of the first and second element
FIELD: heat-and-power engineering; the methods of the deep desalinating of the sweet and brackish waters.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the heat-and-power engineering, in particular, to the method of the deep desalinating of the sweet and brackish waters and may be used for production of the deep desalinated water from the sweet and desalinated waters. The method of deep desalination of the sweet and brackish waters includes the sequential processes including the following stages: clarification, treatment of the clarified water with the ion-exchange filters and desalting at the reverse osmosis stage with the concentrate withdrawal from each stage of purification. At that the process of the reverse osmosis desalination is conducted at least, within two stages at the higher pressure of the purified water at each subsequent stage of desalting using the corresponding to the preset pressures diaphragms and the ratio of consumptions of permeate to the concentrate at the reverse osmosis stage in the whole within the limits of n = 7-99, and withdrawal of the concentrate is conducted from the reverse osmosis stage at each stage at regeneration of the ion-exchange filters. At the heightened contents of the organic compounds the clarified water is additionally subjected to Cl-ionization at the filters loaded with the organo-absorbing anionite, withdrawal of the concentrate from the reverse osmosis installation is conducted at the regeneration of the Cl-ionite filter and then - at the regeneration of the H-Na-cationite filter, but the withdrawal of the alkaline solution - at additional regeneration of the Cl-ionite filter. The method ensures the significant output of the permeate, the reduced consumption of the concentrate. At that the quality of the desalted water is improved and the escape of the concentrate at the stages of desalting is reduced and the consumption of the water by the installation is also reduced.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the significant output of the permeate, reduced consumption of the concentrate, improved quality of the desalted water, reduced escape of the concentrate at the stages of desalting, reduced consumption of the water by the installation.
4 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of super pure water by reverse osmosis process. Proposed device comprises reverse osmosis filter module (6) divided by membrane (8) into primary chamber (7) and secondary chamber (9) and supply tank (3) with atmospheric vent including water feed pipe (1). Pipe (5) with built-in pump (4) extends from bottom end of supply tank (3) to primary chamber (7). Return concentrate pipe (14) extends from primary chamber (7) to supply pipe (3) while permeate pipe (28) extends from secondary chamber (9). Venturi pump (20) with converging chamber (21) and diverging chamber (22) is built in return pipe (14) and includes suction hose (18) to be selectively connected by plug joint (17, 26) with tank (27) containing disinfectant or with return concentrate pipe (14) upstream of Venturi pump 20. Plug joint (17, 26) comprises two plug-in connectors. The latter when disconnected make fixed part automatically close while connection or disconnection of suction hose (18) is registered and used as a control signal for reverse osmosis.
EFFECT: disinfection process can be notably automated.
11 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for water purification according to the principle of reverse osmosis. The device for the production of superpure water according to the principle of reverse osmosis contains a reverse osmosis filter which is divided into a primary chamber and a secondary chamber, a primary circuit, through which raw water is supplied to the primary chamber and through which a concentrate is discharged from it, and a secondary circuit for the supply of a permeate to at least one consumer, preferably to a dialysis apparatus. A pump is built into a pipeline of the primary circuit, and a valve with a drain is built into the pipeline of the primary circuit concentrate. In or on the primary circuit and/or secondary circuit placed is a device for the registration of organic and/or inorganic deposits, connected with the device of data processing, with an elastic, extendable buffer vessel, adapted for carrying out reverse washing of a membrane with the permeate, being built into the secondary circuit. The device for the registration of organic and/or inorganic deposits is made with a possibility of initiating reverse washing in case of a respective degree of contamination.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce expenditures for the device exploitation due to refusal from periodic cleaning of the membrane and automatic determination of a necessity of the pipeline disinfection.
10 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for desalting of sea, hard and/or contaminated water by direct osmosis desalting. To this end, contaminated feed solution with water at first osmosis pressure is forced through semi-permeable diaphragm to discharge side that has the flow of carrier solution with second osmosis pressure on discharge side of semi-permeable diaphragm. Diluted discharge solution is heated to agglomerate discharged diluted substance to two-phase flow containing liquid phase of agglomerated dissolved substance and liquid water phase. Then, agglomerated dissolved substance is separated to get enriched flow to be cooled to obtain cooled single-phase water-rich flow to be subjected to removal of residual dissolved substance to produce purified water.
EFFECT: higher quality and desalting and purification.
23 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the liquid filtration method using the filtering module comprising the casing with at least one filtering element inside, forming the first compartment in the casing from the liquid supply side to the filtering surface, and the second compartment from the filtrate side, opposite to it, and the outlet for filtrate which is interconnected with the second compartment from a filtrate. The filtering element is arranged vertically. The filtrate outlet is located in the lower part of the filtering element. The gas-supply is provided in the second compartment from the named filtrate side in the filtering element. The compressed gas is supplied into the second compartment from the filtrate side during filtration simultaneously with stages of pressure liquid supply of under for a filtration in the first compartment and descent of the filtered liquid filtrate from the second compartment. The second compartment is simultaneously filled partially with liquid filtrate and partially with compressed gas.
EFFECT: method provides effective functioning of the filtering module during longer period of time at simultaneous decrease of operational costs.
