Functional converter

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to analog computing, in particular, to devices for functional transformation of electrical signals. The purpose of the invention is the increase in power dissipation and increased functionality of the Converter. Functional Converter contains a reference source, a power bus which serve as input terminals of the inverter, power mismatch and the managed equivalent load, and the output of the reference source connected to the input of the error amplifier, the output of which is connected to the control input of the control dummy load, the supply mismatch and managed equivalent load combined and connected to the power bus of the reference signal. Functional Converter may be provided with a rectifier connected between the input and the power bus of the inverter. In addition, functional Converter may be provided with a thermal conductor having a thermal contact with a controlled load equivalent and employees of the exit hazard of the functional signal Converter. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il.

The image is Finance electrical signals, the modeling function of the voltage suppressor.

Known functional converters type voltage suppressor made in the form of semiconductor Zener diode used in the construction of analog computing devices, as well as for protection of electronic equipment from the effects of random noise and surges associated with transients in the power system equipment.

However, such devices can only be used in low-power (low voltage) circuits.

In the equipment, powered by an Autonomous power source, for example from an electric generator driven by the engine, in the case of switching the power circuit of the powerful loads, the current in the output circuit of the generator cannot change instantaneously due to the inertia of the Electromechanical generator. This causes at the moment of disconnection powerful load voltage spike in the power supply circuit apparatus, which can lead to failure of electronic equipment. Typical transient for power system equipment from Electromechanical generator power is about 1 kW with a nominal voltage of 12 V is an exponential process with an initial braai power reaches 50 and more i.e., the instantaneous power of the throw hundreds of watts. When using a more powerful generator with the increase in the power generated by transients.

Also known functional converters containing a reference source and thyristor key, a control input connected to the output of the reference source and the power supply circuit of the reference signal and the thyristor key combined and serve as input terminals of the functional Converter.

Such functional Converter is enabled the input terminals in parallel to the power supply output and simulates the function of the limiter voltage. If the voltage on the power bus exceeds the voltage reference source functional inverter, thyristor key opens and bypasses the power rail. In the food chain must have tomographically resistor that protects the power supply against short circuit or fuse, peregory when triggered thyristor key.

The disadvantages of such technical solutions are that after each actuation of the thyristor key (after each surge not, which is not always acceptable operating conditions of the equipment (for example, in cases where the apparatus includes memory elements that do not allow interruptions in the power supply circuits).

Closest to the invention is a functional Converter that performs the function of the active Zener diode.

The prototype simulates the function of the limiter voltage and has a fairly powerful output stage. The prototype contains a reference source, made in the form of parametric stabilization of congestion on semiconductor Zener diode, the output of which is connected to a current amplifier on a semiconductor transistor. The collector and the emitter of the transistor and the input terminal of the reference signal are combined and serve as input terminals of the functional Converter.

The disadvantages of the prototype are as follows. In case of excess voltage in the supply circuit voltage reference signal through the output transistor functional inverter current flows, which heats the output transistor. The power allocated to the transistor, when the voltage limits of the order of 20 V, the current surge 50 And is equal to 1000 watts. This shows that the practical implementation of the prototype power the tee.

In addition, when using the prototype is mandatory inclusion tomographically resistor consistent - consistent in the power supply circuit, which leads to undesirable consequences due to the increased internal resistance of the power source from the point of view of the efficiency of the source, and from the point of view of protection from possible self-excitation equipment.

The aim of the invention is to increase the functional capacity of the Converter, as well as extending its functionality.

This objective is achieved in that the functional Converter comprising a source of reference signal, the power bus which serve as input terminals of the functional Converter is further provided with a steering misalignment and managed equivalent load, and the output of the reference source is connected with the control input of the control dummy load, the power supply circuit of the amplifier misalignment and managed equivalent load combined and connected to the power bus of the reference source.

In addition, functional Converter is the managed equivalent load can be made in the form of analog-to-digital pre is imago equivalent load, the ADC outputs connected to respective inputs of the digital controlled resistance, the outputs of which are connected to the corresponding power bus managed equivalent load.

Functional Converter is the managed equivalent load can be made in the form of pulse-width Converter and key with resistive load, and the input pulse-width Converter serves as the controlling input of the control dummy load, the output pulse width of the Converter is connected with the control input of the key, resistive load which is connected to the power bus managed equivalent load.

In addition, functional Converter may be provided with a rectifier connected between the input and the power bus functional Converter.

Functional Converter can be equipped with a heat pipe having thermal contact with the managed equivalent load and Valet alarm output functional Converter.

In Fig. 1 shows a possible variant of the scheme proposed functional Converter of Fig. 2 shows another possible variant realizacja equivalent load, part of the functional Converter of Fig. 4 shows another possible embodiment of the managed equivalent load, part of the functional Converter of Fig. 5 shows a possible variant of the inclusion of functional Converter in the power supply circuit of the equipment of Fig. 6 shows the volt-ampere characteristic functional of the Converter in the embodiment according to Fig. 1; Fig. 7 shows the volt-ampere characteristic functional of the Converter in the embodiment according to Fig. 2.

