The method of electrical stimulation of beef, mutton and pork carcasses and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the invention relates to the processing of livestock, in particular to a method and apparatus of electrical stimulation after slaughter beef, mutton and pork carcasses. The inventive method of electrical stimulation of carcasses includes a voltage from the envelope generator of voltage pulses after taking food blood between the skin of the cervical spine and posterior limb of carcasses of different packages pulse frequency of from 10 to 100 Hz, and the duration of the packet, and the pauses between them are in the range of 2 to 30 C at a total time of stimulation from 1 to 5 min, and the maximum voltage value is for beef carcasses from 30 to 60, pork and lamb carcasses from 8.5 to 30 C. the electrostimulation Device contains a voltage regulator, shaper pulse voltage and the driver package voltage pulses, comprising a conveyor system earthing, neutral grounding electrodes for the rear extremities of carcasses and system of movable electrodes for carcasses that are installed directly in the path of movement of the carcasses with the possibility of periodic contact with the skin of the cervical spine Touche. 2 S. and 3 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill., table 1.

The invention relates to the processing of the x Touche, and can be used for a more complete bleeding carcasses before removing the skin and cutting the carcasses to facilitate and improve the removal of skins and butchering, to accelerate the maturation and tenderizes meat, to reduce the loss of meat quality in connection with by cold reduction.

Known methods of electrical stimulation of carcasses low voltage with the introduction of the electrode in the form of a hollow knife for blood collection in a cardiac artery [1] with the introduction of the electrode mainly after 10 min of exsanguination in a special nerve center of the mirror of the upper lip of the animal [2] with the introduction of the electrode up to 10 min after bleeding in the neck cut [3]

Unfortunately according to these methods, the electrodes are introduced into these highly innervated areas of carcasses and therefore particularly sensitive (vulnerable) to the current, and therefore for some carcasses, such as small carcasses party, prestimulation, i.e. set the stiffness already before zabelovku, and for other carcasses, such as large carcasses in the party, electrostimulation is incomplete, as the fatigue of nerve fibers occurs earlier than achieved complete muscle fatigue. In addition, with the introduction of electrodes operator in these parts of carcasses occurs ="ptx2">

The closest in technical essence and the task being solved by the invention is a technical solution for ed. St. N 225176 (Czechoslovakia) [3] namely, the method of electrical stimulation of beef, lamb and pork carcasses, including the supply of different packages of voltage pulses on the carcass from the voltage source through the electrodes during the transportation of the carcasses through the pipeline, with grounding, zanolini rear extremities of carcasses. When the electrical stimulation according to this prototype from a packet of pulses, for example, negative polarity muscles undergo contracture, which is followed almost without interruption and without relaxation contracture from the next batch of voltage pulses of positive polarity, and therefore these contractures do not reach must complete and implemented without sufficient relaxation necessary for a complete bleeding, complete fatigue of the muscles and ensure the tenderness of the meat. In addition, small carcasses the party animals are prestimulation, and the stimulation of large carcasses of party animals is incomplete, insufficient, as is the invariable dosing of electrical stimulation based on the average size of carcasses in the party.

The aim of the invention is SPGs, improving the safety and simplification of the device for realization of this method. This invention is a method provide a complete bleeding carcasses with the termination of the allocation drops of blood from the carcasses after the stimulation and complete exhaustion of the muscles, that is, the complete depletion of the substratum, which serves as the immediate source of energy of motion of the muscles, and the maximum accumulation of the enzymes carrying out the subsequent softening effect on the muscles, with the cessation of contractions at the end of electrical stimulation and mobility of the shoulder joints to the beginning of zabelovka.

This is achieved by electrical stimulation exercise after taking food blood by the application of electrodes to the skin of the cervical spine neobezjirennogo animal, while the supply of different packages of voltage pulses is performed with the pulse frequency from 10 to 100 Hz and the pauses between them, and the length of packets of positive and negative polarity, and the pauses between them are in the range of 2 to 30 s with a total duration of stimulation from 1 to 5 min, and the maximum value of the voltage pulse packet is for beef carcasses from 30 to no on the way of transport of carcasses with the possibility of periodic contact with carcasses.

Another difference is that different packets of pulses separated by pauses, get through the switching ripple voltage derived from a source of rectified half-wave voltage with a zero, the grounded point, working from the mains, through the implementation of periodic contact of the electrodes with a floating carcass, while the contact is carried out by moving the movable electrodes on the skin of the cervical spine Touche, the movement of the carcasses through the pipeline.