10 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of chemical reaction of the substrate in the diluted reaction mixture containing solvent, where the reaction is selected from a reaction circuit cycle, a polymerisation reaction, enzymatic reaction, which exhibits inhibition of enzymatic reaction substrate, exhibiting inhibiting product of reaction, which exhibits deposition the substrate or reagent, and their combinations, where the method involves the following steps: a) feeding the dissolved mixture of substrate and a solvent in the reactor inlet, b) inducing interaction reaction medium in the reactor, c) discharge from the outlet hole of the reactor reaction mixture containing reaction product, solvent and unreacted substrate, d) conducting a reaction mixture at first filtration membrane with side retentate and permeate side, where the first filtration membrane is permeable for solvent, provides impermeability for substrate and has clipping substrate 80-100 %, e) returning retentate containing unreacted substrate, on the side of the first membrane filtration retentate in reactor, at the stage (a) said substrate and solvent mixture is fed into said inlet opening of said reactor of feed system with dilution of the substrate, dilution of substrate supply tank substrate; the method further includes a step of return solvent, passed through the first filtration membrane permeate side of the first membrane system to feed with dilution of the substrate for dilution of the substrate.
EFFECT: improved method of chemical reaction.
22 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device including at least two supply chambers provided with a separating piston and at least two dynamic valves adjusting the incoming water flows and at least two dynamic valves regulating the outgoing water flows, differing in that the supply chambers are made inside one pressure housing and separated by the separating piston; the separating piston is movable along the axis connecting the supply chambers: the dynamic valves adjusting the incoming flows are made in the form of a fixed wheel with a side opening and a rotary wheel, which portion of the side surface is made in form of guide partitions; the dynamic valves adjusting the outcoming water flows are made in form of two discs with through holes, one of which is fixed, and the other one is rotatable and rigidly connected to the rotary wheel of the corresponding dynamic valve adjusting the incoming flow, and configured to rotate together with it. The hole in the rotary wheel and the corresponding rotating disc is rigidly fixed thereto. The through holes of the rotary wheels and the rotating discs rigidly connected to them, each of dynamic valve is offset with respect to the through holes in the fixed discs.
EFFECT: reduced electric power consumption, simplified device design, improved reliability during operation and reduced capital costs of fabrication.
12 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: water purification plant contains a programmable control unit 27, filters of coarse 1 and fine 2 mechanical purification, the first 3 and the second 4 reverse-osmosis membrane filters, a pump 5 for pumping water, an input 9 and an output 33 solenoid valves, an electronic pressure sensor 8; mounted in the pipeline on stream water meters 10, 11, 12 from the first to the third, the first 13 and the second 14 monitoring nodes of concentration of impurities in the water, the first 15 and the second 16 sensors of "dry running", a pressure relay 17 of purified water, a return valve 18, shut-off valves 19, 20, 21, 22 from the first to the fourth, pressure gauges 23, 24, 25, 26 from the first to the fourth, a UV radiation chamber 7.
EFFECT: invention allows to obtain the purified water of the required quality at the outlet of the plant, depending on its further use.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: operative manufacture planning.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on use of computer system, including an optimizer, tables for selection of goal function, block for determination of optimization method. Database for recording inputted information and received results is used as well as block for importing data concerning initial state of reservoir fleet and mixing task. Graphic user interface is used to indicate and alter current data during creation of timetable, parameters for optimizer adjustment and indication of textual and graphical system reports. Block for controlling trustworthiness of initial data for forming the best timetable, block for generation of optimization task matrix and block for interpretation of results of optimization task solution are used. Data concerning amount of components, admixtures and product oils in all mixing reservoirs at the moment of beginning of timetable creation, concerning planned tasks for readiness of product oils at certain time moment in accordance to shipment graph, concerning mixing receipts and certification time for each oil, concerning mixing time and readjustment of mixing reservoir during transfer from one oil type to another, concerning speed of feeding of each component and admixture from appropriate reservoirs, concerning configuration of area of mixing and amount of mixing reservoirs are all transferred to computer system from data import block. After check of physical possibility, linear programming matrix is generated for use by optimizer, which automatically selects an optimization method for determination of the best timetable, which is interpreted in form of series of mixing of given product oils, beginning and ending time for each mixing, transfer of each component and admixture from appropriate reservoirs for mixing of each oil, beginning and ending time for feeding of prepared oil directly after mixing and certification into appropriate product reservoir, time of switching feeding of component after filling of one component reservoir to another by results interpretation block.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: automatic malting process.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing continuous malting process in rotating drum; measuring and stabilizing temperature of malt by changing air flow rate for cooling of grain under germination procedure; additionally measuring malt moisture content and regulating it depending on changing of malt moisture content as compared to set values by changing water supply for grain moistening during germination process; also, regulating water supply for cooling air and correcting changing of air flow rate for cooling of grain under germination process depending on changed temperature of malt as compared to set values.
EFFECT: improved quality of malt and optimized controlling of malting process.
FIELD: biotechnology and microbiological industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns governing periodical air-intake biotechnological process carried out in bioreactor. Method comprises measuring oxygen content in effluent gas, working volume of culture medium, concentration of biomass, and concentration of intermediate product of its vital activity. Measured parameters allow specific oxygen consumption rate and velocity of intermediate product concentration change to be determined to enable regulation of feeding air used in aeration, supplying nutritional medium, and agitating culture medium. Moreover, temperature of culture medium, temperature of supplied and withdrawn cooling agent, and consumption of the latter are measured to use these parameters for determining biomass heat release rate and velocity of intermediate product amount change. The two latter parameters enable regulation of feeding air used in aeration and supplying nutritional medium. The following characteristics are thus improved: elevating power by 8.1%, maltase activity by 7.9% and resistance by 7.4%.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of governing biotechnological process and improved qualitative characteristics of process.