Functional Converter 1 according to Fig. 1 contains source 2 reference signal, the error amplifier 3, the managed equivalent of the load 4. Output 5 source 2 reference signal connected to the input 6 of the amplifier 3, the output 7 which is connected with the control input 8 of the managed equivalent of the load 4. The power bus 9, 10, and 11 blocks 2, 3 and 4 combined and connected to the clamp 12 function of the Converter 1. The second power rail 13, 14 and 15 blocks 2, 3 and 4 are combined and connected to the clamp 16 functional Converter 1.

Functional Converter 1 can be equipped with a heat pipe 17, having thermal contact with ele is the user 1.

Source 2 the reference signal may be in the form of voltage regulator, for example in the form of parametric stabilizer containing a Zener diode 19 and a resistor 20 connected between the power bus 9 and one of the terminals of the Zener diode 19. The second terminal of the Zener diode 19 is connected to the power bus 13. The common connection point of the Zener diode 19 and resistor 20 serves as the output 5 source 2 reference signal. Source 2 the reference signal can be provided with an adjusting resistor 21, connected in parallel to the Zener diode 19. In this embodiment, the output movable contact of resistor 21 serves as the output 5 source 2.

The amplifier mismatch 3 may be made in the form of a differential amplifier 22 DC, the output of which serves as the output 7 of the amplifier 3. One of the inputs of the differential amplifier 22 serves as input 6 of the error amplifier 3, the second input of the amplifier 22 connected to the output of the voltage divider 23, made in the form of two resistors. The inputs of the voltage divider 23 is attached respectively to the tires 10 and 14 of block 3. One of the resistors of the voltage divider 23 may be made in the form of AC (adjustment) of the resistor.

Possible options manipulated the user 1 according to Fig. 2 contains blocks 2, 3, 4 and the rectifier 24. The rectifier 24, the input connected to the terminals 12 and 16 function of the Converter 1 and the output to the power bus 9, 10, 11, and 13, 14, 15, respectively, blocks 2, 3, 4. In all other respects, the circuit of Fig. 2 does not differ from the pattern of Fig. 1. The rectifier 24 may be made in the form of a full-wave rectifier.

The managed equivalent load 4 functional Converter 1 can be performed according to Fig. 3. In this embodiment, it contains analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) 25 and a digital controlled impedance 26. The ADC 25 serves as input 8 of block 4, the outputs of the 20, 21, 22,...,2nADC 25 is connected to the corresponding inputs 2about, 21, 22,...,2ndigitally controlled resistance 26. If necessary, between the outputs of the ADC 25 and inputs the digital controlled resistance 26 may be included amplifiers 27 (initiator level) and resistors 28 (these items can be part of the ADC 25) to negotiate levels of the output signals of the ADC 25 with the necessary levels of input signals digitally controlled resistance 26.

Digitally controlled resistance 26 may be made in the form of semiconductor switches 29 number o power supply 11 unit 4. The power pins of the ADC 25 connected respectively to the power bus 11 and 15. In the presence of amplifiers 27 bus power of these amplifiers are also connected to bus 11 and 15 unit 4 (not shown). Conclusions bases of transistors 29 are the inputs of the 20, 21, 22,...,2ndigitally controlled resistance 26.

Fuel elements 29 and 30 digital controlled resistance 26 may be placed on thermally conductive substrate 31 made in the form of a plate of heat-conducting dielectric material, such as glass-ceramic, polikor. The heat pipe 17 has thermal contact with thermally conductive substrate 31. The conduits 17 may be made of glass-ceramic or polikor. One of the surfaces of a heat pipe 17 serves as the output 18 functional Converter 1.

In the embodiment, the managed equivalent load 4 according to Fig. 4 it contains a pulse width modulator 32. Amplifier (correlator level) 27, a resistor 28, the key 29 (or more keys 29), a resistor 30 (or more resistors 30).

The input pulse-width Converter 32 serves as input 8 of block 4, the output pulse width of the inverter 32 is connected to the circuit of the base of the transistor 29 (key 29) or right near St the second output is connected to the power bus 11, the emitter of transistor 29 is connected to the power bus 15. Power / pulse width Converter 32 and the amplifier 27 is connected to the power bus 11 and 15, respectively.

Fuel elements 29, 30 can be placed on a heat-conducting plate (substrate) 31 having thermal contact with the heat pipe 17, one surface of which serves as the output 18 of block 1.