The impact of packages of voltage pulses on a cervical Department of carcasses after taking food blood provides through intensive work disintegration of ATP, muscle fatigue, full bleed Touche, accelerates the maturation of the meat and gives it softness. The principal difference proposed in the inventive solution, the operation of stress on the skin of the cervical spine from that used in the prototype direct impact on more innervated parts of carcasses, such as neck desperately, is that the effect produced on the neuromuscular system after taking food blood through the skin of the cervical spine by means of current passing mainly through the active points on the skin as and when the current flows on moist skin to these points and through them. The continuous shifting of the points of application of voltage to the skin of the cervical spine, gradually involving the action of various active points on the skin, enhances the stimulating effects through the Central and peripheral nervous system to the muscles. At the same time large carcasses of party animals get more shocks than small carcasses party than is achieved individual automatic dispensing of electrical stimulation on the mass (size) of carcasses. In addition, the pause between packets of the voltage pulses and the change of polarity, facilitating the removal of fatigue phenomena in the nerve fibers and causing the muscles in a state of relaxation, also contribute to their own and nervous excitability and response to muscle contraction with each subsequent exposure. This helps to avoid premature onset of affect and fatigue phenomena in the nerve fibers that arise in direct and continuous exposure to them according to known methods, to improve the effectiveness of electrical stimulation and to reduce the voltage of electrical stimulation to the region of small nominal (not more than 42) and secure low (not more than 24 In) stress, defined, respectively, by current standards, as normalized in the application of mlnich values in these standards, reflecting the improved conditions electrical safety.

In addition, obtaining different packages of pulses separated by pauses, by switching movable flexible electrodes mounted in the path of movement of the carcasses, of the pulsating DC voltage derived from a source with zero grounded point, working from the mains, and supply the resulting voltage close to the carcasses by moving the movable electrodes on the skin of the cervical spine carcasses contribute to achieving the objectives.

P R I m e R 1. Used electrical stimulation of beef carcasses used for the production of semi-boneless and frozen meat blocks. Carcasses were received by electrical stimulation no later than 1.5 min after stunning in obezdvizhena condition and living, that is, with preservation of the nerve-muscle response to electrical stimulation.

All carcasses are subject to electrical stimulation, were fixed for each back leg hanging on the path of the conveyor, which served for all carcasses common electrode having an electrical connection to ground (zeroing). The movable electrode mounted in the path of movement of carcasses and connected to the source of wyprania system of electrodes, receiving a potential negative relative to the common electrode (pipeline) in the form of packets of voltage pulses with a maximum value of 50 V, 50 Hz, sinusoidal, cited in contact with the cervical Department of carcasses and moved over the skin of the cervical spine in 5 seconds and then the system electrodes were disconnected from carcasses during a duration of 5 s, after which a different system of electrodes, receiving a positive potential relative to the common electrode in the form of packets of voltage pulses with a maximum value of 50 V, 50 Hz, sine wave, cited in contact with the cervical division of the same carcasses and moved over the skin of the cervical spine in 5 seconds, and then the electrodes were disconnected from carcasses at time 5, then the above operation was repeated several times in this sequence to reach a total duration of electrical stimulation for 2 min, after which the stimulation was stopped.

To obtain comparative data produced semi-boneless and frozen meat blocks from carcasses during electrical stimulation in a known manner. In comparing experimental and control groups treatment was subjected to CRO economy, where he was in the equivalent conditions of feeding and maintenance.

In all groups was measured pH of the meat after 15 min after stimulation. To electrostimulation pH ranged from 6.8 to 7.0. Was determined characteristics of the tenderness of the meat by the degree of contraction of the cervical muscles, highlighted in 10-15 min 35-40 min after slaughter, loss of juice from a semi-fresh meat from the neck muscles after freezing-thawing. The data given in the table.

As can be seen from the table, the degree of contraction of muscle fibers and release of free flowing juice in samples subjected to electrostimulation of the proposed method, were two times less than in the control samples, a large reduction of the pH of meat carcasses in the experimental group compared to control.

