The method for determining the potential erosion resistance to melt the soil taking into account infiltration
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the study of erosion processes occurring on the surface of the soil from runoff, snowmelt, rain and irrigation water. Simulated erosion process in hydrolock the flow of water. Take into account the energy consumption for destruction of a unit mass of the sample by measuring the height of the water flow before and after interaction with a sample of soil and flow of the suspension and the amount of water that leaked through the sample. Erosion resistance of the soil is determined from the above description of the expression. 2 Il. The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods for the study of erosion processes occurring on the surface of the soil from runoff, snowmelt, rain and irrigation water, and can be used in soil science, land reclamation and hydrology.Known methods for determining the erosion resistance of soils, consisting in the determination of scour velocity stream of water sample of soil is placed in the camera hydrolock and located in it its the surface above the bottom of the tray 1-2 mm.The main deficiencies the current of water with a projecting part of the sample of soil above the bottom of the tray; the bias and the complexity of determining the beginning of the movement of the destroyed particles of soil water flow; determined to lose water flow rate has the dimension of m/s and does not reflect the physical nature and magnitude of potential erosion resistance of soils.The purpose of the invention is to improve the accuracy of modeling the erosion process with regard to infiltration.For this purpose, in a known way to determine the potential erosion resistance of soils, including the modeling of the erosion process in hydrolock the flow of water, the energy consumption for destruction of a unit mass of the sample by measuring the height of the water flow before and after interaction with the sample and the flow rate of the suspension according to the invention to measure the amount of water percolating through the sample, and the potential erosion resistance of the soil is determined from the expression
= - + -
In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the method of Fig. 2 - section a-a in Fig. 1.In the diagram, the method indicated an inclined chute 1, removable camera 2 for a sample of soil that is installed in the working side of the tray 1, the perforated partition 3 for the Department of water percolating through the sample, the micro is x walls, system 6 power supply constant pressure, the damper 7 and the clamp Hoffmann 8.The method is implemented as follows. Before the beginning of experiments instead of the removable camera 2 in tray 1 is set precision engineered cover (not shown), which is along the line of junction with the bottom from the bottom side hydroisolyatsia. Then use system 6 constant head is set to the specified water flow rate Qin. Opens the clip Hoffman 8 and using 4 micrometer with gauge needle 5 measured the height of the water flow in the head hB1and the output hB2the parts of the tray. The results obtained are recorded in the log of observations. Is determined by the bulk sample of soilp. Then replace the cover to the tray 1 is mounted camera 2 with a test specimen of soil. Junctions also waterproofed. Opens the clip Hoffman 8 and at equal intervals of time by means of 4 micrometers with measuring needle 5 is determined and recorded in the log of the observations of the height of the flow of water (h1in the head (as a result of research it was found that hB1= = h1so h1not measured) and the height of the flow of suspensions of h2the output of the tray 1. At the same time samples are collected suspensus in the formula
= - + -
where Qin, Qc, QVI- consumption of water, the suspension and the amount of water percolating through the sample, m3;
In - the width of the tray, m;
in,p, 'inrespectively the volumetric weight of water, soil and infiltrirovanii water, kg/m3;
hB2h2- the height of the flow of water and the suspension on the output side of the tray defined respectively before experience without sample and in the process experience a sample of soil, mAn example implementation of the method is given in the table.Feasibility advantage of the proposed method is to improve the accuracy of modeling the erosion process methods of thermodynamics. This eliminates the need for a detailed study of a very complex, multifactorial mechanisms of fracture water flow specific soils in all their diversity, uncertainty and variability in space and in time. The method allows to create a single, objective, integral criterion for assessing erosion resistance of soils.The method can be used in research and industrial organizations involved in the design of erosion control measures is MINUTE TO MELT the SOIL taking into ACCOUNT INFILTRATION, which consists in modeling the erosion process in hydrolock the flow of water, the energy consumption for destruction of a unit mass of the sample by measuring the height of the water flow before and after interaction with the sample and the flow rate of the suspension, wherein the first measured quantity of water, proschivaem through the sample, and then determine the potential erosion resistance of soils from
