The method of topological control of multivariable dynamic objects and a device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used in control systems of objects with continuous multivariable technological processes in the energy, chemical, metallurgical and other industries. The method consists in building on-screen information display means for collectively controlled parameters of the topological image of an object in real time in the form of a curve of the second order, enabling the early detection of emergency and malfunction of the object. The essence of the device is to use an analog computer to generate and display on the oscilloscope screen topological images of dynamic objects collectively controlled parameters. 2 C. p. F.-ly, 3 ill. The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used in control systems and centralized control of objects with continuous multivariable technological processes in the energy, chemical, metallurgical and other industries.
The aim of the invention is to provide speed control of the object by increasing the informational efficiency of the control object.This goal is achieved by the fact that the proposed method the state of the object represent the image of the conic curve on the screen of the display means information (SDI), which is connected to the output of the computing device, forming the image of the curve in its equation whose coefficients form using signals from sensors of the controlled object parameters, values of which determine the shape, size and position of the curve on the screen SOYBEANS.The proposed method is illustrated in the block diagram shown in Fig.1. The schema contains the test object 1, the sensor 2 is controlled by six parameters a, b, C, D, E and G, the computing device 3, forming a curve of the second order, the tool 4 display information on the screen which displays the curve of the second order. On the screen dotted lines illustrates the position of the centre of the curve: I for the normal modes of the object, II for maximum allowable, III for invalid conditions and emergency situations. The screen shows three possible is possible positions of these curves relative to the coordinates x, y.The diagram in Fig.1 represents, in essence, a mapping of a topological state space object in accordance with the expression:
f: M _ N, (1) where M and N are displayed and displayed topological state space of the object, respectively;
f display function.The mapping function f in this case is the equation of the curve of the second order:
f(x,y) Ax2+ 2Bxy + Cy2+ 2Dx +
+ 2Ey + G 0, (2) where a, b, C, D, E, and G are coefficients of the equation corresponding to the values of the controlled parameters;
x, y coordinates that define the position of the curve on the plane.The shape of the curve of the second order, as it is known  is determined by the sign of the discriminant:
AC B2. (3)
If > 0, the curve has the form of an ellipse (a And C) or circle (C=0), if < 0, the curve has the form of a hyperbola; if 0, the curve has the form of a parabola. The last case for changing parameters of the dynamic object is unlikely.In Fig. 2 shows the values determining the size of the curve is the magnitude of the major axis for the ellipse (2A1, 2b1) and hyperbola (2A2, 2b2), and also the values that define the position of the curve in the plane relative to the coordinates x, y is the direction the curve and relative to the beginning of the coordinates for the ellipse (x01, y01) and hyperbola (x02, y02). These values are determined by the following formula:
a2= , (4)
b2= , (5)
I1= (6) where1,2= (7)
1,2the roots of the characteristic equation of the curve of the second order;
tg2 , (8)
xo= , (9)
yo= . (10)
From theory of topology  it follows that the reliability of the control object when the application of the proposed method is ensured by the compliance of conditions of homeomorphism displayed M and displayed N the spaces of States of the controlled object. Conditions homeomorphism spaces M and N are followed by the beginning of the six equations(2), (4), (5), (8), (9) and (10), which allows mutually inverse mapping f M _ N and f-1: N _ M, i.e., each set of six controlled parameters uniquely corresponds to a specific curve in the plane and, on the contrary, each curve is uniquely correspond to specific values of the six monitored parameters.The formation of the coefficients of the equation of the curve should be performed on the basis of relations describing the conditions of balance of material flows, heat balance and other relationships, most fully characterize the flow of business processes is the violation of these correlations, that, in turn, will lead to changes in the monitored parameters of the object, i.e. change the coefficients of the equation of the curve (2) and, consequently, to change the shape and size of the curve or its position on the plane of the screen information display means in accordance with the formulas (3) (10).The following variants are possible applications of the proposed method. If the state of the object can be determined by three parameters, the equation of the curve (2) is simplified and takes the form;
f(x,y) Ax2+ 2Bxy + Cy20 (11)
In this case, as is apparent from formula (3), as a sign of the technological process or the occurrence of an emergency situation, it is advisable to use the change in the shape of the curve (ellipse the hyperbola). At the same time as a sign of optimality can be used in this case, the value of the parameter as it determines the proximity of the ellipse to a circle (when set To 0, the ellipse becomes a circle). As an additional sign of a malfunction of an object as seen from formula (8), you can also use the direction and magnitude of the rotation angle of the principal axes of the curve relative to the coordinates x, y. If the object's state is defined by four or five to parameterizing changing the position of the center of the curve relative to the beginning of the coordinates x, y; i.e., the change of variables x0and y0. This guide will serve as the boundaries of the regions I, II and III (Fig.1), These boundaries can be pre-applied to screen SOYBEAN feed the input of the computing device, the maximum allowable and emergency values of parameters of the object.If the object's state is defined by six parameters, the occurrence of an emergency and malfunction of the object can