Device for measuring the concentration of atmospheric ozone
(57) Abstract:Use: to measure the concentration of atmospheric ozone in the atmosphere by optical methods. The inventive device has a third photodetector with optical filter, and the second and third photodetectors, as well as the corresponding filters are made in the form of rings. The diameter of the outer ring is determined based on the length of the tube. 2 Il. The invention relates to meteorology, namely physics and chemistry of the atmosphere, and is intended for the determination of ozone in the atmosphere by optical methods.Analogues device for measuring the concentration of atmospheric ozone are optical ozonesonde , is based on measuring the intensity of ultraviolet solar radiation absorbed by ozone, by passing it through the atmosphere to the devices located on the radiosondes raised with the help of balloons. Optical ozonesonde contain light emitting ultraviolet part of solar spectrum radiation in the absorption band of ozone and outside stripes. The photometer consists of svetorasseivateley, set filters and photodetectors.The lack of analog and include reduced accuracy measuring range is AK and ambient air and aerosol radiation. In addition, the analogs used a mechanical change of filters, which complicates and increases the cost of construction of the optical Ozonesondes, reduces the reliability of the measurements.The prototype of the invention is an optical ozonometer  containing tube, filters and photodetectors, and one of them is located at the base of the tube. The presence of the tube from the prototype allows to exclude either direct or diffuse solar radiation by moving the tube on the Zenith or the sun. For guidance of the tube at the Zenith of the sky or the sun, as well as changing filters required mechanical components and elements.The objective of the invention is the elimination of mechanical components and elements and thus simplifying the design, cost reduction, and improved reliability of the measurements.The task is solved in that the device for measuring the concentration of atmospheric ozone containing tube, filters and two of the photodetector, and one of them of the same diameter as the tube, and is located in the base of the tube, equipped with a third photodetector, while the second and third photodetectors made annular and arranged concentrically in the same plane with the first photodetector aimed foster powis difference of the squares of the radii of the large third external sensor and radius round of the photodetector more cotangent angular height of the sun during the measurement. One ring of sensors equipped with filters having a bandwidth within the band of radiation absorption by ozone, and the other out of band.In Fig. 1 shows a device for measuring the concentration of atmospheric ozone, General view; Fig.2 shows the geometry of the device.The device comprises a tube 1, a photodetector 2, 3, 4 color-filter 5. Tube 1 (Fig. 1) is directed vertically upward and is perpendicular to the plane of the photodetectors 2-4. The sun rays are inclined at an angle of elevation of the sun. From geometry (Fig.2) and the conditions so that the shadow of the tube was blocked photodetectors 2-4, followed by the specified ratio:
> ctg where Z is the length of the tube;
d - diameter of the tube;
D - outer diameter of a large photodetector;
angular height of the sun.An example of a specific implementation of the device may be the following: the length of the tube 5 cm, the diameter of the tube is 1 cm, the diameter of the sensors 1, 2, 3 cm, filters brand LGL, UVC ultraviolet radiation. The tube inside blacked out. As photodetectors used semiconductor puck is performed on the surface of the grooves separating the receiving surface of the photodetectors to the upper pawna photodetectors incident solar radiation. Because the above-mentioned geometrical ratio, the shadow of the tube permanently occlude the internal photodetector 2 and part of the external photodetectors 3 and 4. Thus, the receiver 2 receives only diffuse radiation on the outer 3 and 4 diffuse and direct sun radiation.Subtracting from the signal from the photodetectors 3 and 4, the signal of the photodetector 2, receive only part of the signal from direct radiation. Having two signals from direct radiation to the photodetector 3 and 4 with filter and without filter, calculate the concentration of ozone in the air column.When lifting device for measuring the concentration of atmospheric ozone using radiosonde is possible to determine the concentration of ozone in the air depending on height measurements. DEVICE FOR measuring the CONCENTRATION of ATMOSPHERIC OZONE containing tube with a round sensor in the base of the tube of the same diameter, the second photodetector and the light filters in the absorption band and out-band absorption of ultraviolet radiation by ozone, characterized in that it is provided with a third photodetector, while the second and third photodetectors made annular and arranged concentrically in the same plane with the first payroll is equipped with a filter, with a bandwidth in the band of the absorption of ultraviolet radiation by ozone, and the other outside the absorption band.