A device for determining the moisture content of sawn timber

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: woodworking industry, drying of stacks of lumber in the cells of periodic action. The inventive device for determining the moisture content of lumber includes weight sensors, which are made with the use of strain gages installed on podstrelennoy cart, block registration, control, measuring and switching, adder, approximation, blocks, determinants of the final drying time, the final mass of the pile, the current mass of the pile, the equilibrium moisture content and the current moisture content of materials, the differentiator and the time counter. 5 Il., table 1.

The invention relates to woodworking industry and can be used for drying of stacks of lumber in the cells of periodic action.

Improving the efficiency of the drying humidity-controlled timber industrial drying plants is an urgent task for the woodworking industry.

A device for determining the moisture content of the pile, containing mechanical sensors shrinkage of lumber associated with electrical displacement transducer the implementation, that excludes the possibility of its use in industry [1]

A device for measuring the moisture of the paper web containing moisture meters, weight sensor, calculating a crucial block [2] However, use it when drying is not possible, because the device does not provide the task.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a device for determining the moisture content of lumber containing weight sensors, the registration unit and the control unit [3]

Changing the temperature in the drying process will lead to an unmanageable error caused by change of fluid pressure in the device, which will reduce the humidity measurement accuracy.

The purpose of the invention improve the efficiency of production operations and reliability of measurements of moisture content during drying of lumber.

In the device for determining the moisture content of lumber during drying, containing podstelennuyu cart, weight sensors, measurement systems, each weight sensor is made in the form of a load cell that contains the rod and the strain gages installed on the membrane attached to the housing, the sensors Usachyov, while the strain gages of each sensor is connected via a plug and socket, placed on podstrelennoy cart, measuring system, and the sensor housing is provided with horizontal and vertical supports for the rod. In order to increase the reliability of results in the measurement system of the apparatus for determining the moisture content of the pile of lumber containing block adder, a registering device connected between the weight sensor and recording device switching unit and the measurement unit of approximation, the differentiator, the unit-determinant of the final drying time, the unit-determinant of the final mass of the pile, the unit-determinant of the equilibrium moisture content, unit-determinant of the current mass of the pile, the control unit, the timer, the unit for calculating the current moisture content of the pile, with its outlet connected with the registration unit, and the three inputs are connected with the corresponding outputs of the block determinant of finite mass the output of the block identifier of the current mass of the pile, the first entrance through which the time counter is connected with the control unit, the second input is connected with the output of the block approximation, consistently connected to the differentiator, the block identifier in the final drying time and the first input of the block opredelenijaja adder, the input block of the adder are connected to the corresponding outputs of the sensors weight through the unit of measurement and switching, connected to the control unit, the block of the equilibrium moisture content of lumber is connected to the outputs of the temperature sensors and the degree of saturation of air in the chamber.

The device eliminates the need for sampling of lumber from the pile, their subsequent final drying and weighing to determine before the beginning of the drying process of the mass of absolutely dry stacks, this value is calculated directly in the drying process by analyzing changes over time weight stacks implemented in the initial drying period on the basis of three to four measurements.

Due to the inclusion in the system of the measurement device for determining the moisture content of the differentiator, adder, block-identifier end time drying unit calculating the current mass of the pile, block calculate the final mass of the pile, they gain the ability to predict the moisture content of lumber during the drying process with the required accuracy, which ensures effective regulation of the parameters of the drying agent in the chamber to reduce drying time, improve the quality of products is tailored in as sensors use strain gages, greatly simplifies the implementation of the technical solutions in the industry and does not require major reconstruction of the drying chambers.

As a result of implementation of the invention achieve high technical and economic effect: reduce the time and material work on carrying out the drying of wood, improve the quality of the final product.

In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of installation of the pile of lumber in the kiln of Fig.2 structural diagram of a weight sensor of Fig.3 section a-a in Fig.2; Fig.4 depicts a block diagram of the measurement system of Fig.5 presents the dependence of the mass of the pile in drying time by measuring the weight, the weight of the absolutely dry stacks and mass equilibrium moisture in the pile.