P R I m m e R 2. Used electrical stimulation of pig carcasses used for production of saleable meat. The carcass was submitted to electrical stimulation after stun and capture food blood in obezdvizhena condition and alive, i.e., with preservation of neuromuscular response to electrical stimulation. All carcasses are subject to electrical stimulation, were fixed on each hind leg hanging on the path of the conveyor, which served for Touche common ele is poured on the path of movement of the carcasses and were attached to a source of rectified half-wave voltage with zero grounded point. Included the conveyor, after which the first one electrode receiving the potential negative relative to the common electrode (pipeline) in the form of packets of voltage pulses with a maximum value of 21 V, 50 Hz, sinusoidal, cited in contact with the cervical Department of carcasses and moved over the skin of the cervical spine in 5 seconds and then the system electrodes were separated from the carcass during a duration of 5 s, after which a different system of electrodes, receiving a positive potential relative to the common electrode in the form of packets of voltage pulses with a maximum value of 21 V, 50 Hz, sinusoidal, cited in contact with the cervical division of the same carcasses and moved over the skin of the cervical spine in 5 seconds and then the system electrodes were separated from the carcass at the time of 5 s, after which these operations in this sequence was repeated several times until a total duration of electrical stimulation of 2.5 min, and then the stimulation ceased.

To obtain comparative data produced commodity meat of pig carcasses during electrical stimulation in a known manner. In comparing the treatment groups were subjected to pigs selected conditions of feeding and maintenance. In the two groups was measured pH of meat in 25-30 min after stimulation. Before stimulation, the pH ranged from 6.9 to 7.2.

After zabelovka and removing the pork skins were made sanding them removing fat from the skins. The results of the weighing of carcasses and fat taken with the skins, was determined by the ratio of the weight of fat taken from skins, to the weight of the carcasses. The data given in the table.

As can be seen from the table, there is a complete relaxation of the muscle fibers that allow zabelovku forelimb, the pH value of meat carcasses in the experimental group is less than in the control, experimental group 20% less than the number of salmon taken when Stripping the skins, compared with the control group with a corresponding increase in the yield of saleable meat.

Known devices for electrical stimulation of beef, mutton and pork carcasses, in which the active electrode, under voltage, imposed by the operator on the carcass [4] or entered by the operator in the carcass [5] [1] When such stimulation is not always ensure a reliable contact of the electrode with the carcass and the danger of injury to the operator, in particular, because of the convulsive movements of carcasses. In addition to the costs of labour have tradestyle.

The closest in technical essence and the task being solved by the invention is a device for U.S. patent [6] namely, a device for electrical stimulation of beef, mutton and pork carcasses containing the envelope generator of voltage pulses comprising connected in series voltage regulator, generator voltage pulses and driver packages voltage pulses, a conveyor for carcasses containing system earthing, neutral grounding electrodes for carcasses and a system of electrodes for carcasses moving in a closed loop tape, which move with the speed of the conveyor without disturbing the achieved contact with the active grounding electrodes attached to the envelope generator of voltage pulses.

The disadvantages of this device lie in the complexity of the envelope generator of voltage pulses and complex kinematic scheme of the device due to the need for the tape drive, great difficulties in reconciling the belt speed with the speed of the carcasses into the pipeline.

In addition, electrical stimulation of this device is not effective enough, as the dosing of the electrical stimulation device is based on the average size of carcasses in the party, is incomplete, enough.

The aim of the invention device is the reduced mass, dimensions and simplify the design of the device, as well as improving the efficiency of electrical stimulation.

This is achieved in that the electrodes carcasses are movable with two degrees of freedom in the horizontal and vertical directions, mounted horizontally perpendicular to the main plane of movement of the carcasses on the conveyor belt, placed directly in the path of movement of the carcasses with the possibility of periodic contact with the skin of the cervical spine Touche, with electrodes for Touche form two subsystems for separate connection to the positive and negative poles of a generator of voltage pulses that are shifted relative to each other along the line of motion of carcasses at a distance determined by the formula

A A' + A",

where a' VT1; A" VT2;

And the step electrodes for carcasses, m;

And' the length of the zone of contact of the electrodes with carcasses, m;

A length of the disturbed zone of contact of the electrodes with carcasses, m;

T1the duration of the pulse packets with;

T2the duration of pauses, s;

V the speed of movement of the carcasses in m/s

In addition, to simplify and cheapen the kinematic composed of two half-wave rectifiers, interconnected in series and their common point is connected to the output terminal of the voltage regulator, and the other output terminal of the voltage regulator is grounded and neutral earthing, with free pins of each half-wave rectifier connected to its subsystem electrodes for carcasses and switch Touche is the pipeline.

Another difference is that part of the electrodes for Touche offset from the main plane of movement of the carcasses.