be determined using any of the above signs. In addition, the change of the parameter G (at constant other parameters) can be determined from the change in the principal axes 2A and 2b in accordance with the expressions (4) and (5).Finally, if the state of the object is determined by more than six parameters, some of them can be combined, for example, by summing, in order to form not more than six coefficients of the given equation of the curve of the second order.The device for implementing the method shown in Fig.3, characterized in that, to improve the informational efficiency of the control object, its state is represented by the image of the conic curve on the screen of the oscilloscope connected to the output of the analog computing device (AVA), pow and two blocks of integration, forming the image of the curve in its equation whose coefficients are formed by means of signals from sensors of the controlled object parameters, electrically connected to the input of AVA.To explain the operation of the device the curve equation of the second order (2) should be presented in the following system of differential equations:
- -2(Ax+By+D) where const speed of the beam of the oscilloscope when displaying a curve on the screen.Continuous solution of this system of differential equations using the specified AVA allows you to get on the oscilloscope screen image of the curve of the second order, changing in accordance with changes in the monitored parameters of the object.According to the block diagram in Fig.3 and the system of equations (12), electrical signals proportional to the values of the parameters a, b and C, the output of the respective sensors are fed to the input of multiplier units 5-8. Output of these blocks works Ah, By, Bx and Cy are received at the inputs of the respective summation blocks 9 and 10. At block 9 receives the signal, proportional to the parameter D, and the block 10 is proportional to the parameter that is output blocks 9 and 10 produces signals proportional sMH 2, in accordance with the right-hand side of equations (12), and fed to the inputs of blocks of integration 13 and 14. On the same blocks with the output of the respective sensor is supplied as initial conditions the electrical signal proportional to the value of the parameter G. According to the left-hand side of equations (12), the output blocks of the integration we obtain:
x dx t ,
y dy-t .From the output of block 14, the value of x is fed to the input units 5 and 7, and the output unit 13, the value of y is fed to the input units 6 and 8 for multiplying the coefficients a, b and C as described above.From the right-hand side of equations (12) and (13) shows that the signals at the output units 13 and 14 will be proportional to the corresponding summand of equation (2), namely:
f(x,y) 2(Bx+Cy+E)y (2Bxy+Cy2+2Ey+G)
f(x,y) -2(Ax+By+D)x -(Ax2+2Bxy+2Dx+G)
These signals are sent to the input of the oscilloscope. Therefore, it appears the image of the conic curve, shape, dimensions and position of which relative to the coordinates x and y will correspond to the values of the six parameters of the controlled object at a given time.The use of the invention allows to increase the speed of perception and processing of personnel information, reduction of sunlight on the remote control instead of three to six information display means only one and with the exception of the functions of the operations personnel to analyze and compare the reading of several instruments to assess the General condition of the object and decision making in emergency situations and elimination of the reasons of malfunction of the object.The economic effect is ensured timely detection and localization of emergencies. The most significant effect can be expected when the process control of continuous nature, for example, in the chemical and refining industries, even when short-term disruption of the process leads to the production of defective products. 1. The method of topological control of multivariable dynamic objects based on the simultaneous measurement of the parameters of the object, converting the received signals and the formation of the indicator screen image is judged on the state of the controlled object, wherein the signals characterizing the measured parameters, including at least a multiple of three, form the control curve of the second order in a rectangular coordinate system
AX2+ 2 BXY MARKS + CY2+ 2DX + 2 EY + G 0,
in which the coefficients a, B, C, D, E, and G correspond to the values of monitored signals of the object.2. Device for topological control of multivariable dynamic objects containing the group of sensors of the controlled parameters, outputs connected to the line is the Devi ations of the beam of the X-coordinate and to the input of the deflection of the Y-coordinate of electron-beam indicator, characterized in that the imaging unit contains two integrators, two scaling unit, two adders and four block multiplication, the output of the first sensor parameter is connected to the first input of the first adder connected to the second input to an output of the first block multiplication first input connected to the output of the second sensor parameter, the output of the third sensor parameter associated with the first input of the second block multiplication, and with the first input of the third block multiplication output connected to the first input of the second adder connected to the second input to an output of the fourth block multiplication, first input connected to the second input of the second block multiplication, and is connected to the output of the first integrator, which is the second output of the imaging unit, the output of the second block multiplication connected with the third input of the first adder connected to the output through the first scaling unit to the first input of the first integrator, the second input is combined with the first input of the second integrator connected to the output of the fourth sensor parameter, the output of the fifth parameter probe is connected to the second input of the fourth block multiplication, the output of which is connected to a second input of the second adder, p. the second input of the second integrator, the output of which is connected to the second inputs of the first and third blocks of multiplication and is the first output of the imaging unit.
