The method of obtaining aliphatic alcohols for the production of motor fuels
(57) Abstract:Use: in the production of motor fuels. The essence of the invention: aliphatic alcohols obtained from the synthesis gas in the presence of atlantabased gas concentration in the gas phase is 0.05 to 3.0 vol.%, better 0,25 - 3,00% vol., when the ratio of H2/CO in the synthesis gas 1,8 - 2,2, Zn-Cr-K-V-catalyst 378 - 400°C. for 1 h.p. f-crystals, 1 table. The invention relates to the chemical, petrochemical and chemical industry and can be used in joint receipt of methanol and aliphatic alcohols WITH2-C4for their application as high-octane components of motor fuels. A known method for simultaneous production of methanol and aliphatic alcohols WITH2-C4+...from synthesis gas installation flow type with the organization of the circulation gas 
Closest to the claimed solution is the way  joint production of methanol and aliphatic alcohols WITH2-C4+...from synthesis gas at elevated temperature and pressure by hydrogenation of carbon oxides in the presence of a solid oxide catalyst (prototype).The disadvantage of this method  is a significant predominance of methanol in peoplewe adding thereto synthesized by the method  alcohols to increase the octane number instead of the highly toxic Tetra-ethyl lead. Thus, when a mixture of alcohols (15 wt.) with a ratio of1:C4+...-5,2 with gasoline (85) fuel stratified already at a temperature of minus 5aboutWith, and with the addition of aliphatic alcohols WITH1-C4+...with a ratio of1: C4+...is 12.5 and the same conditions fuel stratified even when the temperature plus 15aboutC. the disadvantage of the prototype  is also a low concentration of aliphatic alcohols with the number of carbon atoms 5 and above, which reduces the caloric content of the composite fuel.The aim of the invention is to increase the selectivity of the process for aliphatic alcohols with the number of carbon atoms 4 and above, as well as increasing the concentration of alcohols WITH5+...in the resulting reaction mixture.This objective is achieved in that during production of alcohols from synthesis gas on a zinc-chromium-potassium-vanadium catalyst at elevated temperatures and pressures, according to the invention, in the area of catalysis, together with the synthesis gas is introduced atlantagay gas. Concentration atlantabased gas mixed with the synthesis gas is in the range of 0.05-3,00 about. mainly 0,25-3,00 about. The ratio of N2/CO in the synthesis gas is 1.8-2.2 and the process is conducted at 378-400aboutC.
2/FROM 1.8 to 2.2, the concentration of CO20,8 about. inert components methane+nitrogen not more than about 4. served in the area of catalysis reactor flow type. The catalyst for the synthesis of modified zinc-chromium-potassium-vanadium.The composition of the catalyst, wt. zinc oxide 64,7; chromium oxide 28,8; the oxide of potassium 2,5; vanadium pentoxide 1,0; graphite 3,0, including impurities, not more than wt. mass fraction of iron in terms of Fe2O30,04; mass fraction of total sulphur in terms of SO3the 0.01 mass fraction of the sum of alkali metals in terms of K2About 0,04. The size of the granules of catalyst 2x3 mm; the rich density of 1.65 g/cm3the volume of catalyst in the reactor 40 cm3; mass of catalyst 66, the Temperature at the entrance to the area of catalysis 378aboutWith output 400aboutC. the Pressure of the synthesis 24,9 MPa. In the area of catalysis serves synthesis gas at a rate of 600 nl/h together with atlantabased gas. Atlantagay gas is produced by conversion of methanol and/or ethanol and/or propanol and/or butyl alcohols vysokoglinozemistykh zeolite catalysts or in the process of discharge from the coke oven gas, or as a gaseous waste products of high-pressure polyethylene.The composition atelinae,8; H22,7. Concentration atlantabased gas (ESG) in the synthesis gas about 0. Performance 1 cm3catalyst for aliphatic alcohols WITH1-C4+...-0,73 g/h Ratio1: C4+...in the mixture of alcohols -4,72. The concentration of aliphatic alcohols WITH4+...the products of synthesis is 16,71 wt. including alcohols WITH5+...-2,71 wt. (see table).P R I m m e R 2. Conditions for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohols are the same as in example 1. Concentration atlantabased gas (ESG) in the synthesis gas is 0.05. Data on the performance of the catalyst for aliphatic alcohols and their composition is presented in table. The value OF1: C4+...