A method of manufacturing a primary mirrors for reflector telescope
(57) Abstract:Usage: for making telescope mirrors. The essence of the invention: each mirror element is made, connecting the top plate, the frame of honeycomb structure and the base, and each cover plate shape corresponding to its location on the spherical surface of the primary mirror, and the final grinding and polishing carried out separately for each mirror element, or by setting them in the collection. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to methods of making telescope mirrors.There is a method of fabrication of the primary mirror reflector telescope whose primary mirror is formed from 35 hexagonal mirror elements placed in the form of honeycombs on the mirror surface, and in the center of the left notch on one mirror element for monitoring cassegrainian focus. Manufacture of individual hexagonal mirror elements is very difficult. They are remote from the axis sections of the paraboloid, which should be hexagonal in plan view  In the manufacture of charge around the workpiece, giving it the desired shape by the application on the Orme. After removing this effort get the mirror element of a given shape, representing (if efforts have been selected correctly) section of the paraboloid. Experience shows, however, that when cutting hexagon having curvature.There is a method of fabrication of the primary mirror reflector telescope whose elements made in the form of round disks  and for producing the final shape of the mirror surface carry out the final grinding and polishing.The purpose of the invention is to provide a method of fabrication of the primary mirror, which would allow to provide a simple and inexpensive manufacture as a separate mirror elements and the primary mirror as a whole.The purpose is due to the fact that in the method of manufacturing a primary mirrors for reflector telescope, consisting of mirror elements, which are mounting and adjusting elements, wherein for producing the final shape of the mirror surface carry out the final grinding and polishing, are made separately for each mirror element cover plate, frame made of material of low mass with cellular structures of the form corresponding to the location of the surface of the cover plate on the aspherical surface of the primary mirror, connecting the top plate with the corresponding frames from a material of a small mass with a honeycomb structure and base plates in the mirror elements, and the final grinding and polishing carried out separately for each mirror element, or by setting them in the collection, and then collect from the mirror elements of the primary mirror, forming the surface of a round shape with a round center hole.The final grinding and polishing can be done processing device, controlled from the computer in polar coordinates.In Fig.1 primary mirror with a Central hole, a top view; Fig. 2 hexagonal element primary mirror of Fig.1, a perspective view.The primary mirror 1 mirror telescope, is shown in Fig.1, consists of a large number of individual polygonal mirror elements. The outer edge of the primary mirror 1 is formed of a polygonal mirror elements 2-7 various forms, the outer edges of which have a radius of curvature of the primary mirror 1. Inside, joining them other mirror elements 8, 9,Islom hexagonal mirror elements 10. To the center of the mirror 1 is formed a round hole 11, there are several polygonal elements 12, 13 of different shape, the inner edge which has a radius of curvature of the Central hole 11. The primary mirror is preferably parabolic in shape, but may have a different form. Due to the large overall diameter or a large total aperture of the primary mirror of its individual elements, adjacent to the Central mirror elements that are off-axis sections of the primary mirror, grind and Polish individually or in the collection.In Fig. 2 shows a hexagonal element 10 of the primary mirror 1 containing the cover plate 14, the frame 15 of a material of a small mass with a honeycomb structure, for example of quartz or ceramic, and the base plate 16. For making an individual mirror element cover plate 14 attached in a special molding device defined geometric form, and then through the frame 15 is connected to the support plate 16, for example, by welding. In conclusion, spend grinding and polishing of the surfaces of the mirror element to the end of the form. This grinding can be a single or group several mirror elements having the s mainly hexagonal or polygonal shape with arc edge, grinded and polished to provide a grinding and polishing tool degree of freedom, leading to the specified form off-axis plot generated primary mirror. This can occur with the participation of computers in management by means of polar coordinates, and ground and polished directly away from the axis of the mirror elements adjacent to each other almost without gaps. On the lower sides of the mirror elements include elements supports and alignment, which include tilt sensors. Thus, each mirror element can be adjusted individually in the direction of the overall focus. This is done under control of a computer to strict tolerances. Optically ineffective dividing line does not create thereby preventing thermal radiation and do not have any impact on image quality. 1. A method of MANUFACTURING a PRIMARY MIRRORS FOR reflector TELESCOPE consisting of N mirror elements, which are mounting and adjusting elements, wherein for producing the final shape of the mirror surface carry out the final grinding and polishing, characterized in that izgotavlival structure and the base plate, give the surface of each cover plate using formatado tool shape corresponding to the location of the top surface of this plate on the aspherical surface of the primary mirror, connecting the top plate with the corresponding frames with a honeycomb structure and base plates in the mirror elements, and the final grinding and polishing carried out separately for each mirror element, or by setting them in the collection, and then collect from the mirror elements of the primary mirror, forming the surface of a round shape with a round center hole.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the final grinding and polishing carry out processing device, controlled from the computer in polar coordinates.
