Device for automatic preparation of the nutrient solution

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in agricultural engineering in particular in devices for automatic preparation of the nutrient solution for growing plants hydroponically. The inventive device provides for the regulation of the composition and concentration of the solution depending on the light plant. For this purpose the device is provided with tanks for acids, solutions of mineral fertilizers, which are separated by the calcium sulfate and phosphate ions to a solution of potassium sulfate connected through appropriate dispensers and piping to the mixing tank. The latter has an inlet for water and is associated with drip irrigation systems, plants, and capacity are the primary transducers of the pH-meter, concentrationary, RK-m and pNO3meter. The signal from concentrationary applied to one of the inputs of the differential amplifier to the second input of which receives the signal from the sensor of plants. When the concentration deviations from the nominal value at the output of the amplifier is formed management team the Executive mechanism of the dosing solutions of fertilizers, which pastiches characteristic arrive at one of the inputs of the differential amplifier, to the second input of which receives the signal from the sensor of plants. When the deviation of the ratio of the concentrations of potassium and nitrate nitrogen from the nominal output of the amplifier is formed management team the Executive mechanism of the dosing solution of potassium sulfate. The signal from the pH meter is fed into the controller, which compares with a specified pH value. When the deviation of the latter from the measured controller gives the command to activate the dosing of acid to achieve the rated values of the pH in the tank. 1 Il.

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the preparation of solutions of mineral fertilizers for the plants.

A device for automatic dosing of nutrients, containing three tank with concentrated solutions of fertilizers, the first of which is alkaline and contains one of the nutrients, the second - acidic and contains the second part of the nutrients, and the third contains other nutrients, United through dispensers and piping to the mixing tank, where are the primary transducers of a pH meter and conductivity meter, each of which is connected through governmentagency R is. the 01 G 31/00).

A disadvantage of the known device is that it contains no elements and relationships, taking into account the ratio between the major elements of mineral nutrition of plants, which leads to yield losses and lower quality products.

A device for automatically mixing the nutrient solution containing tanks for acid and concentrated solutions of mineral fertilizers, United through dispensers and piping to the mixing tank, which are the primary transducers of a pH meter and conductivity meter and pH meter is connected through a regulator with doser acid (Lasik A. I., Sheinkin Y. G., Pilyugin centuries, Gitoxin N. And. Automation hydroponic setup. - Technology in agriculture, 1986, No. 4, S. 35-37).

This device is the closest to the proposed technical substance and therefore is taken as a prototype.

A disadvantage of the known device is that the nutrient solution is maintained with it as a constant concentration and composition, regardless of lighting plants, whereas the consumption of items varies greatly depending on the light plant. This nitrates.

The objective of the invention is improving the yield and quality of plant products by automatically adjusting the total concentration and the ratio between potassium and nitrogen in the nutrient solution depending on the illumination of plants.

The problem is solved in that the device for automatic preparation of the nutrient solution containing tanks for acid and concentrated solutions of mineral fertilizers, United through dispensers acid and solutions of mineral fertilizers and accordingly, the piping to the mixing tank, which are the primary transducers of concentrator and pH meter, and the yield of the latter through acidity regulator control unit connected with the control input of the actuator of the dispenser acid, characterized in that it is equipped with a reservoir solution of potassium sulfate, a dosing solution of potassium sulfate, the sensor of plants, pH meter and RPO3-meter, the primary converters are installed in the mixing tank, through which the dosing solution of potassium sulfate and pipe communicated with a reservoir solution of potassium sulfate, and the power pack is coy and adder, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the RC-m and RPO3meter, and the output through a transformer connected to the first input of the first differential amplifier and the second input of the latter is combined with the first input of the second differential amplifier and is connected to the output of the light sensor of plants, while the output of the first differential amplifier is connected with the control input of the actuator of the dispenser potassium sulfate, and the output of the second differential amplifier is connected to the control inputs of the actuators of dispensers concentrated solutions of mineral fertilizers.

Thanks to this performance of the device when changing the light, plants automatically changes the ratio between the concentration of potassium and nitrogen, and also changes the total concentration of the nutrient solution, which is beneficial to plant life, and also prevents the accumulation of nitrates.

Analogues of the distinctive features of the claimed device is not detected.

The drawing shows a schematic diagram of a device.

A device for implementing the method comprises a tank 1 for phosphoric kisaralik fertilizers. The solution contains ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate chetyrehpolnye, potassium nitrate, iron chelate solution B potassium phosphate one-deputizing, magnesium sulfate, manganese sulfate, zinc sulfate, boric acid, copper sulphate. These tanks are connected through dispensers 6 and 7 and the piping to the mixing tank 3. The device includes a reservoir 8 for potassium sulfate, which is also connected through the spout 9 and the pipe to the mixing tank 3. In a mixing tank has a supply of tap water. In a mixing tank 3 are the primary transducers of the pH-meter 10, concentrator 11, RC-meter 12 and RPO3meter 13. pH meter 10 is connected through the regulator 14 of the acidity with the control input of the actuator of the dispenser 2 acid. Concentrator 11 is connected to one of the inputs of the differential amplifier 15, the second input is connected with the sensor 16 light plants, and the output connected with the control input of the actuators of dispensers 6, 7 solutions of fertilizers. Outputs RK-meter 12 and RPO3meter 13 are connected through the adder 17 and the transducer 18 with antilogarithmic characteristic with one of the inputs of the differential amplifier 19, the output of which Siena tank 3 is connected with the drip irrigation system.