- -4,41. The concentration of aliphatic alcohols WITH4+...the products of synthesis is 17,63 wt. including alcohols WITH5+...- -2,96 wt.P R I m e R 3. Conditions for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohols are the same as in example 1. Concentration atlantabased gas (ash) mixed with the synthesis gas 0,25 about. Data on the performance of the catalyst and the composition of the aliphatic alcohols is given in the table. The value OF1: C4-...to 3.58.The concentration of alcohols WITH4+...is 20,72 wt. including alcohols WITH5+...4,29 wt.P R I m e R 5. Conditions for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohols are the same as in example 1. Concentration ash about 1. Data on the performance of the catalyst and the composition of the aliphatic alcohols is presented in the table. The ratio of alcohols WITH1: C4+...2,44, the concentration of alcohols WITH4+...-26,82 wt. including5+...-6,82 wt.P R I m e R 6. Conditions for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohols are the same as in example 1. Concentration ash about 2. Data on the performance of the catalyst and the composition of the alcohols listed in table. The ratio of alcohols WITH1:C4-2,28, the concentration of alcohols WITH4+...-2828 wt. including5+...7 wt.P R I m e R 7. Conditions for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohols are the same. Concentration ash in the synthesis gas 3 about. Data on the performance of the catalyst and the composition of the alcohols shown in table. The ratio of alcohols WITH1: C4...2,68, the concentration of alcohols WITH4+...25,17 wt. including5+...of 6.4 wt.P R I m e R 8. The process is conducted similarly to examples 1-7, eljnosti catalyst and the composition of the alcohols listed in table. The ratio of alcohols WITH1: C4+...4,6, the concentration of alcohols WITH4+...-17,09 wt. including5+...-of 2.83 wt.Adding alcohols (15%) obtained by the proposed method (example 1-8), to the base fuel (85%) octane 68-70, the octane number of the fuel composition is increased up to 76-78.While motor fuel prepared with addition of alcohols synthesized according to example 1 of the method, stratified at -16aboutWith, and the fuel is prepared with the addition of alcohols synthesized according to example 8 splits at -18aboutWith that does not meet the requirements of THE 38.101909-82 on buntmetall mixture containing 15 wt. alcohols (BMS-15).Alcohols synthesized according to examples 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 cause delamination at -20, -35, -38, -40, -45 and -39aboutWith, respectively, which satisfies the requirements of THE 38.101909-82 BMS-15 to measure the turbidity. The cloud point was determined according to GOST 5066-56. Thus, to improve knock resistance of motor fuel and ensure its stability against separation composition of aliphatic alcohols should be selected so that the ratio of C1: C4+...it did not exceed a 4.4. Such a composition anego 0.05 to about 3. in Gaza. Moreover, the greatest stability in a mixture with gasoline have the alcohols obtained when the concentration of ash in the synthesis gas 0.25 to about 3.The use of the proposed method of implementation of the process will allow you to get aliphatic alcohols desired composition. By mixing them with gasoline (hydrocarbons) is quite stable fuel composition even at low temperatures, which, in combination, can reduce the consumption of motor fuels by bringing in resources motor fuels non-oil raw materials origin (natural gas, coke oven gas, and other). When using alcohol significantly increases the quality of motor fuels due to the high octane number of aliphatic alcohols WITH1-C4+...[1, p 217] while reducing costs in the process of refining in vysokoavtomatizirovannyh hydrocarbon fractions. Increases the output of motor fuels, completely stopped the use of highly toxic lead compounds polluting the environment. 1. The METHOD of OBTAINING ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS FOR the PRODUCTION of MOTOR FUELS from synthesis gas at elevated temperature to the zinc-chromium-potassium-vanadium catalyst, characterized in that in the area of catalysis venea H2/CO in the synthesis gas is 1.8 to 2.2, and the process is conducted at 378 400oC.2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the process is conducted when the content atlantabased gas in a gas mixture is equal to 0,25 3,00 about.