FIELD: training of layers, simulation of target selection at various remoteness from the layer in different conditions of illuminance on the background of the terrain.
SUBSTANCE: the trainer is made in the form of a small-sized simulator of a sight-laying instrument with a body, cover and two sight channels. Each channel has an ocular, block of lenses, mirror located in the body. A beam splitter in the form of a block of prisms, lens in a cell and a tube, in which a block of objective lenses collective lens with a reticule, objective lens are located and fastened, are located and fastened inside the instrument body on a common rack. The splitter and the tube make up the sight axis of the instrument beam. The lens in the cell with the reflected sight beam from the splitter make up a reference sight axis in parallel with the instrument sight axis. The optic axis passes through the sight axis and the reference sight axis. The rack is fastened to the body bottom and the cover.
EFFECT: enhanced skill of operation of the layer with a simultaneous control of data and target in the real conditions of terrain illuminance, as well as simplified construction of the trainer.
FIELD: optical and mechanical tool-making industry, possible use for creating binocular devices for panoramic surveillance, orientation, detection, scouting of area and recognition of targets.
SUBSTANCE: optical panoramic system contains head reflector, rectifying prism, immobile ocular part composed of two branches with serially mounted objective and ocular, behind head reflector two identical head telescopic systems are mounted, each one being provided with head rhombic reflector, identical to the other. Outlet pupil of each head telescopic system is combined with outlet reflecting side of native rhombic reflector. Ocular part is upgraded with second ocular branch. In front of ocular part mounted immovably symmetrically relatively to optical vertical axis are mutually identical ocular rhombic reflectors.
EFFECT: creation of optical panoramic binocular system, which increased informative efficiency and general efficiency of observation, decreased fatigability of operator.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: optical instrument, engineering, in particular, sighting devices, mainly for objects of the armored material.
SUBSTANCE: the combination multi-channel sight has an objective lens, eye-piece and a revolver device. The revolver device has at least two openings, a reticle with lines and a revolving system are installed in the first one. The second reticle with lines is located in the focal plate of the eye-piece. Distance δ2 between the lines of the second reticle is related with distance δ1 between the similar lines of the first reticle by relation: δ2=α·β·δ1, where α-the linear magnification of the electron-optical transducer; β-the linear magnification of the second revolving system.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of fire, as well as improved visibility and quality of the laying mark in all operating conditions of the sight.
7 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: physics, video equipment.
SUBSTANCE: input element of television surveillance device is intended for complex of surveillance facilities of driver of armored vehicles, which are used in objects of nuclear industry and power engineering. Device contains casing, protective glass and three television cameras with three prisms AP-90° are installed in front of them. Every camera includes television light transducer and lens. Camera lens and prism are made of radiation-resistant glasses.
EFFECT: creation of element of television surveillance device that supports work of special purpose vehicle driver.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: panoramic system contains two identical head telescopic systems with a head mirror for each one, mounted coaxially to each other at right angle to the vertical optical axis with possibility of synchronous rotational displacement round the vertical optical axis on which the rectifying prism is mounted with rotational displacement possibility, together with two mirrors mounted in front of it, reflecting which facets are combined with target pupils of head telescopic systems corresponding to them. One of mirrors has the form of a rectangular prism with a roof, and another - in the form of a rectangular prism. Behind a rectifying prism is mounted an immobile ocular telescopic system with two mirrors in the form of a prism-rhombus behind which target facets the binocular part of system is placed.
EFFECT: increase of informativeness and efficiencies of observation for the account of three-axis rotational displacement of optical axes of vising behind the purpose in a review hemisphere, magnification of radius of stereoscopic sight and depth of analysed space of observation.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device has spherical radome, a laser emitter, a plane mirror lying at an angle to the optical axis, and a lens which is optically connected to a photodetector, the signal from which is transmitted to a unit for receiving commands and processing information which is connected to the laser emitter launching input. The plane mirror has an axial hole through which laser radiation from the laser emitter passes. Radiation reflected from the plane mirror falls in the lens which is made in form of two optical branches. Between the optical branches there is an attenuator operating on the effect of violation of total internal reflection, whose control input is connected to one output of the unit for receiving commands and processing information which is fitted with a circuit for controlling the attenuator using the signal from the laser emitter.
EFFECT: increased protection of the device from intra-device flares and from the signal reflected from an object near the device.