Example schemes include functional Converter 1 in the scheme of equipment or computing equipment shown in Fig. 5. The circuit contains a power source 33 in the form of the generator 34 with the voltage regulator 35, acting on the excitation winding of the generator 34, the load 36, 37 (blocks and units of equipment), the switches 38, 39 load, an emergency stop switch 40, the power bus 41, 42, capacitor 43, and a functional Converter 1.

Conclusions the power source 33 is connected through an emergency switch 40 with power rails 41, 42. Load 36, 37 via the switches 38,39 connected to the power rails 41, 42. Conclusions 12 and 16 function of the Converter 1 are connected respectively to the power rails 41, 42. The output 18 of the block 1 has a thermal communication with the emergency switch 40 (emergency switch 40 may be installed in the optional Converter 1 operates as follows. The output voltage of the source 2 of the reference signal is adjusted so that it was equal to the maximum permissible value of voltage on the busbars 41, 42. This adjustment is performed either by the choice of the Zener diode 19 with the corresponding voltage stabilization or adjustment of resistor 21. The voltage divider 23 the error amplifier 3 is adjusted so that when the equality of the output voltage of the divider output voltage of source 2 reference signal at the output of the amplifier 3, the signal was zero, and if exceeded, the output signal of the divider 23, the voltage source 2 to the output signal at the output 7 of the amplifier 3 is proportionally increased by the amount of the error.

Up until the voltage on the power rails 41, 42 does not exceed the maximum permissible value, the output signal at the output 7 of the amplifier 3 is equal to zero, the managed equivalent of the load 4 is turned off, the current consumption of the functional Converter 1 from the power source is very small (of the order of several milliamps, is determined by the consumption current of the Zener diode 19, the amplifier 22, the voltage divider 23).

At the moment of switching any load 36 or 37 and switch 38 or 39, the load current of the generator 34 is abruptly changed, re the network. However, due to the inertia of the Electromechanical generator 34, the output voltage of the generator begins to increase and at some point in time exceeds the maximum allowable value. At this point in time at the output 7 of the amplifier 3 of the error you receive an output signal equal to the difference between the current value of the rated voltage and the output voltage of the source 2. This differential signal controls the input 8 of the dummy load 4, which changes its internal resistance to compensate for the effects of off-load 36 (or 37) to the generator 34. Consequently, through the managed equivalent load 4 starts to leak current, equivalent to the current that previously flowed through to off load 36 (37). The voltage at the output of the generator 34 (at the terminals 12, 16 functional Converter 1) is reduced to the level of maximum permissible values. Then, as the decay of transients in the generator 34, the voltage at its output is returned to the nominal value, the output signal at the output 7 of the amplifier 3 becomes zero, the dummy load 4 is turned off, the functional Converter 1 stops to influence the generator 34.

In the case of the flax valid values for the dummy load 4 unit 1 is switched on for a long time. Long current flowing through the dummy load leads to the heating elements, the heat flux from the heated elements of the dummy load 4 is transmitted via conduits 17 to the outlet 18 of block 1. As an emergency stop switch 40 is in thermal contact with the outlet 18 and is made in the form of a thermal switch (in the form of a bimetallic contact), the heating of the switch 40 causes it to break and the off voltage at the load 36, 37. After Troubleshooting the switch 40 closes.

When performing functional Converter 1 according to Fig. 2 he works in the same way. Throws voltage supply as in the direction of increase of the nominal value, and in the direction of reduction (voltage dips power) straight rectifier 24 and the DC voltage received at the power supply units 2, 3, 4. Therefore, functional Converter according to Fig. 2 equally react to throws voltage of both positive and negative polarity.

The managed equivalent load according to Fig. 3 operates in the functional Converter 1 as follows.

the error signal at the input 8 of block 4, PM-voltage, converted ADC 25 into a digital code. The output signal of the ADC 25 in the form of binary code outputs 20, 21,...,2nfed to corresponding inputs of a digital controlled resistance 26. The appropriate keys 29 are opened and connected to the power bus 11 and 15 matching resistors 30. Resistor 30 is selected as follows. The resistor 30, controlled by the key 29 from input 2abouthas a resistance equal (proportional) 1/2aboutOhm resistor that is managed by 21has a resistance 1/21Ohms, and so on until resistance 1/2nOm. Thus, the more the error signal (the higher the voltage surge in the power supply), the smaller the resistance of the dummy load. Therefore, the equivalent load is adapted (adapted) to the resistance of the external load, the public switched network (power to the load 36, 37). As the resistance of the switchable load 36, 37 and the resistance connected to the power supply dummy load equal to each other, the voltage surge generator instantly compensated and does not exceed the maximum permissible value set when adjusting equipment. As functional Preobrazovatel is to provide a capacitor 43, which at the initial time after a voltage surge smooths out the shot before the inclusion of functional Converter 1.