FIELD: technology for production of methanol from syngas.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes mixing of hydrocarbon raw material with water steam to provide syngas by steam conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and subsequent methanol synthesis therefrom. Conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and methanol synthesis are carried out under the same pressure from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa. In one embodiment hydrocarbon raw material is mixed with water steam and carbon dioxide to provide syngas by steam/carbonic acid conversion of hydrocarbon raw material in radial-helical reactor followed by methanol synthesis therefrom under the same pressure (from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa). In each embodiment methanol synthesis is carried out in isothermal catalytic radial-helical reactor using fine-grained catalyst with grain size of 1-5 mm. Methanol synthesis is preferably carried out in two steps with or without syngas circulation followed by feeding gas from the first or second step into gasmain or power plant.
EFFECT: simplified method due to process optimization.
12 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the improved method for preparing methanol. Method involves the successive feeding hydrocarbon-containing gas, injection of chemically purified water, carrying out the preliminary steam reforming for preparing synthesis gas and carrying out the final reforming if formed gas with addition of oxygen under pressure for carrying out synthesis of methanol, heating reactor for preliminary reforming by flow of obtained synthesis gas going out from reactor for the final reforming that is fed to intertubular space of reactor for preliminary reforming followed by cooling synthesis gas obtained as result of reforming by vapor-gas mixture and carrying out synthesis of methanol in 2-step reactor. Cooling the reaction mixture for carrying out isothermal reaction for synthesis of methanol in intermediate external heat exchanger of two-step reactor is carried out with vapor-gas mixture and cooling flow going out from reactor for synthesis of methanol is carried out with vapor-gas mixture and chemically purified water. Also, invention relates to unit for preparing methanol including the source of hydrocarbon-containing gas and unit for complex preparing gas, reactor for preliminary vapor reforming heated with flow going out from reactor for final reforming, two-step reactor for synthesis of methanol, heat exchangers for cooling synthesis gas, heat exchangers for cooling flow going out from reactor for synthesis of methanol, separator for separation of reaction products and exhausting gases and crude methanol. The unit for preparing methanol is assembled with unit for complex gas preparing including block for preparing chemically purified water, block for preparing raw, additional manufacture involving torch making, cleansing constructions, sources of electric energy, air of control and measuring instruments and automatic equipment, chemical laboratory and operating block. Two-step reactor for synthesis of methanol joined with heat exchanger for cooling synthesis gas with vapor-gas mixture, intermediate external heat exchanger for cooling the reaction mixture with vapor-gas mixture is joined in-line with heat exchanger for cooling flow obtained in reactor with vapor gas mixture, heat exchanger for cooling of chemically purified water and separator for separation of reaction products. Ignition device is assembled in reactor for final reforming that promotes to carry out the start of unit without trigger furnace. Water is injected in flow hydrocarbon gas directly before heat exchanger for the reaction mixture that provides excluding boiler-utilizer and trigger boiler from schedule and to solve the problem for cooling the reaction mixture in reactor for synthesis of methanol also. Based on integration of the device for preparing methanol in technological schedule with unit for complex preparing gas and significant change of the conventional schedule for preparing methanol method provides 3-fold reducing capital investment.
EFFECT: improved method for preparing methanol.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: method for synthesis of methanol involves the following stages: removing hydrocarbon gas to be processed, sulfur elimination, catalytic steam conversion to obtain converted gas, heat utilization with separation of water, synthesis of methanol and separation of condensed methanol. Hydrocarbon gas with unstable composition is removed under pressure 0.001 MPa, not less, and sulfur elimination of hydrocarbon gas with unstable composition is combined with stage of step-by-step stabilization of pressure to form steam-gaseous mixture. Methanol synthesis is carried out for at least two successive flow steps with reducing volume of catalyst under pressure 1.5 MPA, not less, and separation of methanol between successive stages. Method provides significant reducing cost of gas processing and service of devices and allows carrying out the processing in mobile traveling devices in field conditions. Invention can be used in processing gas with unstable composition, for example, casing-head petroleum gas in petroleum-extracting holes, in field conditions in small traveling devices.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved process of producing methanol from purge gas produced in basic methanol or ammonia synthesis. Process comprises dispensing compressed carbon dioxide into basic synthesis purge gas, heating resultant gas mixture to starting synthesis temperature, passing thus heated gas through methanol synthesis catalyst, cooling reacted gas, recovering condensed crude methanol, and separating non-condensed gas stream into return stream and purge stream, the former being designed for mixing with basic synthesis purge gas stream and passed to one or two circulation jet compressors. Circulation is effected by energy provide either by (i) pressure of basic synthesis purge gas, which is supplied to jet compressor and further dispensed into compressed carbon dioxide stream, or by (ii) pressure of compressed carbon dioxide, which is dispensed into jet compressor and then introduced into basic synthesis purge gas stream, or by (iii) pressure of basic synthesis purge gas and pressure of indicated compressed carbon dioxide, both being supplied to one or two jet compressors. Ammonia or methanol production purge gas is successfully used for production of methanol without utilizing additional hydrogen-containing streams.