An example of the method of drying.

Lumber in advance is placed in a pile on podstrelennoy cart and loaded into the drying chamber through the plug connector plug weight sensors installed on podstrelennoy cart, with the measuring system is placed outside the chamber, carry out the initial heating of the wood supply in the camera hot drying agent and removal of the camera. Then for a given mode, perform processesare sensors weight. To determine wood moisture measuring the weight of the pile in three or four points, corresponding to different moments of time. The period of time between measurements can be 1-10 h, the specific value is determined based on the selected mode of drying, types of wood, the type of drying device. Based on measurements calculated approximating the dependence of the mass of the pile from drying time, determine the equation of the drying rate, calculate the final drying time and the calculated value of absolutely dry mass of the pile periodically determine the estimated value of the current moisture content of the stack at desired moments of time in the process, and the drying of produce to achieve the moisture content of lumber in the stack is the value required in accordance with technical condition.

When drying chamber stacks the period of constant drying rate is missing, so the current values of the masses of lumber, some weighing approximate the least-squares exponential polynomial

M()ajj(1) where ajthe coefficient of the polynomial;

the current time;

k the degree of the polynomial.

The choice of the degree of the polynomial effected on the basis of the required tecnomen time is defined as the ratio of the difference between the measured mass of the pile and it is calculated according to approximarely the polynomial values to the measured weight of the pile

100% (2)

For this example we used the polynomial of degree k 1 (linear dependence) and a polynomial of degree k 2 (parabolic dependence). Based on the analysis of the errors presented in the table, the best approximation of the measured values of the mass of the pile is achieved by the use of a parabolic dependence of the form

M( ) 19,99 0,153 +

+ 6,66 10-42. (3)

Equation drying rate is determined by the differentiation power of polynomial-time

jajj-1(4) For this example

-0,153+1,33210-3(5) the Moisture of the pile will be removed and its weight reaches a constant value, provided that the drying speed becomes equal to zero.

From this condition, by equating equation (5) to zero, calculate the final drying time

Kon= =C (6)

At the end of the drying process the mass of the pile is defined as

MKon) Mdry+ Mp, (7) where Mpmass equilibrium (non-removable) of moisture in the pile.

Using relations (7) calculate the mass of absolutely dry stacks. The value of Mpdetermined by the well-known dependency of the equilibrium moisture content of lumber Wpfrom these parameters of the drying agent in the ear of the environment in the chamber.

Since

Mp= Mdry(8) equation (7) can be written as

M(Kon) 1+ Mdry(9)

From the formula (9) obtained an expression for the calculation of the mass of absolutely dry pile

Mdry(10)

Substituting the expression (10) in formula (1), gain ratio for calculating the current moisture content of the pile on the proposed method

W(1) 1+ -1100%

(11)

For the considered example of the drying chamber temperature t 30oand the degree of saturation of 0.55, which corresponds to the value of Wp10% calculations of the moisture content of the pile for drying time spent for the data shown in Fig.5, are illustrated by table.

As follows from the table, the desired final moisture content of the wood is equal to W 13% are provided at a given drying mode after 100 h after the start of the process, then heating stopped and the stack is unloaded from the drying chamber.

According Fig.1-3, a device for measuring the moisture content of the lumber contains the installation plate 1 with grooves under the rods 2 sensors 3 weight based on strain gauges, weight sensor consists of a shaft 2 mounted in the housing 4, United with him through the membrane 5, the membrane of RA the rod 2, made on the base 7 and the cover 8 of the housing 4.

Sensors 3 weight placed on podstrelennoy cart 10 that is installed on the inlet railway tracks 11 of the drying chamber 12, and is connected via a plug connector 9 system 13 measurements. The sensors are installed on podstrelennoy cart 10 in points 14 of the fastening.