The specified performance electrodes for carcasses with two degrees of freedom, leading to slippage of the electrodes with the shoulder and head parts of the carcass and the placement of electrodes on the neck Touche, despite fluctuations in the sizes of carcasses, improves the efficiency of the stimulation due to more accurate and appropriate dosing by weight by means of automatic adjustment of the length of the packets of the voltage pulses in accordance with the weight (size) of carcasses, namely, on the one hand, reduces the duration of the pulse packets and increases the duration of pauses for small carcasses party compared with the corresponding durations for carcasses of medium size the same party, and, on the other hand, increases the duration of the pulse packets is the size. This separation of the electrodes for carcasses into two subsystems with their spatial shift and time-shift (pause) in the process of switching Touche by the conveyor when the power supply from the voltage regulator through two connected in series half-wave rectifier connected to a common point to the voltage regulator, and free conclusions separately to each of its subsystem electrodes for carcasses, as well as grounding and grounding the output terminal of the voltage regulator and use the pipeline as a switch carcasses provide a simplified kinematic scheme of the device and the oscillator circuit packages of voltage pulses, as well as improving the electrical safety.

The offset part of the electrodes for carcasses from the main plane of movement of carcasses reduces the number of impulses received carcasses of smaller size (mass), compared to large carcasses party, which reduces the risk of prestimulation carcasses of smaller size.

In Fig. 1 presents a fragment of the electrostimulation device, which shows a top view from the ceiling of the room with the conventional image of the dorsal (perpendicular to the spinal column) of the section of the cervical spine carcasses and principalinterest for the case of electrical stimulation of carcasses of the same size (Fig. 2A) and for carcasses of various sizes (Fig. 2B) of Fig. 3 shows a timing chart of the voltage of electrical stimulation sequential effects on carcass two adjacent electrodes.

The electrostimulation device (Fig. 1) contains the regulator 1 voltage shaper 2 voltage pulses and shaper 3 packages of voltage pulses. Regulator 1 voltage includes a switch 4, the terminal 5 and ground regulating transformer 6. Shaper 2 voltage pulses composed of two half-wave rectifiers 7 and 8. Shaper 3 packages of voltage pulses consists of a conveyor 9, Touche 10, earthing and neutral grounding electrodes 11 and electrodes 12 and 13 for carcass 10. Ground and neutral grounding electrodes 11, shown schematically in Fig. 1 marks the ground, are conventional suspension device of the conveyor 9, the exposed grounding and zanolini according to safety regulations. The electrodes 12 and 13 are movable with two degrees of freedom in the horizontal and vertical directions, horizontally placed perpendicular to the main plane of movement of the carcasses 10 on the conveyor belt 9 and is installed directly in the path of movement of the carcasses 10 with the possibility of periodic is/BR> where A' VT1; A" VT2;

And the step electrodes for Touche, m;

And' the length of the zone of contact of the electrodes with carcasses, m;

And the length of the disturbed zone of contact of the electrodes with carcasses, m;

T1the duration of the pulse packets with;

T2the duration of pauses, s;

V the conveyor speed in m/s

The electrodes 12 and 13 form a subsystem of the odd-numbered electrodes 12 and the subsystem of the even-numbered electrodes 13 in the sequential numbering of the electrodes 12 and 13 in the path of movement of the carcass 10. The electrodes 12 and 13 are secured to the insulators 14 installed in the holders 15. The holders 15 are installed on the conveyor 9 with the base 16 and 17. Subsystem odd electrodes 12 connected to the negative terminal 18 of the imaging unit 2 voltage pulses, and the subsystem of the even-numbered electrodes 13 to its positive pole 19. Half-wave rectifiers 7 and 8 are connected in series and their common point is connected to regulator 1 voltage, namely to its output terminal 20, which serves the AC voltage and the other output terminal 21 of the regulator 1 voltage and the input terminal 22 of the regulating transformer 6 is grounded and neutral earthing.

All carcasses 10 suspended on the conveyor 9 by the hind legs, constantly characteristi

In Fig. 2 carcass 10 shown in two extreme positions: the solid lines connected to the electrodes 12 and 13, i.e. at the moment of submitting the voltage pulses on the carcass 10 and the strokes at the moment of disconnection of carcasses from 10 electrodes 12 and 13, i.e. at the time of the pause.

The operation of the device is as follows.