EFFECT: reduced methanol production cost.
4 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; installations and the methods of production of the synthesis-gas from the natural gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the installation and the method for simultaneous production from the natural gas of the methanol synthesis-gas, the ammoniac synthesis-gas, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The installation consists of the in-series connected to each other assembly units and includes: the first reactor (A), in which at feeding of oxygen realize the transformation of the natural gas into the synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and the steam; the second reactor (B), in which exercise the regular transformation of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide; if necessary the compressor (C) using which the formed gases may be contracted; absorbing apparatus D, which serves for absorption of carbon dioxide and production of he mixture of monoxide with hydrogen used for synthesizing methanol; the refrigerating separator E, in which at feeding of the liquid nitrogen receive the ammoniac synthesis gas and simultaneously produces carbon monoxide, argon and methane. The invention allows to increase profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.
15 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved process of producing methanol from synthesis gas and can be used at methanol production plants. Process comprises mixing synthesis gas with circulation gas, heating obtained gas mixture to starting synthesis temperature, passing heated gas mixture through additionally installed preliminary adiabatic reactor, wherein partial methanol synthesis takes place and temperature rises. Stream is then passes additionally installed recuperating heat exchanger, wherein resulting reaction mixture is cooled to starting reaction temperature in first catalyst bed of the principal methanol synthesis reactor comprising several adiabatic catalyst bed. Reacted gas is cooled to isolate condensed crude methanol, while non-condensed gas stream is divided into two streams: return stream and purging stream. Return while non-condensed gas stream is compressed in circulation compressor and then is sent to be mixed with synthesis gas. Volume ratio of preliminary adiabatic reactor bed to the first bed of principal reactor lies within a range of 35 to 150%.
EFFECT: increased yield of methanol and reduced power consumption.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of methanol.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to method of production of methanol. The method provides for: mixing of the main stream of the synthesis gas with the circulating gas; partition of the gained mixture into two streams; heating up of one of the streams of the gas mixture up to the starting temperature of the synthesis; the passage of the both streams through the reactor of the methanol synthesis, consisting of four or five adiabatic catalyst layers; at that the heated stream is fed to the inlet of the first layer and the cold stream is divided and fed in the form of the cold by-passes between the layers of the catalyst; refrigeration of the reacted gas; separation of the condensed crude methanol and division of the non-condensed gas stream into the blowdown gas, which is withdrawn from the system, and the gas stream, which is compressed in the compressor and fed to the circulation. At that in the existing by-passes of the last two layers of the catalyst they introduce the additional stream of the synthesis gas, and the total percent of the additional stream of the synthesis gas introduced into existing by-passes of two last catalyst beds is introduced into the existing by-passes of the last two catalyst layers, in respect to the main stream of the synthesis gas varies from 36.3 % at the high activity of the catalyst up to 3.6 % at the lowered activity of the catalyst and the distribution of the additional stream of the synthesis gas between the layers varies from 10 up to 90 %. The method allows the fullest usage of the catalyst activity in its last layers.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the fullest usage of the catalyst activity in its last layers.
1 tbl, 11 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a methanol production process accomplished by contacting gas mixture containing carbon oxides and hydrogen with copper-containing catalyst supplied to a series of at least three flow reactors at specified rate on heating and at pressure while isolating methanol and water from each reactor. Nitrogen-ballasted starting gas mixture is composed of, vol %: CO 10-15, CO2 0.3-5.0, H2 15-40, and N2 40.0-74.7. It is consecutively passed through reactors at volume flow rate 2000-22000 h-1, 200-260°C, pressure 3.5-5.0 MPa, and H2/(CO+CO2) volume ratio 0.75-3.88, while recycling hydrogen separated from tail gases of first and second reactors.