Device for automatic preparation of the nutrient solution is as follows.

In the preparation of the nutrient solution in the mixing vessel 3 is mixing concentrated solutions of fertilizers and acid water for the subsequent supply of the nutrient solution to the plants.

The signal is the total concentration of the solution comes from concentrator 11 to one of the inputs of the differential amplifier 15, to the second input of which receives the signal from the sensor 16 light plants, which corresponds to the nominal value of the total concentration of the solution. When the misalignment of these signals at the output of the differential amplifier 15 is formed the starting command to congestion 6, 7 concentrated solutions of fertilizers. Flow of fluids from tanks 4 and 5 in the mixing tank 3 increases the total concentration of the solution, and the change in the ratio between the concentrations of potassium and nitrate nitrogen as nitrate nitrogen is fed in larger quantities than potassium.

The concentration of potassium ions in the mixing vessel 3 is measured RK-meter 12, the static characteristic of which is

lg Cto= where Eto
WITHtothe concentration of potassium ions.

The concentration of nitrate ions in the mixing vessel 3 is measured RPO3meter 13, the static characteristic of which is

-lg C= where C is the concentration of nitrate ions.

Then the sum of the signals of the pH-meter and RPO3meter

+ = lg Cto- lg C lg Cto/C

i.e. proportional to the logarithm of the ratio of the measured ions.

The signals RK-meter 12 and RPO3meter 13 are received in the adder 17 and the transducer 18 with antilogarithmic characteristic 18, where the signal on the measured ratio of the concentrations of potassium and nitrate nitrogen is supplied to one input of differential amplifier 19, to the second input of which receives the signal from the sensor 16 light plants, which corresponds to the nominal value of the ratio of the concentration of potassium and nitrate nitrogen. When the misalignment of these signals at the output of the differential amplifier 19 is formed management team dispenser 9 solution of potassium sulfate. This increases the concentration of potassium ions, providing the establishment of the desired ratio of concentrations of potassium and nitrate nitrogen in the nutrient solution.

When automatic regulara in the controller 14 of the acidity with the set. When the misalignment of the specified pH values measured with the controller 14 gives the command to activate the dispenser 2 acid to achieve a desired pH in the mixing tank 3.

Compared with the prototype using the device for automatic preparation of the nutrient solution was allowed to increase the yield of vegetables by 8.3%. The nitrate content in vegetables did not exceed 200 mg/kg

DEVICE FOR AUTOMATIC PREPARATION of the NUTRIENT SOLUTION containing tanks for acid and concentrated solutions of mineral fertilizers, United through dispensers respectively acids and solutions of mineral fertilizers and piping to the mixing tank, which are the primary transducers of concentrator and pH meter, and the yield of the latter through acidity regulator control unit connected with the control input of the actuator of the dispenser acid, characterized in that it is provided with a reservoir solution of potassium sulfate, a dosing solution of potassium sulfate, the sensor of plants, pK-meter and pNO3-meter, the primary converters are installed in the mixing tank, through which the dispenser R is Alenia equipped with two differential amplifiers, Converter with antilogarithmic transfer function and the adder, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs pK-meter and pNO3meters, and the output through a transformer with antilogarithmic transfer function associated with the first input of the first differential amplifier and the second input of the latter is combined with the first input of the second differential amplifier and is connected to the output of the light sensor of plants, while the output of the first differential amplifier is connected with the control input of the actuator of the dispenser potassium sulfate, and the output of the second differential amplifier is connected to the control inputs of the actuators of dispensers concentrated solutions of mineral fertilizers.

 

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SUBSTANCE: apparatus has accumulating vessel with bottom opening closed with valve, auxiliary vessel, two float valves, one of float valves being adapted for supplying of water into accumulating vessel and other float valve being adapted for cutting-off water supply. Valve floats are arranged in auxiliary vessel disposed below accumulating vessel bottom and connected by means of flexible pipes with hermetically sealed vessels provided with porous bottoms deepened into soil. When water is sucked through porous bottoms into soil, water level in auxiliary vessel is lowered and float valves are opened, with water being delivered into accumulating vessel through one of float valves. When predetermined water level is reached, valve for discharge opening is opened, water is supplied into low-pressure irrigation system and is further delivered through second float valve into auxiliary vessel. As a result, water level in auxiliary vessel is increased to cut-off water supply into accumulating vessel.

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