FIELD: automatic control, applicable in systems with excessive quality of transducers, for example, accelerometers, a failure of one of which should not result in a failure of the control system.
SUBSTANCE: the method is based on a periodic check-up of relation between the measured parameters of motion characterizing the correct operation of the transducers, fixation of the moment of failure of the relation, comparison of the readings of the transducers at this moment and at the moment preceding the moment of disturbance of the relation, and determination of the failed transducer by the results of the comparison.
EFFECT: expanded functional potentialities due to possibility of determination of the failed transducer in any excess system.
FIELD: measuring and monitoring technique, possibly monitoring of different objects.
SUBSTANCE: system includes control unit, unit for calling testing programs, coupling unit, measuring unit, test stimulation unit, power sources, unit for distributing signals, memory unit, N matching units, N testing program units. Each testing-program unit has evaluation circuit and two memory devices.
EFFECT: lowered volume of equipment, simplified organization of monitoring process and development of software.
FIELD: electric measurements, applicable in check-up of tram and trolleybus electric apparatuses in the process of manufacture and in service.
SUBSTANCE: current in the current source is fed to the current winding of the current relay from the rectifier via a key, choke, shunt. The device uses a pulse-width modulator that controls the keys, slowly varying voltage is applied to the modulating input of the pulse-width modulator that is preliminarily modulated by the rectifier ripple voltage. Besides, use is made of a sample-release circuit of operate (release) currents and voltages. The signals from these circuits are fed to indicators via analog-to-digital converters.
EFFECT: reduced error of determination of operate and release current and voltage relays, enhanced capacity of check-up in the device due to reduced ripples of the source of smoothly varying current.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining variations of the parameter during acceleration and deceleration of the actuator. The device comprises generator and OR-NOT unit, the inputs of which are connected with the outputs of the relay. The output of the relay is connected with the input of the generator.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of the method and simplified device.
FIELD: instrumentation engineering; serviceability check of multichannel communication systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed equipment includes personal computer, multiplexing switch, circuit checkup unit, control unit, multichannel comparison unit, virtual standard, switching unit, output signal shaper, multiplexer, and normalizing unit that has voltage meter and circuit meter.
EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities of device.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: as a source of standard signal not separate generator of test signal according to known code structure is used, but a component of modem, to provide for substantial simplification of process under unfavorable conditions.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: automated control and diagnostics systems.
SUBSTANCE: first variant of complex includes control computer, mating block, commutator, local data exchange main, tests forming block, logical analyzer, signature analyzer, synchronization block, digital oscillographs block, special form signals programmed generators block, programmed power-sources block. Second variant of complex additionally includes block for forming high-frequency test signals and block for measuring high-frequency signals.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher efficiency, higher reliability.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: automatic control.
SUBSTANCE: device has first and second analog-digital converters, first and second coefficients forming blocks, first and second multiplication blocks, counter, first and second integrator, control effect forming device, division block, buffer and registering block, while coefficients forming blocks are made in form of digital filters and all remaining blocks of device are made digital.
EFFECT: higher precision, higher resistance to interference.