EFFECT: enabled production of methanol from gas mixtures with high content of nitrogen and low hydrogen content, increased specific productivity of catalyst and conversion of carbon oxides, improved quality of crude methanol.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the method of methanol obtaining through concentration of a gas mixture, containing carbon oxides and hydrogen, with copper-zinc catalyst at temperature of 200-290°C, pressure of 5-15 MPa, and volume rate of 3000-10000 h-1. The concentrated gas contains the following, in vol %: H2 - 64.0-75.5; Ar - 0.02-0.08; N2 - 0.05-2.0; CH4 - 1.0-3.6; CO - 10.7-19.4; CO2 - 3.3-10.4. The concentrated gas is put into a reformer with volume rate of 800-2000 h-1, mixed with carbon dioxide in volume ratio of (3-100) : 1 and together with cycled gases is passed through 4 catalyst zones of a horizontal reactor at volume ratios of (1.20-1.40):(0.85-0.95):(0.9-1.2):(0.9-1.1), divided by two boilers and one heat exchanger, with cooling of the reaction gas stream and separation of methanol in a separating device.
EFFECT: method allows perfecting the process of methanol obtaining with retention of the high level of the factors of the process and longer life service of the catalyst.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining methanol from feeding flow enriched with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Method includes: (a) contacting of feeding flow with methanol synthesis catalyst and obtaining technological flow which contains methanol, aldehides and ketones and unconverted hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, (b) cooling of obtained technological flow to temperature between 20° and 200°C, (c) contacting of cooled technological flow with hydrogenisation catalyst active in reaction of aldehide and ketone hydrogeniosation into corresponding alcohols and obtaining technological flow enriched with methanol and depleted of aldehides and ketones, (d) cooling and condensation of technological flow enriched with methanol and depleted of aldehides and ketones, and separation of stage (d) technological flow into gas phase and liquid phase with raw methanol.
EFFECT: ensuring efficient obtaining methanol from feeding flow, enriched with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
4 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a new method for preparing methanol and other aliphatic alcohols by gas-phase interaction of hydrocarbon gases with water vapor under effect of ultraviolet radiation. Methanol and other aliphatic alcohols are prepared by direct hydroxylation of hydrocarbon gas or mixture of hydrocarbon gases with water vapor. For this aim hydrocarbon gas and vapor or mixture of gases and vapor are fed into reactor wherein the reaction mass is subjected for effect of ultraviolet radiation in wavelength range 240-450 nm at temperature lower vapor formation point. The end product is isolated from vapor-gaseous mixture by condensation and unreacted gas or mixture of gases removed from the reaction zone is purified from the end product by bubbling through water layer and recovered into reactor by adding the parent gaseous component in the amount equal to consumed one. The process is carried out for a single stage and can be realized under atmosphere pressure. Invention can be used in chemical, petroleum chemical, petroleum processing and petroleum and gas extracting industry.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: method for production of alcohol-containing solvents based on waste from ethanol production from food-grade raw materials.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes reprocessing of etheraldehyde fraction of concentrate containing ethanol main admixtures from starch- and/or sugar-containing raw materials. Process is carried out in rectifier at vapor phase temperature in still of 60-90°C. Nitrosolvent is obtained by mixture sampling at 60-70°C. Degreasing solvent is obtained by mixture sampling at starting temperature in column top of 73°C or more when ethers are detected in distillate. Claimed nitrosolvent (degreasing solvent) contain (mass %): acetate-type ethers 10-30 (0.8-2.9); aliphatic alcohols 51-74 (87-89); acetaldehyde 5-9 (0.2-1.5), and water 8-10 (8-10).
EFFECT: simplified and economy method for reprocessing of waste from ethanol production; enhanced assortment of alcohol-containing solvents.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: organic chemistry, fuel production.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes feeding of heated hydrocarbon-containing and oxygen-containing gas in reaction unit, vapor phase oxidation of hydrocarbon-containing gas at 250-450°C and pressure of 2.0-10 MPa under near isothermal conditions; cooling of reaction mixture in heat exchangers, separation of gas and liquid phases of reaction mixture. separation of obtained methanol solution of formaldehyde, C2-C4-alcohols and methanol, methanol and gas phase after separation into reactors; catalytic methanol conversion on zeolite catalyst at 350-450°C and pressure of 3-8 MPa; cooling of produced reaction mixture in heat exchangers; separation of gas and liquid phases of reaction mixture; separation of aqueous fraction and synthetic diesel fuel liquid fractions, including fraction of liquid hydrocarbons, corresponding to motor gasoline having octane number of at least 92.