The managed equivalent load according to Fig. 4 operates as follows. When the input 8 of block 4 of the error signal, this signal is converted to pulse-width Converter 32 into a pulse signal whose duration is proportional to the input signal 8. This pulse signal through the correlator level 27 is fed to the input key 29 (on the base of transistor 29). The transistor 29 is opened for the duration of the pulse duration and is closed during the pause between pulses. The current flowing through resistor 30 connected between buses 11, 15, proportional to the duration of the open state of the key 29. The more the error signal at the input 8, the more the average current flowing through the resistor 30. Since the error signal at the input 8 is proportional to the magnitude of the load current, switched in power, and in this embodiment, the managed equivalent of the load 4 is adapted to the external load power supply. In other respects the function of the Converter 1 using the managed equivalent load of the agreement, cannot be compensated for by equivalent load is executed in the same key 29 and a resistor 30 (see Fig. 4) because of the limited capacity of the used semiconductor key 29, you can use the additional key 29 with an additional resistor 30 (or more additional keys) included similar primary key 29 and the resistor 30.

Use one option or the other execution unit 4 is determined by the following considerations. When using the dummy load according to Fig. 3 the equivalent practically does not create a ripple on the power supply, but is more complexity in comparison with the variant according to Fig. 4.

Variant according to Fig. 4 may create additional ripple on the power supply as the key 29 is constantly turns on and off (all the time over the network power), but this option is quite simple to implement.

Implemented in practice, the functional layout of the Converter is done according to Fig. 1 had a current-voltage characteristic shown in Fig. 6. When the voltage on the findings of a functional Converter is less than voltage reference signal (selected in this option 21) current flow is linearly increased to values of about 50 And (maximum allowable value for the selected type transistor switches controlled dummy load). Thus, the proposed functional Converter is a model of the limiter voltage characteristic of the type of Zener diode. The power dissipation of this variant was 21 In x 50=1050 watts.

The volt-ampere characteristic functional of the Converter is done according to Fig. 2, shown in Fig. 7. In this embodiment the functional Converter simulates bipolar voltage suppressor equally responsive to the voltage of either polarity, both positive and negative.

In the prototype on semiconductor transistor (power amplifier) dissipates power equal to the product of the current flowing through the transistor, the voltage limiter. When the threshold limit of 21 V and a current of 50 a transistor prototype dissipated power 1050 watts. These values of power in practice does not give the possibility to implement the prototype on the power 1 kW and above due to the lack of a semiconductor transistors that can operate at these power values.

In the proposed device with the same values of current and voltage on transistor keys managed equivalent load dissipated power p power dissipated in the resistors managed equivalent load. This gives the possibility to construct functional converters on almost any capacity, increasing the number of keys in the dummy load and providing heat from the resistors of equivalent loads.

Thus, the proposed functional Converter differs from the prototype in the following.

First, dissipated in the Converter power significantly exceeds the allowable values for the prototype and is the value of 1 kW or more.

Secondly, the proposed functional Converter has the property of adaptation to external conditions, which results in an automatic change of the internal resistance as a function of voltage applied to the pins of the Converter.

In addition, the proposed functional Converter has an additional output signal in the form of heat flux, which can be used to actuate devices emergency protection or alarm, in particular for actuating actuators emergency protection type thermal switches.

The proposed functional Converter can limit the voltage any Polarnet the national features of the proposed Converter and increase the allowable power dissipated by the Converter.

The proposed functional Converter can be used as a model of a powerful limiter voltage when modeling devices, automation, computing, and also as a protection device automatic units for occasional surge voltage or current in a circuit caused by transients in the power supply system, or from random noise caused by the influence of powerful sources of interference on equipment automation.

1. FUNCTIONAL CONVERTER comprising a source of reference signal, the power bus which serve as input terminals of the functional transducer, characterized in that it introduced the amplifier mismatch and the managed equivalent load, the output of the reference source connected to the input of the error amplifier, the output of which is connected to the control input of the control dummy load, the power supply circuit of the amplifier misalignment and managed equivalent load combined and connected to the corresponding power bus source reference signal.

2. The Converter according to p. 1, characterized in that the managed equivalent load is made in the form of OBRAZOVATEL serves as the controlling input of the control dummy load, the output of the analog-to-digital Converter connected with the respective digital inputs digital controlled resistance analog outputs which are connected to the corresponding power bus managed equivalent load.

3. The Converter according to p. 1, characterized in that the managed equivalent load is made in the form of pulse-width Converter and key with resistive load, and the input pulse-width Converter serves as the controlling input of the control dummy load, the output pulse width of the Converter is connected with the control input of the key, resistive load which is connected to the power bus managed equivalent load.

4. The Converter according to p. 1, characterized in that it further comprises a rectifier connected between the input and the power bus functional Converter.

5. The Converter according to p. 1, characterized in that it further comprises a heat pipe having thermal contact with the managed equivalent load and the employee alarm output functional Converter.

 

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