Installation for the production of permanent magnets from alloys of rare earth metals
(57) Abstract:The inventive system includes sequentially installed devices obtain alloy, pre-and fine grinding his, sealing the resulting powder in an electromagnetic field, sintering heat treatment, machining and namagnichivaniya. Device for sealing powder is made in the form of vibro-impact device with vertical press-form, in which is mounted a piston, and a device for fine grinding is made in the form of shock-centrifugal mill-separator, the discharge device through which the cyclone is connected with the mold installed in a sealed chamber. 2 Il. The invention relates to equipment for the production of permanent magnets on the basis of metal alloys that can be used in instrumentation, automation, computer engineering, electrical and radio and other industries.Known installation for the production of permanent magnets from alloys of rare earth metals containing sequentially installed devices obtain alloy, pre-and fine grinding his, compaction of the powder in the electromagnet is 01 F 1/08, 1985).In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the installation of Fig.2 fine grinding device and a device for compacting powder.The installation consists of sequentially installed devices for producing an alloy of rare earth metals. The device 1 is connected with a device for the pre 2 and 3 thin grinding. The latter is in the form of shock-centrifugal mill separator. The mill through the cyclone 4 is connected with vibro device 5 to seal the powder with a vertical press-form 6, outside of which there is an electromagnetic system 7. Vibro device 5 contains the vibrator 8, which consists of a magnetostrictive transducer, connected to the acoustic emitter, coaxially with it rod bushings, frame, springs and firing pin (not shown). Source of energy of ultrasonic frequency is ultrasonic generator, which has a remote control 9. In addition, the installation includes a device for sintering and heat treatment 11, machining 12 and the magnetization 13. Electromagnetic coil system 7 is controlled from the remote control 10. Mill separator is a located inside the rotor, mounted on a horizontal shaft, the mold 6 is the piston. The cyclone hopper and press-form 6 vibrator 5 is placed in a sealed chamber 14 with an inert gas.The device operates as follows.After preparation of the mixture in the device 1 receives the base alloy of rare earth metals, which is then crushed in the device 2 of the preliminary grinding, usually in a jaw crusher to a particle size of 1-5 mm, the material Then enters the shock-centrifugal mill separator 3, in which the inert gas is ground to a particle size less than 10 microns. While the crushed particles, transformiruyuscheesya through the ventilation effect of the mill, in contact with the rotating rotor of the mill opposite God so loved, ukatyvayutsya and get the shape close to spherical. Crushed to a specified process regulations size particles into the cyclone 4 and neosmechennye particles go back to grinding. From the cyclone hopper 4 particles are transported in a vertical press-form 6-shocking device 5. Then include an ultrasonic generator, a magnetostrictive transducer transforms the vibrations into mechanical transmitted acoustic emitter, and ultimately possible conglomerates of particles, to increase freedom of relative movement and the orientation of the spherical particles of a given size. This creates optimal conditions the orientation of the domains under the action of electromagnetic system 7 along the axis of the coil. I.e., the conditions of achieving anisotropic billet uniform density over the entire height of long products.After vibration compaction mold 6 is sealed and transmitted to the device 11, in which transactions sintering and heat treatment of the mold 4 is removed workpiece. When this mold 6 is returned to the device 5 for re-filling with powder, and the workpiece is fed to the operation of machining and magnetization.Installation for the production of permanent magnets from alloys has the following technical and economic advantages compared to the prototype.Improving the quality of long products by 25-30% due to the homogeneous density and magnetization properties in height, and also due to the exclusion of oxidation of the particles.Increased efficiency due to the replacement of expensive bulky metal device for pressing on a budget detelnosti installation by reducing operations (excluded the operation of the transportation device with fine grinding in vibro-impact device, no device for drying powder after grinding and counting the number of defective items). INSTALLATION FOR the PRODUCTION of PERMANENT MAGNETS FROM ALLOYS of RARE earth METALS, mainly lengthy, containing sequentially installed devices obtain alloy, pre-and fine grinding his, compaction of the powder in the electromagnetic field, sintering heat treatment, machining and magnetization, characterized in that it is equipped with a sealed chamber, a device for fine grinding is made in the form of shock-centrifugal mill-separator with discharge node, and the sealing device of the powder in the electromagnetic field in the form of vibro-impact device with vertical press-form and mounted inside the piston, moreover, the discharge node mill-separator is connected with the mold through the cyclone, and the mold is mounted in a sealed chamber.
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely apparatuses for pressing powders.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes movable and stationary plates, upper and lower punches, pressing block in which die is arranged. Pressing block has two part; upper of said two parts is secured to movable plate and lower part is secured to stationary plate. In one part of block there is additional drive unit for moving punch in plane normal relative to motion direction of movable plate. Pressing block is provided with two carriages placed in guides with possibility of motion in two mutually normal directions. One carriage is arranged in guides of second carriage. Each part of pressing block has four profiled supports. Die is in the form of four shaping members with flat working surfaces. Said members are mounted on profiled supports in such a way that their working surfaces form closed loop. Each member has slit guide normal relative to its working surface and stem mounted in slit guide of adjacent member. Working surface of shaping member coincides with one surface of its stem.