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: assembly and measuring unit can be used for measurement and registration of light transmission of window units and other light-transparent structures and their members. Assembly for measuring total coefficient of window frames light transmission has A type diffusion light source, which has semi-sphere, illumination devices disposed inside semi-sphere, shields protecting against incident light, external photoelectric member, light-measuring chamber which has semi-sphere and non-transparent partition provided with opening for placing window unit, measuring unit, which has internal photoelectric members, analog signal switch and measuring unit. Semi-spheres of diffusion light source and of light-measuring chamber have the same structure and are mounted in a such way that axis of symmetry of assembly is directed along horizontal line; units are connected one to another for placement of window frame in opening of partition of light-measuring chamber, which partition is mounted in vertical. Diameters of semi-spheres do not exceed 1,2 maximal size of diagonal of tested window unit. Non-transparent partition provided with opening for placement of window unit is unmovable connected with semi-sphere of diffusion light source and it is provided with small-sized lockers which determine position of window unit. Illumination devices are connected with power circuit through voltage stabilizer. Opening is protected by screens against direct light coming from illumination devices. Measuring unit of assembly for measuring total coefficient of light transmission has internal photoelectric members and analog signal switch. Any internal photoelectric member is connected with analog signal switch through "current-voltage" electron converter, which has input voltage lower than 1 Ohm. Output of analog signal switch is connected with first measuring channel, which has digital milli-voltmeter with double integration and with second measuring channel which has analog-to-digital converter with preamplifier. Outputs of first and second measuring channels are connected by data buses through digital signal switch with matching unit, which is in turn connected by data buses and control buses with computer and with control bus provided with control unit, which both are connected with analog signal switch, analog-to-digital converter and digital double integration milli-voltmeter with through control buses.
EFFECT: reduced sizes of assembly; reduced number of illumination devices; reduced power consumption; higher comfort at use; reduced error of measurement; higher speed of measurement process; simplified processing of results of measurement.
FIELD: engineering of devices for determining angular distribution of radiation reflected from object surface.
SUBSTANCE: claimed device contains radiation emitter, radiation receiver, transformer of radiation to photocurrent and information processing block, base in form of a ring and two semi-rings. On each semi-ring, emitter and receiver of radiation are mounted. Semi-rings are mounted perpendicularly to measurement plane. One of semi-rings is moveable relatively to the base. Also, aforementioned semi-rings may be made shortened.
EFFECT: it is possible to determine angular distribution of radiation which is reflected from object surface being examined, at any angles of falling radiation by changing positions of radiation receiver within limits of spatial angles of distribution of reflected radiation for different positions of radiation source.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: singly connected or multiply connected diaphragm 3 in the cold screen of a multielement photodetector does not fall outside the limits of the section of an area which is common for overlapping figures which are sections of oblique pyramids. Bases of the pyramids coincide with the exit pupil of the objective lens 4, which forms an image on a matrix of photosensitive elements 1. Vertices of the pyramids are in corners of the photosensitive field of matrix 1. The sectional plane of the pyramid coincides with the plane of the diaphragm 3. The design of the photodetector according to the invention prevents stray radiation falling on the matrix of photosensitive elements.
EFFECT: improved parametres of the photodetector.
8 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises analysed object, radiation receiver and imitator. Analysed object and radiation receiver are arranged on two- and one-axis traverse gear. Two-axis traverse gear allows model rotation about mutually perpendicular horizontal and vertical axes. One-axis traverse gear allows radiation receiver rotation about vertical axis in horizontal plane of model rotation.