Measuring device for determining the moisture content of lumber, as shown in Fig. 4, includes a measurement unit 15 and the switching adder block 16, block 17 approximation, the differentiator 18, block-identifier 19 final drying time, the block identifier 20 ultimate mass stack, block-identifier 21 equilibrium moisture content, unit 22 for calculating the current moisture content of the lumber, block 23 registration unit 24 of the control counter 25 time unit 26 for calculating the current mass of the pile. The output unit 22 for calculating the current humidity is associated with a block 23 of the Desk, and the three inputs are connected with the corresponding outputs of the block-identifier 21 equilibrium moisture, block-identifier 20 of the final mass of the pile and the output of the block-identifier 26 of the current mass of the pile, the first input through the meter 25 time associated with the block 24 of the control, the second input is connected with the output unit 17 of the approximation, posledovatelnostei 20 ultimate mass stack the second input is connected with the output unit 17 of the approximation, the input of which is connected with the output of adder 16, and the input unit 16 of the adder are connected to the corresponding outputs of the sensors 3 weight through the block 15 measurements and switching, connected to the unit 24 of the control.

The device for determining the moisture content of the lumber is carried out as follows.

Determination of moisture content of lumber carried out by weighing. With this purpose, set the stack 27 on plate 1, through which the rods 2 affects membrane 5 sensors 3 weight, causing them to SAG, accompanied by a change in resistance of the strain gages 6, which creates in the electric circuit of the sensor 3 weight change of the electric signal proportional to the magnitude of the applied load, which is fixed in the measuring system 13. On the basis of the change in resistance of the strain gages 6 determine the amount of load sensors 3 weight as necessary drying time. The electrical signal from the sensors 3 weight through the plug 9 is fed into the system 13 measurements.

To eliminate excessive transverse and axial loads on the sensors 3 weight in the construction of the housing 4 is provided by the stops will limit the Gent, which pipe 29 away from the camera.

A device for determining the moisture content of the lumber is as follows.

After warming up the pile of lumber on the command unit 24 controls include counter 25 time and the switching unit 15 and dimensions through which is periodic connection system 13 to the sensors 3 weight. After specified periods of time the electrical signals from the sensors 3 weight through block 15 switching and measurements flow in the adder 16, which calculate the average mass of the pile of lumber in a given time. Three or four mass values in block 17 of the approximation calculate the power-law polynomial dependence of the current mass of the pile from drying time, which differentiate in the block 18 to determine the equation of the drying rate, in block 19 solve the equation drying rate and calculate the final drying time of the stack, the value is entered in block 20, where I expect the final mass of the pile. Estimated current weight of the pile is determined in block 26, the input of which receives signals from the counter 25 time block 17 approximation.

The calculation of the value of the current moisture content of the lumber produced in block 22, wssi pile, and from the block 21 a signal corresponding to the equilibrium moisture content of lumber. The current moisture content of lumber in the stack is carried out in block 23.

The device allows you to set the current moisture content of lumber during drying chamber, and if necessary to carry out the adjustment calculated in the initial period of drying humidity values of lumber on the basis of measurements of the mass of the pile in the middle of the drying process, which significantly increases the reliability of the measurements.

A DEVICE FOR determining the MOISTURE content of LUMBER containing a weight sensor, a recording unit and a control unit, characterized in that it comprises a measurement unit and a switching unit adder unit approximation, the differentiator, the unit-determinant of the final drying time, the unit-determinant of the final mass of the pile, the block identifier of the current mass of the pile, the time counter, the unit-determinant of the equilibrium moisture content, unit-determinant of the current moisture content of the lumber, and the unit of measurement and switching is connected to the first output control unit, and a weight sensor, and outputs to the inputs of the block adder, the output of which is connected with the block approximation, the first output of which is directly connected to the inputs of unit-determinant of the final mass of the pile, the output of which is connected to the first input unit for calculating the current humidity to the second input of which is connected the unit-determinant of the equilibrium moisture content, and the output unit calculating the current humidity is associated with the registration unit, the second output control unit through the time counter connected to the first input unit calculating the current mass of the pile to the second input of which is connected to the third output block approximation, and the output unit calculating the current mass of the pile is connected with the third input unit for calculating the current humidity.

 

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