SUBSTANCE: system has two identical head telescopic systems with a head reflector for each, fitted coaxially relative each other at a right angle to the vertical optical axis on which a porro prism is fitted together with two reflectors with possibility of turning. The head reflectors are fitted with possibility of turning. Behind the porro prism on the vertical optical axis there is a double-lens ocular telescopic system, two rhomb-shaped reflectors, ocular reflectors and a binocular part with identical lenses and oculars. Between the lenses of the ocular telescopic system there is a reflector in form of a pentaprism fitted with possibility of its movement from the optical axis behind the exit plane, on the optical axis, there is a second output lens of the ocular telescopic system, two rhomb-shaped reflectors, behind the exit planes of which there are identical lenses and oculars. On the vertical optical axis behind the second lens of the ocular telescopic system there is a rhomb-shaped reflector and a prism with a cover, and behind their exit planes there are identical digital electro-optical cameras fitted with possibility of taking images and displaying information on a monitor placed in the focal plane of the second lens of the ocular telescopic system when the ocular reflector is moved from the vertical optical axis.
EFFECT: more accurate evaluation of distance on depth of space and information content.
SUBSTANCE: device contains a binocular telescope sight comprising two parallel anallactic telescopes, each of them capable of switching on an object lens, an inversion optical system and a view lens. One of the sight tubes comprises a grid with a telescope laying mark. A handpiece channel comprises a laser emitter with an optical system. A receiving channel comprises a photodetector with a receiving lens, wherein the receiving lens is superimposed with the lens of one of the anallactic telescopes. A display resolver is connected to the laser emitter and the receiving channel outputs. Each of the anallactic telescopes house two parallel inclined mirrors. The first inclined mirror located closer to the lens in one of the telescopes is a spectrum- dividing element. A sensitive photodetector area is conjugated with the telescope laying mark. The second anallactic telescope houses a second photodetector, its first inclined mirror being a spectrum- dividing element. The output of the second photodetector is connected to the resolver.
EFFECT: enhanced obtained range without the increase of the rangefinder binoculars dimensions.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a binocular sighting device consisting of two parallel viewing tubes, each having a lens, an erecting system and an eyeglass. One of the tubes has a net with an aiming mark. The emitter channel has a laser emitter with an optical system. The receiving channel has a photodetector with a receiving lens. The receiving lens is superimposed with the lens of one of the viewing tubes. Each viewing tube has two parallel slanted mirrors. In one of the tubes, the slanted mirror near the lens is a spectrum divider element. The second slanted mirror is displaced from the first mirror and reflects visible radiation towards the eyeglass. The erecting systems are in form of Pechan prism-erecting systems. The net is fitted in the viewing tube interfaced with the photodetector. The net, slanted mirrors and photodetector are in form of a monoblock. The eyeglass and slanted mirrors of the viewing tube without a net can turn about the optical axis of the lens of that tube.
EFFECT: smaller size of the laser range-finding binoculars with maximum light transmissio of its optical channels.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has an azimuthal platform with a drive and a drive control unit, an optical system and a photodetector array. The optical system is mounted on the azimuthal platform. The photodetector array is placed in the focal plane of the optical system. An optical compensator is placed in front of the photodetector array on a revolving platform with an angle sensor and is in form of a refracting prism with an even number N of faces. The input of the unit for generating synchronisation signals is connected to the angle sensor and the output is connected to the frame synchronisation input of the photodetector array. The axis of the revolving platform is linked to the axis of the azimuthal platform by a multiplier with transfer constant Km equal to: Km=2π/β-N.
EFFECT: obtaining quality video frames using a photodetector array with all-round view of the surrounding space with constant scanning speed.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: at least two dielectric layers are produced with preset thickness. Layers are disposed one onto the other to form pack of layers. Thickness of layer packs is subject to reduction and thicknesses of separate layers are similarly reduced by means of deforming layer packs to keep relation of thicknesses or relation of thicknesses of layers. Layer pack is disposed between two carrying layers before subjecting the layers to deformation. At least one carrying layer is formed from several separate layers, which are supposed to be disposed subsequently at the end of process of partial deformation at any previous layer of carrying layer. Separate layers of carrying layer can be overlayed onto previous separate layers of carrying layer.
EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; improved reflection factor.
FIELD: mirror systems of observation.