EFFECT: measurement of reflected radiation intensity at whatever directions of incident rays.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: base for this cryostat is a casing 1, made in the form of a sleeve from a heat insulation material (for instance, foam plastic). On the bottom of the inner part of the casing there is a sample holder 2, made of a material with high heat conductivity for reduction of temperature gradient (for instance, of copper). In the bottom of the casing 1, near the generating inner wall, there is one or several holes 3. The bottom outer part of the body is made so that it is tightly (without gaps) installed into a neck part of a vessel 4 with a liquid cryoagent 5. In process of evaporation the cold gaseous cryoagent arrives via holes 3 inside the casing and displaces warm (moist) air from it, and therefore eliminates the possibility of freezing of a holder and a sample investigated on it. Vapours of the coolant wash the holder, which results in its cooling.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to exclude variation of incident radiation spectrum due to availability of windows, to make it possible to do investigation in wide range of temperatures, is simple to implement and inexpensive.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a measurement bench, a radiation receiver, a processing and control unit with a device of information output. At the same time the measurement bench comprises a base, where two rotary devices are fixed, being arranged so that their axes of rotation are mutually perpendicular. On the first rotary device there is a fixation device for the investigated source of radiation. On the second rotary device there is a holder, on which there is an inlet window of a radiation transfer channel, such as an optic-fibre channel, and its outlet window is fixed on the receiver of optical radiation, such as a spectrometer.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurements during simplification of an assembly process and simultaneous automation of a process of measurements.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to imaging terahertz (THz) radiation (ν=0.1-10 THz or λ=30-3000 mcm) and can be used to design devices for detecting and analysing terahertz radiation. The device for imaging terahertz radiation sources has a converter for converting terahertz radiation to infrared radiation, which consists of a layer of artificial metamaterial with resonant absorption of terahertz radiation, deposited on a solid-state substrate made of sapphire, placed between an input terahertz lens and an infrared camera lens situated on the side of the substrate. The converter is based on a gelatin matrix which contains metal nanoparticles and is provided with a cut-off filter placed in front of the matrix to allow filtration of thermal radiation of the terahertz radiation source with wavelength of not more than 30 mcm.
EFFECT: high noise-immunity of the design, low noise level and high sensitivity while simplifying the design of the imaging device.
16 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is realised in form of a device for feeding air into a flame photometer. The device has a vacuum diaphragm compressor with a series-connected hollow cylinder having inlet and outlet nozzles. The inlet nozzle of the hollow cylinder is connected to the injection valve of the vacuum diaphragm compressor. The diameter of the inlet nozzle of the hollow cylinder dIN=K·PC, where K is a coefficient of proportionality equal to 1÷3 cm3/kgf, PC is injection pressure of the vacuum diaphragm compressor, kgf/cm2. The length of the hollow cylinder 1≥20 dIN, and its diameter D≥10 dIN. The device can have multiple outlet nozzles but not more than four.
EFFECT: smoothing out fluctuation of pressure injected into the flame photometer, thereby ensuring stable operation of the flame photometer, considerably reducing measurement error by flame stabilisation, low mass and size of the device and the optical device overall.
SUBSTANCE: photocells 2 are placed on the first disc 1. The disc 1 is attached by a dowel 3 to the second disc 4. Pins 5 having plates 6 at the end are inserted in the openings of the disc 4. The bushing 8 which is attached to boards 9 is placed on the dowel 3. An accumulator battery 10, tubes 11 and amplifiers are attached to the boards 9. Electromagnets 15 are attached to the tubes 11. A person with poor eyesight rotates the boards 9. Spring-loaded contacts 13 tap the voltage of the photocells 2 and transmit the said voltage through wires 14 to amplifiers 12. An armature 16 presses the pins 5 by pushing. The plates 6 move away from the outer wall of the disc 4. The armature 16 presses the next pins 5, whose plates move away from the outer wall of the disc 4. Thus, the contacts 13 and the armature 16, by rotating at different distances from the centre of the discs, traverse an entire circle. The distances of the plates 6 from the outer wall of the disc 4 correspond to the illumination brightness of the photocells 2. The person with poor eyesight, by feeling the plates 6 with fingers, determines an object.
EFFECT: enabling people with poor eyesight to determine far away objects using a photometric device.
SUBSTANCE: mask is a sheet made of an infrared radiation-blocking material. The mask has through-holes, which are formed to enable the percentage change of the corresponding regions of two pyroelectric elements irradiated by infrared rays when the radiation source moves on two coordinate axes. The holes form two aperture regions. The boundary of one of the aperture regions protrudes in the direction perpendicular to the arrangement of the pyroelectric elements, further than the boundary of the other aperture region.
EFFECT: high sensitivity and enabling the detection of a moving object simultaneously on two coordinate axes.
6 cl, 40 dwg