EFFECT: products of high quality; simplified technology; decreased energy consumption.
5 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to the method of producing aliphatic alcohols. The method involves feeding the first hydrocarbon stream, obtained using the Fischer-Tropsch method, containing olefins and paraffins. The Fischer-Tropsch stream contains 5-80% olefins, with 10-17 average number of carbon atoms. This hydrocarbon stream is fed into the hydrogenation-isomerisation installation, where there is dehydrogenation of at least part of paraffins in the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon stream to olefins. The installation is also made such that, there is isomerisation of at least part of linear olefins to branched olefins, in the presence of a dehydrogenation-isomerisation catalyst, containing zeolite in hydrogen form, with a ferrierite isotope structure. Duration of stay is such that, conversion of paraffins to olefins is lower than 40%, and at least part of unreacted components of the hydrocarbon stream, obtained using the Fischer-Tropsch method and at least, part of products of the dehydration and isomerisation reaction form a second hydrocarbon stream. This second hydrocarbon stream contains olefins and paraffins. At least some of the olefins in the second hydrocarbon stream are branched. The method also involves feeding at least part of the second hydrocarbon stream into a hydroformylation installation. The hydroformylation installation is made such that, at least part of the olefins in the second hydrocarbon stream can be undergo hydroformylation, obtaining aliphatic alcohols with average number of carbon atoms from 11 to 18, and at least part of the obtained aliphatic alcohols contain branched alkyl groups.
EFFECT: invention can be used for producing surface active substances, detergents and sulphates.
9 cl, 7 tbl, 6 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes introduction of hydrocarbon Fisher-Tropsch flow, containing olefins and paraffins, said hydrocarbon Fisher-Tropsch flow containing from 5 to 80% of olefins, which have average number of carbon atoms from 10 to 17, and paraffins, into installation of hydration, where hydration installation is made in such way as to hydrate at least part of olefins in hydrocarbon Fisher-Tropsch flow to paraffins, and where at least part of components of hydrocarbon Fisher-Tropsch flow, which did not react, and at least part of hydrated olefins form second hydrocarbon flow; introduction of second hydrocarbon flow into installation of dehydration-isomerisation, where installation of dehydration-isomerisation is made in such way as to hydrate at least part of paraffins in second hydrocarbon flow to olefins, and where installation of dehydration-isomerisation is also made in such way as to isomerize at least part of linear olefins to branched olefins in presence of dehydration-isomerization catalyst, which contains hydrogen form of zeolite, having isotopic lattice structure of ferrierite, and where period duration is such that transformation of paraffins into olefins is lower than 40% mol, and where at least part of second hydrocarbon flow components that did not react, and at least part of products of dehydration and isomerisation reactions form third hydrocarbon flow, and third hydrocarbon flow contains olefins and paraffins, and where at least part of olefins in third hydrocarbon flow represent branched olefins; and introduction of at least part of third hydrocarbon flow into installation of hydroformilation, where installation of hydroformilation is made in such way as to hydroformilate at least part of olefins in third hydrocarbon flow obtaining aliphatic alcohols with average number of carbon atoms from 11 to 18, and where at least part of obtained aliphatic alcohols contain branched alkyl group.
EFFECT: reduction of expenditure.
18 cl, 7 tbl, 5 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of producing branched olefins involves dehydrogenation of an isoparaffin composition, containing 0.5% or less quaternary aliphatic carbon atoms, on a suitable catalyst. The above mentioned isoparaffin composition contains paraffins with 7 to 35 carbon atoms. These paraffins, or at least part of their molecules, are branched. The average number of branches per paraffin molecule ranges from 0.7 to 2.5, and the branches include methyl and, optionally, ethyl branches. The above mentioned isoparaffin composition is obtained through hydroisomerisation of paraffin, and the above mentioned branched olefins contain 0.5% quaternary carbon atoms or less. The paraffins are produced using Fischer-Tropsch method. The invention also relates to the method of producing a surface active substance from olefins, obtained using the method described above.