< / BR>where Qin, Qwith, Qinn- consumption of water, the suspension and the amount of water proschivaem through the sample, m3;
b - width of the tray, m;
in,p,1inrespectively the volumetric weight of water, soil and infiltrating water, kg/m3;
- the height of the flow of water and the suspension on the output side of the tray defined respectively before experience without sample and in the process experience a sample of soil, m
FIELD: mechanical engineering; testing facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for stand tests of pumps of any application. According to proposed method full pressure at pump input is maintained constant by means of reservoir with free surface of liquid exposed to constant (atmospheric) pressure installed in intake pipeline. Working liquid saturated vapor pressure at pump input is changed by heating. Periodical measurement of required parameters in process of liquid heating makes it possible to calculate sought for cavitation margin Δh. Method is implemented by test stand containing pump to be tested, output throttle, flow meter, heat exchanger, service tank, pipe fittings, all arranged in closed hydraulic circuit, and reservoir with free surface of working liquid in combination with capsule made of heat conducting material connected to circuit at pump input. Space of capsule is divided into two parts, one of which is partly filled with working liquid and sealed, and other communicates with circuit.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of measurements and simplified determination of pump cavitation characteristics.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in through portion of pipe with choking of through portion cavitation flow lock mode is set, and in zone of low density value of critical pressure of cavitation and liquid flow are determined, which flow is used to determined liquid speed in pipe neck. Received critical pressure value of cavitation is aligned with pressure of saturated steam of pumped liquid, after that to specially built calculation graph dependencies of relative value of critical pressure of critical speed of flow in channel neck are applied in the moment of setting of lock mode with different concentration of cores target concentration of cores of cavitation of pumped liquid is determined.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: aviation industry.
SUBSTANCE: device helps to get real pattern of liquid pressure distribution which flows about "blown-about" object in water tunnel. Device has driven frequency pulse oscillator, frequency divider, control pulse counter, longitudinal contact multiplexer which connect capacitors with shelves, lateral contact multiplexer which connect the other output of capacitors, matching unit, analog-to-digital converter, indication unit, water tunnel, blown-about object, grid with capacitive detector.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: experimental hydrodynamics.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making a model dynamically similar to the marine engineering structure in mass, sizes, location of the center of gravity, and inertia moment and mounting the model in the experimental tank by means of anchor-type links provided with dynamometers. The device comprises experimental tank and model provided with anchor-type links for connecting with the frame. The anchor-type links are provided with dynamometers and devices for control of initial tension. The frame has flat horizontal base, vertical pillars , and blocks. The base is provided with the members for securing the vertical pillars at specified points of the base. The vertical pillars are provided with blocks and members that are mounted for permitting movement along the pillars and their locking at a given position. The model is provided with the pickups of angular and linear movements. The outputs of the dynamometers and pickups of angular and linear displacements of the model are connected with the input of the computer.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measuring techniques.
SUBSTANCE: method and device can be used for measurement of hydraulic-dynamic resistance of different surfaces moving in fluid. Time of load descending, which load is kinetically connected with disc rotating in water, is compared when surface of load is coated with different matters.
EFFECT: simplicity at use; reduced cost.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises modeling the process of interaction of water flow with a rough surface by changing the working member of the sloping chute for a precision member with the smooth surface, measuring the height of the water flow in the entrance and exit sections of the chute by means of micrometer with measuring needle, determining the flow rate, and measuring the width of the chute. The smooth member is changed for the working member provided with a rough surface, and the height of the water in the exit section of the chute is measured.
EFFECT: simplified method.