EFFECT: increased density of pressed blanks, enhanced uniformness of density distribution in volume of blank.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: production of quickly cooled magnetic alloy for making nano-composite magnets and magnets with binder used in electric motors, sensors and so on.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing melt and forming quickly crystallized alloy. Composition of melt has common formula: (Fe1-m Tm) 100-x-y-z Qx Ry Mz where T is Co and(or) Ni; Q is B and/or) C; R - rare earth element; M is selected from Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ga, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Hf, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Pb; mole fractions x, y, z and m satisfy next inequalities: 10 at.% ≤ x ≤ 35 at.%; 2 at.% ≤ y ≤ 10 at.%; 0 at.% ≤ z ≤ 10 at.%; 0 ≤ m ≤ 0.5. At stage of producing quickly solidified alloy, melt is poured onto guiding member whose guiding surface is inclined relative to horizontal plane. Melt flowing down on guiding surface is fed through opening at least of one casting duct onto contact zone of cooling roll surface.
EFFECT: possibility for providing uniform structure of magnetic alloy.
33 cl, 6 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely processes for pressing elongated complex-shape articles, possibly in machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is used for pressing elongated articles of powder in press-molds with die having horizontal parting. Method comprises steps of pouring powder to lower part of die, drawing together upper and lower parts of shaping die; shifting powder by moving lower punch to upper part of die and pressing it. At extraction article from press-mold its upper part is released due to opening upper part of die along one or several planes passing along (or parallel to) vertical and(or) inclined axis of upper part of pressed article. Simultaneously upper and lower parts of press-mold are opened along horizontal parting plane.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of article, enlarged manufacturing possibility at making complex-shape articles.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely processes for removing plasticizing agent.
SUBSTANCE: method for capillary type removing of binder comprises steps of preparing mixture, mixing it with plasticizing agent, pressing prepared mixture and heating it for removing plasticizing agent. Before pressing, highly volatile liquid is added to mixture in quantity consisting 0.4 - 0.6 of pore volume of pressed material for dissolving plasticizing agent. Heating is realized before sintering until volatile liquid separation is ended and plasticizing agent appears on surface of pressed material.
EFFECT: shortened time period for removing plasticizing agent, improved quality of articles.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely methods for pressing powder material at presence of liquid.
SUBSTANCE: method for pressing powder material comprises steps of introducing to powder volatile liquid and pressing powder; supplying liquid at side of pressing punch in quantity consisting of 2 - 3 volumes of pores of pressed blank. It is possible to perform pressing at simultaneous supply of liquid till termination of process. Method allows press non-plastic powders without plasticizer, partially remove plasticizer and perform impregnation. Press-mold includes die with upper portion having inner cavity, cavity for liquid and outer part. Apparatus for feeding liquid is in the form of cylinder with symmetrical through openings in walls and it includes piston for supplying liquid to inner cavity of die.
EFFECT: improved quality of articles.
7 cl, 11 dwg, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely preparation of hard-alloy charge.
SUBSTANCE: method for plasticizing charge with paraffin comprises steps of preparing mixture containing hard-alloy components; adding paraffin and diluting agent to prepared mixture; using gasoline as diluting agent while dispersing paraffin in gasoline in quantity no more than 5%. Quantity of paraffin in relation to quantity of hard-alloy components is in range 0.5 - 1%. Hard alloy mixture with gasoline-dispersed paraffin is prepared in cavitation zone of ultrasound field.
EFFECT: improved density and strength of charge.
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely pressing blanks of charge with low content of plasticizer.
SUBSTANCE: method for pressing blanks from charge comprises steps of adding plasticizer in quantity 0.5 -1.0% to hard-alloy mixture; then pressing mixture.; before extracting blank from press-mold acting upon it by means of force impulse or set of force impulses whose value consists at least of 0.1 - 0.15% of specific pressing effort.
EFFECT: enhanced density, strength and strength uniformity of blank.
9 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely manufacture of hard alloy rods with cross section variable along axis, possibly production of end tools such as end milling cutters, reamers, broach bits.
SUBSTANCE: method for forming hard alloy blank for making end tool comprises steps of adding to powder of hard alloy mixture plasticizing agent in quantity 1.8 - 2.5 %; pressing slab blank whose density is by 30 - 40% less than that of final blank and whose cross section less than that of final blank; pressing prepared slab blank in die whose inner cavity corresponds to configuration of final blank. Mass values of slab blank and final blank are the same.
EFFECT: manufacture of articles having uniform texture and strength equal along their length and cross section.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: metallurgy; semi-continuous molding of consumable electrodes from high-reaction metals and alloys, for example, titanium alloys; making large-sized ingots from alloys.
SUBSTANCE: last portion of charge is molded simultaneously with adapter whose end surface is joined with electrode and is provided with taper projections at inclination of 1-10°. According to this method furnace time is reduced by 20% due to avoidance of furnace evacuation procedures and welding of electrode to adapter.
EFFECT: increased productivity of vacuum electric-arc furnaces.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely processes for semi-continuous pressing of consumable electrodes and die for making such electrodes.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of pouring charge into cylinder-cone die by dozes and pressing each doze of charge with use of pressure plate having dents and indentations; preliminarily compacting charge particles in cylindrical inlet portion of die by main effort of pressure plate and shifting them along circumference direction. At final compaction of charge in cone part of die particles are shifted in addition along radius successively in several directions. On cylindrical inlet part of die helical profiled grooves are formed; said grooves have lead angle less than friction angle. On cone squeezing part there are annular portions with variable conicity degree successively turned one relative to other.
EFFECT: production of high-strength electrode.
3 cl, 1 dwg