EFFECT: improvement of operational characteristics.
5 cl, 4 tbl, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes introduction of first hydrocarbon flow, including olefins and paraffins, which have number of carbon atoms from 4 to 30, into installation of isomerisation, where installation of isomerisation is intended for isomerisation of at least part of linear olefins in first hydrocarbon flow into branched olefins, and where at least part of components of first hydrocarbon flow, that have not reacted, and at least part of obtained branched olefins form second hydrocarbon flow; introduction of at least part of second hydrocarbon flow into installation of hydroformylation, where installation of hydroformylation is intended for hyroformylation of at least part of olefins in second hydrocarbon flow with formation of aliphatic alcohols and where at least part of obtained aliphatic alcohols include branched alkyl group and where at least part of components of second hydrocarbon flow that have not reacted, and at least part of obtained aliphatic alcohols form flow of hydroformilation reaction; separation of at least part of hydroformylation reaction flow in order to obtain flow of product, containing aliphatic alcohols, and flow of paraffins and olefins that have not reacted, and introduction of at lest part of flow of paraffins and olefins that have not reacted into installation of dehydration, where installation of dehydration is intended for dehydration of at least part of paraffins in flow of paraffins and olefins that have not reacted for obtaining olefins and where at least part of obtained olefins leave installation of dehydration forming olefin hydrocarbon flow and introduction of at least part of olefin hydrocarbon flow into installation of isomerisation.
EFFECT: obtained aliphatic alcohols can be used for obtaining surface-active substances, sulphates.
21 cl, 6 tbl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a gas-phase method of catalytic conversion of lower alkanes. A method is described for catalytic conversion of lower alkane, containing up to 5 carbon atoms, into at least one product which is chosen from a group consisting of alcohols, aldehydes and their mixture, involving bringing said lower alkane into contact with an oxidising agent in the presence of a catalyst, containing a platinum complex which is deposited on a carrier, with the following structure: in which: L is a ligand, which is chosen from amino-ligands, hydroxyl ligands and imidazolyl ligands; A is a ligand which is chosen from hydroxyl ligands, chloro-ligands and amino-ligands; M is a metal cation in the catalyst carrier, which is chosen from cations of aluminium, silicon, zirconium, titanium and molybdenum; and n is an integer, which is chosen from 4, 2 and 1, Pt in the catalyst is a cation in a valent state which is chosen from valent states (IV), (II) and (I), which correspond to numerical values of n, where the said platinum cation forms the central core of the platinum complex, ligands L and ligands A surround the central core and ligands L chemically bond the complex to the surface of the carrier, under which metal cations M are localised.
EFFECT: high conversion and selectivity of formation of methanol in direct oxidation of methane or natural gas with air or molecular oxygen in the presence of catalyst promoters.
15 cl; 4 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: alcohol-containing mixture is mixed with acetic or propionic aldehyde in weight ratio 100:(10-45). The obtained mixture is held in the presence of an acid catalyst until stratification and the organic layer is separated from the aqueous layer. The organic layer undergoes deep dehydration by heating to boiling point with reclamation of aldehyde via fractionation to obtain anhydrous alcohol or a mixture of alcohols in the still residue. The acid catalyst used is preferably an ion-exchange resin in hydrogen form or a synthetic zeolite.
EFFECT: method is universal since it has high process flexibility with respect to raw material, and provides considerable efficiency when dehydrating an alcohol-containing mixture containing alcohols with three to five carbon atoms with very low power consumption.
5 cl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of copolymerising olefins, according to which a) a first starting olefin material is prepared, mainly consisting of Cn-olefins, and a second starting olefin material, mainly consisting of Cm-olefins, where n and m independently denote different integers from 2 to 12, and where the second starting olefin material is characterised by degree of branching of olefins defined in form of an ISO index ranging from 0 to 18, and is obtained via dimerisation of raffinate II, mainly consisting of isomeric n-butenes and n-butane, in the presence of a nickel-containing oligomerisation catalyst, and b) the first and second starting olefin materials react on a heterogeneous olefin oligomerisation catalyst based on sheet and/or framework silicates. The invention also relates to codimers obtained using said method, a method of producing alcohols according to which said olefin codimers undergo hydroformylation followed by hydrogenation of mixtures of alcohols obtained using said method.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the method.
18 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex