The device balance stress
(57) Abstract:Usage: to maintain the health of the batteries in the storage mode. The inventive device balance voltage bidirectional e-n=channel switch with the storage capacitor at the input, the output is connected to the battery, the point of connection elements which are connected to the same outputs of the electronic switch, m control inputs which are connected to the corresponding outputs m=bit counter. The control input of the counter is connected to the output of the pulse generator, enable input of which is connected to the output node of the comparison voltage. The first input node of the comparison is connected to a source of reference voltage, and the second with one of the elements of the battery. The device ensures the alignment of consumption of the resource elements of the battery in the storage mode by automatic periodic recharging of the most depleted elements due to the capacity of elements of the same battery with a higher voltage. 1 Il. The invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used to maintain the operability of unmanned accompa density of the electrolyte  the Disadvantage of this method is the inability to control sealed battery.There is also known a method and a control device with a voltmeter status sealed battery voltage  the Disadvantage of this method and device is the need for periodic control of discharged elements even when there is sufficient energy in the rest of the elements. The closest to the technical implementation of the proposed device is the inverter DC-to-DC containing a bidirectional electronic switch with a storage capacitor at the input and a chain of capacitors at the output, which with the help of a generator and a counter according to a certain algorithm storage capacitor sequentially and serially connected to the capacitor chain and equalize the tension on them to the level of the medium 
This device is selected as a prototype. The main disadvantage of this device is a continuous cycle of operation even in the presence of equality stress on the output capacitors.In the balance voltage bidirectional e-N-channel switch with the storage capacitor at the input, the output is connected to the battery, point connect the 2m) which is connected to the respective outputs of the m-dimensional counter, a control input connected to the output of the pulse generator, enable input of which is connected to the output node of the comparison voltage, the first input connected to a resistive voltage divider, and the second with N-1 output of the electronic switch.The essence of the proposed technical solution is the alignment of the consumption of the resource elements of the battery in the storage mode by automatic periodic recharging of the most depleted elements due to the capacity of elements of the same battery that has a higher output voltage. Since the elements of the battery are devices with limited resources, when the alignment of resource consumption between the individual elements is achieved the maximum time maintaining a faultless condition of the battery as a whole. Significant differences of the proposed technical solutions are:
1. Control using a resistive divider and node comparison of the voltages on the individual elements of the battery.2. Automatic periodic charge is discharged elements by elements,tion.The device includes a pulse generator 1, the output of which is connected to the input m-bit counter 2. Storage capacitor 3 is connected to the input of the N-channel bi-directional electronic switch 4, m control inputs which are connected to the corresponding outputs of the counter 2. Rechargeable battery 5 from the N-1 elements connected between the first and last output of the switch 4. In parallel, the battery connected to a resistor divider from the elements 6 and 7, the output of which is connected to the first input node of the comparison voltages 8. Elements 6 and 7 are chosen from the condition
R7< / BR>Site comparison voltages 8 contains the first comparator 81the upper threshold voltage and a second comparator 82the lower threshold voltage. The outputs of the Comparators 81and 82United through the element OR 83.As a site of comparison may be used, for example, IC CS.The device operates as follows.When the charged battery voltage on all its elements will have approximately the same value and equal to the voltage drop across the element 7. At the inputs of the Comparators 81and 82the error voltage is lower then the storage capacitor 3 is connected to one of the elements of the battery 5. The device is in standby mode. At the discharge of one of the elements of the battery equality of the voltages at the inputs of the Comparators will be broken. As a result of triggering of one of the Comparators at the output of the element OR 83appears inhibit signal. After starting the generator and the meter switch 4 is periodic connection of the storage capacitor 3 to the elements of the battery 5. As a result of charge of the capacitor 3 from the same elements and discharge on the other ensures the alignment of the stresses on the elements 51,5N-1. When achieving equality stress the device again enters the standby mode. So, for example, charged the battery, consisting of 4 elements, the charge of each of which is equal to 1.5 volts, charge the whole battery will be 6 C. the voltage Drop across the element 7 will be 6/4 1,5 Century While ensuring the implementation of equal stresses in all elements of the battery and cell voltage divider 7. Assume that the circuit is in the standby mode when the threshold of 0.1 volts. If during the storage battery 54will be reduced to 1 V, the charge across the battery will be 5.5 V, and the voltage h is em comparator 81will begin the process of equalization of stresses. If in the process of storing the charge of one of the elements 51.53will be reduced to 1 V, the voltage difference on the item 54and item 7 of the divider will be 1.5-1,33 0,17 Century will Trigger the comparator 82will begin the process of equalization of stresses. When using the IC series CMOS device consumes the current level of discharge of the battery and does not have a significant impact on its discharge.Thus, with this device ensures the alignment of the resource consumption of individual elements of the battery and is achieved by increasing the average uptime of the battery in the storage mode. The DEVICE BALANCE STRESSES that contains bi-directional e-N-channel switch with a storage capacitor connected to its input, the pulse generator, the output of which is connected to the input m-bit counter (N=2m), m outputs of which are connected to respective inputs of an electronic switch, characterized in that between the first and last pin on an electronic switch connected to the battery containing N-1 serially connected, Alemanha connected to the first input node of the comparison voltage, the second input is connected to the resistive voltage divider, is in parallel with the battery, the output node of the comparison voltages is connected to allows the input of the generator, while the power supply of all the elements and nodes of the device connected to the battery, and the node comparison voltages includes two comparator in parallel with the United inputs, the outputs of which are connected through the OR.
FIELD: electrical engineering; storage batteries for space vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has contact for connection to extreme terminals of storage battery, 2n output terminals, variable-voltage generator with transformer output, n controlled rectifiers whose outputs are connected to respective like-polarity terminals of cells, n strain gages, first and second switches, instrumentation amplifier, analog-to-digital converter, microprocessor, and control voltage supply. Outputs of strain gages are connected to n inputs of first switch whose output is connected to input of instrumentation amplifier and output of the latter, to input of analog-to-digital converter. Output of analog-to-digital converter is connected to microprocessor data bus which is connected to control inputs of first and second switches. Input of first switch is connected to output of control voltage supply and n outputs of second switch, to control inputs of n controlled rectifiers. Device provides for enhancing cycling intensity and eliminating polarity reversal of so-called weak cells thereby reducing drop in battery capacity with time, this being equivalent to enhancement of effective capacity by end of space vehicle active life.
EFFECT: enhanced precision of equalizing capacity of battery cells at minimal power requirement.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: preliminarily for appropriate type of accumulators an empiric formula is determined, determining dependency of full capacity of lead accumulator on discharge current Idis, temperature t and electrolyte concentration d. On basis of individually measured during receiving-transferring tests of certain accumulator battery, values of capacitors in two discharge modes, determined are correction coefficients and precise values of full capacity, appropriate for discharge currents related to marked sub-ranges of current. During discharge, discharge vessel of accumulator battery is determined continuously, by integrating discharge current Cj,p = Σ(Ij,p·Δt), and each increment thereof is added to content of j-numbered cell, where j - number of sub-range, to which current discharge current Ijp is related. Computation of remaining capacity at present discharge current, related to n sub-range, is performed by modifying all discharge capacitors, received in various sub-ranges, to n sub-range, adding modified discharge capacitors and subtracting that total from precise value of full capacity, appropriate for n-numbered sub-range.
EFFECT: increased precision.
FIELD: electrical engineering; off-line power systems for geostationary satellites.
SUBSTANCE: proposed nickel-hydrogen storage battery operating process involves checkup of steady-state self-discharge current and degree of battery charge against analog pressure transducers, battery storage in charged state with periodic additional charges to compensate for battery self-discharge in solar orbits, and conduction of charge-discharge cycles in shadow orbits; steady-state self-discharge current is maintained in battery between 0.003 and 0.006 of its rated capacity; additional charge is ceased according to arithmetic mean of analog pressure transducer readings whose value affords desired steady-state self-discharge current during additional charge ranging between 0.01 and 0.012 of battery rated capacity under charge-discharge cycle conditions. In addition battery location temperature is checked, and battery self-discharge steady-state current is maintained between 0.003 and 0.006 of rated capacity at battery location temperature below 10-12 °C both in additional-charge mode and during charge-discharge cycles; additional impulse charge is conducted, its parameters (period and relative pulse duration) being chosen to provide for mean charge current higher in magnitude by two or three times than battery steady-state self-discharge current.
EFFECT: enhanced use factor and operating reliability of battery.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: fuel cells.
SUBSTANCE: fuel cell source comprises housing, chamber member filled with methanol, and valving member that has housing valving member and member of sliding body mounted inside of the housing valving member. The sliding body member is shifted normally to the surface of the valve socket to make the valving member to be pressure-tight. The sliding body member is mounted for permitting movement off the surface of the socket of the valve to open the valving member. The chamber member, housing valving member, and sliding body member are made of at least two different materials.
EFFECT: simplified design and reduced sizes of the fuel cell source.
42 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: electrical engineering; power supplies for off-line power consumers such as spacecraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for equalizing battery capacity makes use of tight dependence between rate of self-discharge of nickel-hydrogen cells and temperature and is implemented by disconnecting battery and load, its heating and storage at temperature not over 50 °C for time sufficient for complete discharge of all cells, that is, for voltage drop below 0.5 V. Proposed method is characterized in that it wants no special measures for its implementing as it uses heaters incorporated in storage battery.
EFFECT: ability of equalizing capacity of all battery cells dispensing with extra charges for implementing this method.
FIELD: storage batteries built around primary and secondary electrochemical current supplies, in particular those built around fuel cells and accumulators.
SUBSTANCE: proposed composite electrochemical current supply has solitary secondary electrochemical current supplies electrically interconnected into series or series/parallel circuit with primary electrochemical current supply connected to each of them by means of switching device through electronic converter. Control unit functions to control voltage across each secondary electrochemical current supply and to disconnect respective primary one for charging secondary current supply to desired voltage level, or to disconnect composite electrochemical current supply from load to discharge secondary current supply below desired voltage level.
EFFECT: enhanced specific power and energy characteristics.
12 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method for controlling of Metal-Hydrogen Accumulator Battery (MHAB) with common gas collector includes measuring of parameters determining the level of MHAB charge, carrying out charge-discharge cycles, determining residual level of MHAB electrochemical energy charge on the basis of measured parameters, determining discharge power capacity, checking of allowed level of MHAB discharge power capacity loss, and stop of charging after the moment when current loss of discharge power capacity has exceeded allowed level, with subsequent monitoring of selfdischarging until pressure balance of gas mix in the MHAB is achieved at rated temperature and power capacity of electrochemical generating in accumulators is recovered by means of recovering of their electrolyte content.
EFFECT: improvement of power capacity figures of Metal-Hydrogen Accumulator Batteries (MHAB).
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: battery is equipped with safety device comprising first metal plate, second metal plate and pressure sensitive conducting film, placed by both metal plates and designed for electric conduction efficiency as specified or higher pressure is applied. First and second metal plates are electrically connected to positive and negative electrodes respectively. Safety device connected to battery prevents cell failure or at least its inflammation or explosion even if battery is affected by external action caused by mechanical pressure, nails, nippers or by external pressure by means of current transfer from battery to safety device and battery discharge before the moment battery is failure under the influence of external action or external pressure.
EFFECT: reduction of battery charged state before failure.
9 cl, 7 dwg, 3 ex8
FIELD: electricity, electric equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electric equipment and may be used in production of accumulators and accumulator batteries, in particular, lead-acid accumulator batteries. During electric monitoring of accumulator or accumulator batteries with electrolyte quality, which is performed on completion of last technological manufacturing operation in the time limits (τ1-τ2), which depends on the type of items and technology of their manufacturing, with temperature of electrolyte in items within the interval (T1-T2), which depends on the type of items, the process of discharge lasts at least 3 sec and not more than 30 sec, the value of discharge current is maintained equal to In for every nominal type of item during the full process of discharge, voltage drop on the outputs U0 is measured before the discharge start, voltage drop at outputs U1 is measured in the moment t1 of discharge process, voltage drop at outputs U2 is measured in the moment t2 of discharge process, voltage drop at outputs ue is measured in the moment te in the end of discharge, value ΔU is calculated in equal to difference (U1-U2), values U0, ue, ΔU are compared with control values U0, control> Ue, control, Δucontrol for every type of items and on the basis of such comparison the decision is made on the quality of items, at that items are considered high quality if U0 lies in the range of values U0,control> ue more or equal to ue,control, ΔU less or equal to ΔUcontrol.
EFFECT: provides reliable monitoring of accumulator batteries quality.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measuring pcb assembly for storage battery. In compliance with this invention, the measuring pcb assembly incorporates connecting elements to effect electrical interconnection of single cells terminals. The aforesaid connecting element comprises an extending connecting part connecting it with the pcb furnished with through holes receiving the aforesaid extending parts of connecting elements and printed circuits connected with perforated holes.
EFFECT: storage battery not susceptible to outer mechanical effects.
11 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed cascaded voltage amplifier has two bridge circuits each incorporating two diodes and two capacitors. Outputs of bridge circuits are connected in phase opposition. Each output lead of either bridge circuit is connected to output diode. Interconnected leads of output diodes form first-stage output. Each output lead of bridge circuit is connected to one output lead of respective identical additional bridge circuit whose second output lead is connected to lead of additional output diode. Additional output diodes have their other leads connected to respective additional output diodes of other additional bridge circuit and to ripple capacitor to organize output of next stage. Input of each additional bridge circuit formed by interconnection of two diodes is connected through capacitor to respective input of bridge circuit. Output lead of next additional bridge circuit identical to first one and connected in same way as first additional bridge circuit to organize output of next stage is connected to output lead of each additional bridge circuit connected to additional output diode. As an alternative, each respective additional bridge circuit is connected across two diagonally opposite junctions of first output lead of first bridge circuit and second output lead of second bridge circuit, as well as second output lead of first bridge circuit and first output lead of second bridge circuit. Each additional bridge circuit has two diodes inserted in opposite arms of additional bridge circuit and capacitors are inserted in two other opposing arms, like-polarity diodes of bridge circuit and additional bridge circuit being connected cumulatively. Each output lead of second pair of diagonally opposite junctions of bridge circuit is connected to additional output diode, additional output diodes being interconnected in pairs through other leads. Interconnected leads of additional output diodes form output leads of next stage which are connected to ripple capacitor. Output of next stage is organized like that of first alternative.
EFFECT: enhanced multiplier efficiency for organizing several different voltage levels at output.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering, industrial techniques for transformerless voltage rise, multistage generators, radio electronics, and medical instrumentation engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed multistage voltage multiplier has two bridge circuits, each incorporating two valves and two capacitors. Bridge circuit is connected at its inputs in phase opposition. Each output lead of every bridge circuit is connected to output valve. Integrated leads of output valves form output of first-stage. Each output lead of bridge circuit is connected to one output lead of one similar additional bridge circuit whose second output lead is connected to additional output valve lead. Other leads of additional output valves are connected to respective additional output leads of other additional bridge circuit and to ripple capacitor to form common output of next stage. Input of each additional bridge circuit formed by interconnection of two valves is connected through capacitor to respective input of respective bridge circuit. Connected to output lead of each additional bridge circuit coupled with additional output lead is output lead of next similar first additional bridge circuit to form output of next stage. As an alternative, one respective additional bridge circuit is connected to diagonally opposite terminals of first output lead of first bridge circuit and of second output lead of second bridge circuit, as well as to diagonally opposite terminals of second output lead of first bridge circuit and of first output lead of second bridge circuit. Each additional bridge circuit has two valves inserted in opposing arms of additional bridge circuit, capacitors being inserted in two other opposing arms; like valves of bridge circuit and of additional one are connected cumulatively. Each output lead of second diagonally opposite terminals of bridge circuit is connected to additional output valves, the latter being integrated in pairs with other respective valves. Integrated leads of additional output valves form output leads of next stage which are connected to ripple capacitor. Connected to output lead of each additional bridge circuit coupled with additional output valve is output lead of next additional bridge circuit similar to first one in its arrangement and connection. This forms output of next stage.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of multiplier incorporating provision for attaining several different voltage levels across output.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: electronics, possible use as synchronized source of high voltage with low output resistance, large impulse power and controlled multiplication coefficient.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to invention, serial-wave method of commutation of multiplication sections allows usage of components only meant for original voltage. Output multi-kilovolt voltage may exceed original voltage dozens and hundreds of times. Principle of operation - parallel charge of accumulating capacitors of sections, then enabling of them into serial circuit, synchronously with control signal. Multiplication coefficient is varied by duration of control impulse and alteration of original voltage from outside.