FIELD: experimental hydromechanics; designing of equipment for conducting hydrodynamic and ice searches of marine engineering facility models in model testing basins.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device includes towing trolley with frame rigidly secured on it; this frame is provided with bar which is connected with model through dynamometers and bearing plate. Dynamometers form three-support force-measuring system; they are provided in each support in form of two interconnected elastic members; one elastic member is made in form of five-rod member provided with longitudinal and lateral force sensors; it is located between two flanges. Second elastic member of dynamometer is made in form of membrane-type elastic member whose membrane is located between rigid rim and rigid central part of this member provided with threaded rod with elastic hinge mounted over vertical axis perpendicularly relative to membrane. Membrane, rim and rigid central part with threaded rod and elastic hinge are made integral. Rim of membrane elastic members is rigidly connected with one of flanges of five-rod elastic member in such way that threaded rod is located along vertical axis of support and is rigidly connected via elastic hinge with bearing plate secured on model. Membrane is provided with resistance strain gages forming vertical force measuring bridge. Second flange of each five-rod member is connected with additional bearing plate secured on bar.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measuring forces and moments.
FIELD: the invention refers to experimental hydrodynamics and may be used for definition of the resistance of small objects to a running flow at tests.
SUBSTANCE: the arrangement is fulfilled in the shape of a grate with the width Bt. and the height ht, deepened at the height T formed by rods with a step ▵ fixed in the supporting contour and is located at a certain distance in front of the tested object. At that it is installed with possibility of independent displacement relatively to the tested object and is fastened on the object and/or the body or probably on the bodies moving together with the tested object relatively to the test gondola. It is also may be formed by a system of private turbulators fulfilled in the shape of grates with a different size of cells, with possibility of their independent displacement relatively to each other including the fastening on different bodies and located primary in-series. The private turbulators may be fulfilled in the shape of grates particularly with different main direction of the rods of the grate. The mode is in locating the turbulator in front of the tested object with possibility of independent displacement relatively to the tested object and fastening on the object and/or on the body probably on the bodies moving together with the tested object particularly to test gondola. At that the position of the turbulator relatively to the tested object particularly the distance and displacement relatively to the tested object and also deepening and probably dimensions are chosen on the basis of comparison of results of the trial run of tarring of objects of different scales.
EFFECT: possibility of investigating of small models and revelation of the influence of resistance of the surface of the model.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to experimental hydrodynamics, hydrodynamics and aerodynamics of airscrew and can be used in shipbuilding and aircraft building. Method includes force field created by airscrew rotation and carrier moving, use of visualising facilities and field structure registration by optical equipment. Thus airscrew rotary speed is established assuming production and stream maintenance of visualising facilities. Field is registered by scanning in two transversely-spaced planes, i.e. horizontal and vertical, in front of, and behind, the airscrew. Thus boundary layer, turbulence areas, increased and decreased pressure areas, airscrew expansion angles, and whole flow structure are showed.
EFFECT: high-accuracy picture of airscrew propeller environment flow.
5 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: test stand for amphibious vehicles has basin with entrance and exit ramp, side walls, road, ramp and basin borders. From both sides of exit ramp pits are made in which ends of tubular shaft are embedded. Parallel arms-brackets of sheet metal are attached to the shaft equally spaced from axis. Between attached arms-brackets, spacer pipe is preliminary embedded on shaft which pipe has rectangular pawl with holes on both sides. By means of these holes the pipe is attached to captivating sheet located on symmetry axis of exit ramp. At the end of arms-brackets with lugs, cylinder is attached on axis. This cylinder is made along generator of curve corresponding to curve of vehicle front bumper. Tube rings with pawls are put on shaft ends. The pawls are fixed on pit floors. Spheroidal flanges are fixed on shaft ends to which flanges arms are attached, with brought-out from pits ends having lugs, and pneumatic cylinders are attached to arms from two sides.
EFFECT: reduction of scope of work during test stand construction and provides getting true data about capability of vehicle to move over water surface on tired wheels.