The electrode 12 placed on the movement path of the oncoming of the carcass 10, comes into contact with it and produces electrical stimulation of the carcass voltage pulses of a particular polarity before the break for breach of contact due to the exclusion of the electrode 12 of the body 10 with its path, after which the electrode 12 is returned to its original position, and the carcass is, continuing to move to the next electrode 13 is in the pause phase. Then, coming into contact with the next electrode 13, the carcase 10 receives the voltage pulses of opposite polarity, followed by another pause, and then this cycle of the electrical stimulation is repeated many times. Thus, simultaneously processed all carcasses located on an organized section of the pipeline.

The operation of the conveyor when the electrical stimulation of carcasses of different size (mass) is illustrated in the diagram is the more, than carcasses smaller A'oA' > A'othen there is the carcass of a larger size have more pulses of electrical stimulation than the carcass of a smaller size.

The electrical stimulation device starts simultaneously with the start of the conveyor. Ensured safety in the event of breakdown of the regulating transformer. The unit power of electrical stimulation is provided from the AC source with a frequency of from 10 to 100 Hz.

The efficiency of the proposed method of electrical stimulation compared with the method of the prototype provides the following advantages.

Thanks to the continuous displacement of the points of application of voltage to the external surface of the cervical spine Touche, switching the polarity of the packages of voltage pulses with pauses between them is more significantly reduced the pH of the meat to the values of 6.0 and 6.2, compared with 6.5 in control. The result is reduced two times the loss of juice and the degree of contraction of muscle fibers in the production of semi-finished products of carcasses of young cattle, i.e. get meat more tender and more, and the output of commodity pork increases by reducing residual fat on the skin when removed.

the young cattle after freezing-thawing.

Reduces the required voltage electrical stimulation to the region of small values, under which conditions improve electrical safety.

The unit of electrical stimulation in comparison with the known devices provide automatic dosing of electrical stimulation on the mass (size) of carcasses, has a simpler kinematic scheme, as it does not contain any drives, has a more simple schema generator packages of voltage pulses, as carries out switching of carcasses by the conveyor provides the best conditions for electrical safety by reducing voltage electrical, grounding, zanolini output terminal of the envelope generator of voltage pulses.

1. The method of electrical stimulation of beef, lamb and pork carcasses, including the supply of packages of different voltage pulses to the carcass from the voltage source through the electrodes during the transportation of the carcasses through the pipeline in case of grounding, zanolini hind limbs Touche, wherein the electrical stimulation is carried out after taking food blood by the application of electrodes to the skin of the cervical spine neobezjirennogo animal, while the supply of different packages of voltage pulses OS is polarity, and the pauses between them are in the range of 2 to 30 s with a total duration of electrical stimulation 1 5 min, and the maximum value of the voltage pulse packet is for beef carcasses 30 60, pork and lamb 8,5 30, and the electrodes are movable and mounted directly on the path of transportation of carcasses with the possibility of periodic contact with carcasses.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that different packets of pulses separated by pauses, get through the switching ripple voltage derived from a source of rectified half-wave voltage with a zero, the grounded point, working from the mains, through the implementation of periodic contact of the electrodes with a floating carcass, while the contact is carried out by moving the movable electrodes on the skin of the cervical spine Touche, the movement of the carcasses through the pipeline.

3. A device for electrical stimulation of beef, mutton and pork carcasses containing the envelope generator of voltage pulses comprising connected in series voltage regulator, generator voltage pulses and driver packages voltage pulses, a conveyor for carcasses containing the system for which the electrodes carcasses are movable with two degrees of freedom in the horizontal and vertical directions, installed horizontally, perpendicular to the main plane of movement of the carcasses on the conveyor belt, placed directly in the path of movement of the carcasses with the possibility of periodic contact with the skin of the cervical spine Touche, with electrodes for Touche form two subsystems for separate connection to the positive and negative poles of a generator of voltage pulses that are shifted relative to each other along the line of motion of carcasses at a distance determined by the formula

A A' + A",

where a' v1; And" v2;

And the step electrodes for Touche, m;

And' the length of the zone of contact of the electrodes with carcasses, m;

And the length of the disturbed zone of contact of the electrodes with carcasses, m;

T1the duration of the pulse packets with;

T2the duration of pauses, s;

v the speed of the conveyor, m/s

4. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that the generator voltage pulses composed of two half-wave rectifiers connected in series and their common point is connected to the output terminal of the voltage regulator, and the other output terminal of the regulator is grounded and neutral earthing, with free pins of each half-wave rectifier connected to its podestat part of the electrodes for Touche offset from the main plane of movement of the carcasses.

 

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