EFFECT: overcoming of dependence of key capacitor multiplexers on component parameters; invention of compact, easily adaptable, universal, with possible synchronization, flexibly controlled, powerful module for multiplication of voltage without induction.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: power electronics.
SUBSTANCE: transforming circuit for commutation of a set of levels of commutated voltage contains n first commutation groups provided for each phase (R, S, T). To reduce accumulated electric energy of transforming circuit n≥1, p second commutation groups and p third commutation groups are provided, formed respectively by first semiconductor power switch and second semiconductor power switch and with a capacitor connected to first semiconductor power switch and second semiconductor power switch, while p≥1, and each one of p second commutation groups is connected in parallel to appropriately adjacent second commutation group, each one of p third commutation groups is connected in parallel to appropriately adjacent third commutation group, first second commutation group is connected to first semiconductor power switch of n first commutation group (1.n), and first third commutation group is connected to second semiconductor power switch of n first commutation group (1.n). Capacitor of p second commutation group is serially connected to capacitor of p third commutation group.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
21 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering, concerns the method of deposition of metals in electrolyte, charging of storage batteries using the summation of direct current and impulse current.
SUBSTANCE: the power supply unit has a DC supply source and an impulse current supply source, where the current power is set depending on the process of coating. The first DC supply source consists of a feeding transformer, thyristor rectifier, instrument shunt, electronic control unit, smoothing reactor. The second impulse current supply source consists of a feeding transformer, diode rectifier, smoothing reactor, thyristor-capacitor unit, electronic control unit, double-wound reactor-transformer.
EFFECT: provided deposition of any metal, enhanced rate of metal deposition, due to variation of the relation of currents, provided the required physical properties of the coating, recovery of storage batteries.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to pulse technique, specifically to pulse power supply units and is intended for feeding high-voltage pulses to anode or control electrode to provide power supply of klystrons, particle accelerators, magnetrons, travelling-wave tubes and similar devices. Modulator (fig. 1) contains power supply unit (1), capacitors C1, C2), regulation circuit (2), voltage sensing device (VSD) (3), control circuit (CC) (4), modulating device (MD) (5), reference-voltage source (RVS) (12). Switching element (SE) of regulation circuit is made in the form of field-controlled or bipolar insulated-gate transistor (T) with resistor (R) connected with sink or in the form of field-controlled or bipolar insulated-gate T with R connected with source or in the form of field-controlled or bipolar insulated-gate T with inductance connected with sink. Furthermore CC includes comparator one of inputs of which is connected with VSD output the other output of which is connected with RVS, and output of comparator is connected with SE control input. MD is made in the form of connected in series block of switches and switch control circuit. Versions of device configuration and circuit of electronic switch for it are presented.
EFFECT: decrease of mass-dimension characteristics with reliability enhancement.
20 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention can be used in electrical engineering. The element for a distributing device contains a group of connections (1), comprising six bidirectional power semiconductor switches (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) and a capacitor (25). The first switch (2) is connected anti-parallel and in series with switch (3). The third switch (4) is connected anti-parallel and in series with switch (5). The capacitor (25) is connected with the point of connection of the first switch (2) and the second switch (3) and with point of connection of the third (4) and fourth (5) switches. The fifth switch (6) is connected to the point of connection of the first (2) and second (3) switches, and with the fourth switch (5). The sixth switch (7) is connected to the point of connection of the third (4) and fourth (5) switches and with the second switch (3). There are first and second series-connected capacitors (8, 9). The first switch (2) and the third switch (4) are connected to each other at the point of connection of the fist (8) and second (9) capacitors. Proposed also is a converter circuit for switching many voltage levels, containing the said element of a distributing device.
EFFECT: reduced amount of accumulative electrical energy and decrease in dimensions.
15 cl, 5 dwg