SUBSTANCE: coordinates of point of driver's eye and reference point at object to be observed in the driver mirror are measured by rule as well as reference point at mirror of transportation vehicle. Angles of inclination of mirror to coordinate planes are found from relations mentioned in formula of invention. Inclination of driving mirror to coordinate planes is determined. Random point at object of observation is preset and its coordinates are measured by means of measuring tape. Coordinates of point in mirror are calculated where the light beam reflects from the mirror and enters driver's eye. Procedure repeats many times for many random points at object of observation and coordinates of corresponding points of reflection at plane of mirror are found. Shape and sizes of mirror are determined by end points of reflection.
EFFECT: simplified determining of shape and sizes of mirror; improved precision of orientation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: optical instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for wide-band light reflecting. Reflecting surface has dielectric layers A, B and C. A layer is made of material having low refractivity, B layer is made of material with average refractivity and C layer is made of material having high reflectivity. Optical thickness of layers equals to λr/4, where λr is wavelength of middle part of interval having high refractivity. Sequence of layer alternation looks like (CDCABA)KCBC, where K>=and has to be integer. Spectrum range with high reflectivity is widened due to shift in adjacent bandwidths at opposite sides along wavelength scale.
EFFECT: widened spectrum range with higher refractivity.
FIELD: optical industry.
SUBSTANCE: mirror can be used when producing optical reflecting systems in lasers and experimental physics. Mirror has transparent dielectric base. Metal coating is applied onto the base. Coating has to nanoparticles, for example, silver nanoparticles, which have plasma resonance at electromagnet radiation frequency. The mirror intends to reflect the radiation. Linear dimensions are far smaller than the radiation wavelength. Nanoparticles are applied uniformly onto surface of the base to cover 15% of its area. Thickness of mirror is reduced to minimal size; size of spot of reflected radiation in focus is reduced.
EFFECT: reduced thickness of mirror; improved precision.
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: integral micromechanical mirror has substrate to place four electrodes onto it. Four additional electrodes of capacitive movement converters are disposed onto the substrate in such a manner to form flat capacitor with mirror element. One additional fixing plate is disposed under mirror element directly onto substrate. There are torsion beams placed in such a way that they connect mirror element with fixing plate. Mirror element, torsion beams, electrodes of electrostatic drives and capacitive converters as well as fixing plate are made of semiconductor material. Area of substrate used for placing integral mirror is reduced. Position of mirror element is subject to control relatively the substrate.
EFFECT: improved reliability of operation.
FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.
EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical observation devices for use on automobiles and other vehicles. proposed system of mirrors contains rear view mirror 7, outer side mirrors 8, 9 and inner side mirror 5, 6, additional mirrors 10, 11, 12 and front mirror 4. Front mirror 4 and inner side mirrors 5, 6 are arranged in driver's field of vision. Front mirror 4 consists of separate adjustable parts 4а, 4б, 4в and it reflects panorama of spaces behind and at both sides from driver from rear view mirror 7 and outer side mirrors 8, 9. Inner side mirrors 5, 6 reflect directly parts of spaces arranged at both sides from driver which are not seen in outer side mirrors 8, 9.
EFFECT: provision of safety on the road owing to panoramic reflection of rear and side spaces around vehicle.
5 cl, 25 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical devices of automobiles, particularly, to front view mirrors. Front view device for automobiles with steering wheel at right side contains two mirrors installed inside automobile at angle relative to each other with possibility of providing periscopic effect and reflecting front part of road. Like sizes of mirrors and distance between mirrors and between mirrors and driver are in following relationship: B1:B2=(L1+L2):L2 where B1, B2 are like sizes of reflecting surfaces of first and second mirrors, respectively; L1, L2 are distances from first mirror to second mirror and from second mirror to driver, respectively.
EFFECT: improved quality of picture and reliability of front view device.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the group of inventions refer to laser technique and may be used in mirror elements of laser resonators and in arrangements for transmission of laser radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the laser mirror has two identical, not communicating between themselves, symmetrical priming contours of heat-carrying agents located between the front plate on whose exterior side a reflective surface is fulfilled, and the rear plate on both sides of the diagram located in the symmetry plane of the arrangement. Each of the priming contour of the heat-carrying agents is fulfilled in the shape of in-series located, beginning from the diagram, a driving collector, a draining collector, a heat exchanger whose exterior surface adjoins to the inner surface of the corresponding plate. The cavity of the driving collector is connected via channels passing through the draining collector with the heat-exchanger which is connected with the cavity of the draining collector. In the second variant of the arrangement the reflective surfaces of the laser mirror are fulfilled on the exterior sides of the front and the rear plates. The heat exchangers are fulfilled in the shape of identical infiltration elements of the same sizes and forms correspondingly to the front and the rear plates.
EFFECT: reduces thermal distortions of the reflective surface and also increases the service term of the laser mirror.
4 cl, 1 dwg