The method of construction of piles
(57) Abstract:The inventive method involving immersion in the casing soil, bottom muted during the immersion pipe, education broadening by trebovaniya portions of dry concrete mix through the casing, removing the last and the subsequent introduction of broadening precast pointed bottom of the barrel. The stem is implanted into the broadening by a certain amount determined above dependence. 9 Il. The invention relates to the construction, in particular to the construction of pile foundations.A known way of constructing piles with dirt fifth , including immersion in the casing soil, temporarily muted the bottom of the pipe, utrambovyvaya portions of the dry mixture through the casing, removing the casing pipe and the subsequent formation of the barrel by monolithic concrete.The disadvantage of this method is monolithic formation of the barrel, extending the construction time.Closest to the present invention is a method of constructing piles , which includes the drilling leader of the wells, laying it hard concrete and subsequent implementation of precast, pointed at the bottom of the barrel. is regarding broadening, which makes full use of the carrying capacity of the broadening.The aim of the invention is to increase the carrying capacity of constructed piles while reducing material consumption.This goal is achieved by the fact that the method of construction of piles, including immersion in the casing soil, temporarily muted the bottom of the pipe, education broadening by trebovaniya portions of dry concrete mix through the casing, removing the casing and subsequent implementation in broadening precast pointed at the bottom of the barrel, the barrel implement in broadening the value determined by the dependence of
= R-R - + C1 + where R is the radius of the broadening before introduction into it of the trunk;
With the radius of a circle inscribed in the cross-section of a trunk;
m=cos2(cos+sin)2; n=sin2(tg--1); P=tg ;
- the angle between the vertical and the oblique side surface of a cone inscribed in a pointed lower part of the trunk.In Fig. 1 shows the driving of the casing; Fig. 2 - education ball broadening when utrambovyvaya dry mixture; Fig. 3 is formed broadening extracted with casing pipe; Fig. 4 - the process of driving piles into the top hole of Fig. 5-7 diagram, changing the shape of the balls is the introduction of the stem has a cylindrical shape; in Fig. 9 - shape broadening in the plan during the implementation of the trunk prismatic shape.It is known that during piling dry concrete mix through the casing in the ground formed by the broadening of the ball-shape. Introduction in the formed ball broadening precast, pointed at the bottom of the barrel causes the deformation of the ball broadening and changing its shape mainly in the direction of increasing diameters in horizontal planes. Depth driving precast barrel in the original ball broadening significantly affects the shape and geometrical dimensions of the newly received broadening.After hydration of the cement in the dry concrete mix broadening the design of piles is a monolithic system, including precast barrel, interacting with the concrete design of the broadening, and the estimated diameter of the broadening is determined by the condition of strength against punching shear piles in the proposal that punching can occur on the surface of the pyramid (cone), the sides of which begin at the lower edge of the pile and inclined at an angle of 45about. From the embedding depth of the precast pointed at the bottom of the barrel in ball broadening depend on the dimensions of the pyramid jacking and sledovatel the ball broadening must be determined from the terms of the acquisition the biggest pile bearing capacity, i.e., the maximum cross-sectional area of the pyramid (cone) punching shear at the limiting angle 45aboutin the newly formed broadening.Considered the task of moving points on the circle with the introduction of a circular symmetric planar element having the form of a pile end. Found the optimal size of the introduction , in which the bearing angle of 45abouthas the largest horizontal projection. Made the following assumptions: did not take into account the internal friction and the influence of the environmental movement was considered to be occurring normal to the contour of the pile end. Obtained under these assumptions the expression to determine the optimal value , as shown by experimental studies, close enough to reflect the actual pattern. Unaccounted for in theory of factors have an impact mainly on the absolute values of the displacements of the surface of the broadening, while the main ratio between the amount of introduction of a pointed barrel and the maximum working diameter remains almost unchanged. This conclusion is both in the sense of forming and carrying capacity remains valid not only for axisymmetric flat, but the CLASS="ptx2">Casing pipe 1 is muted temporarily at the bottom, for example, the tube 2 of the dry cement and sand mixture, is immersed by impact mechanism, such as a RAM (not shown) in the soil on a given mark. Then drummer 3, the stroke of which is limited by the lower edge of the casing 1, the tube 2 knocked to the ground and the casing 1 is dry mixed concrete portions, for example, the volume in loose condition D3/8, where D is the inner diameter of the casing. When utrambovyvaya mixture in the soil formed by the broadening of the 4 ball-shape with increasing radius R1. When the radius of the broadening of project size R, the controlled displacement of strombomonas mixture, the casing pipe 1 is extracted from the ground. Formed in the top hole 5 is immersed pile 6, for example prismatic reinforced concrete, with particular reference 7 in the lower part and seat it in the broadening of the 4. When submerged piles on the value of 1<. When submerged piles at the optimum depth , is formed an additional amount of broadening 9, characterized by the highest value of the base of the prism pressing, with > . If you continue to dive piles in broadening, for example, the value of 2> effect is reduced and formed by the additional broadening of 10 Henie make a comparison with the length extracted from the soil casing.P R I m m e R. the Proposed method of construction of the piles were tested on the court, composed of loamy soils with the following characteristics: =18,7 kN/m3;s= 26,8 kN/m3;SC=to 14.6 kN/m3; W=31,31%; WL=39,17%; WP=22,24%; IP= 16.9%; IL=0,54; f=0,82; Sr=1,0; C=20 kPa; =9about; F=7.0 MPa.For trebovaniya dry mix was used specially made setup SKIF-1 with the following parameters: outer diameter of the casing 320 mm, inner diameter of the casing pipe of 300 mm, a length of casing pipe 3000 mm, the diameter of the striker 210 mm Installation was mounted on a piling Assembly.The dry mixture to trebovaniya was adopted as follows: 8 wt.h. sand with fineness modulus of 1.1 and 1 wt.h. cement grade 300.As a team, pointed at the bottom of the trunk was used piles brand C4-30 (GOST 19804.1-79. Piles precast concrete). The geometrical characteristics of piles: length 4000 mm, width of the cross section of 300 mm, length of taper 250 mm. Thus, C=150 mm =20,8about.theoretical radius of the ball broadening was adopted R=300 mmThe estimated optimal depth of immersion, calculated according to the parameters R, C and amounted to =the s and amounted to =61,6-3/tg =54 seeAll was created by trebovaniya dry mix four broadening. For the formation of one broadening was tramboline 0,141 m3mix in the bulk state, volume one portion was 0.03 m3. After removing the casing to accelerate hydration in each well was flowing water in a volume of 30 litres In three of the four ball Bay driving unit were scored piles. Pile No. 1 was introduced in broadening on the value =54 cm, pile N 2 - value1=25 cm, pile N 3 - value2=65 see theAfter 28 days were comparative static test piles (GOST 5686-78. The piles. Test methods). The same pile draught of 10 mm pile No. 1 took a load of 126,3 kN pile N 2 - 103,4 kN pile N 3 - 91,7 kN.For control formed broadening pile No. 1 and ball broadening were open. In the measurements it was found: the average radius of the ball broadening amounted to R=312 mm, depth driving piles into the ball broadening was 51 cm, the typical size of the broadening associated with the prism punching shear = 345 mm The METHOD of construction of PILES, including immersion in the soil muted below for the period of immersion of the casing, education broadening by trebovaniya since the precast pointed at the bottom of the barrel, characterized in that the stem is implanted into the broadening by an amount determined by the dependence of
< / BR>where R is the radius of the broadening before introduction into it of the trunk;
C is the radius of a circle inscribed in the cross-section of a trunk;
m= cos2(cos + sin)2; n = sin2(tg-1); p = tg;
- the angle between the vertical and the oblique side surface of a cone inscribed in a pointed part of the trunk.
FIELD: building, particularly for constructing foundations of various building structures.
SUBSTANCE: bearing pile comprises head, rod and tip fixed to embedded rod part by embedded member. The tip is formed of thermoplastic concrete and has electric heater located inside the tip. Electric heater heats the tip after driving thereof into ground as far as it will go to obtain softening temperature of 80-150°C. Then the pile is fully driven in ground. Electric heater wires are placed in tube in longitudinal rod direction and brought outside under pile head for connection thereof with electric power source.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing pile capacity due to provision of widened pile tip support area.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering, particularly concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position with enlarged footing or enlargements at the bottom of the pile.
SUBSTANCE: reinforcement device is used to erect pile foundation with the use of foundation pile having at least one longitudinal cavity. Reinforcing device comprises a number of joined reinforcement members hingedly connected with central annular member located so that reinforcement device may be collapsed during installation and erected during device usage. Reinforcement device is connected to pile by at least one member working in tension. Foundation pile reinforced with the use of said device and method for foundation pile driving and pile bottom reinforcement are also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of reinforcement distribution over pile bottom, improved compression and stretching force damping, decreased labor inputs and material consumption.
36 cl, 25 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly bored piles with enlarged footing or enlargements at the bottom of the pile.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling well; filling the well with concrete mix and non-detonating composition including fuel and oxidizer; igniting non-detonating composition by applying low-voltage pulse to electric igniter and combusting non-detonating composition in deflagration regime to create camouflet void with following concrete mix hardening. The fuel is solid hydrocarbon selected from polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. The oxidizer is sodium or potassium chlorate. Non-detonating composition is supplied in well before well filling with concrete mix.
EFFECT: decreased pile production time due to accelerated concrete mix hardening and improved produced pile quality.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to building, in particular, to strengthening of the bases under the basements. The way of strengthening of the basement erected on waterlogged priming coats and near to the located constructions includes supply of early strength concrete in the metal tubing established in driven wells, drilled through a basic part of the basement and a ground. Pipes are made with the welded boots, in pipes lower explosive charges and fill with early strength concrete, then the explosive charges are detonated, remaining hollownesses of driven wells and pipes are filled with early strength concrete.
EFFECT: provision of reliable strengthening of the basements erected in waterlogged priming coats and near to located constructions; increase of load-carrying capacity.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to methods for arrangement of pile foundations for structures, to pile foundations and shell structure for creation of widened foot for pile foundations. Method for creation of pile foundation for structures, according to which the following stages are executed on site to arrange the mentioned foundation - well for installation of foundation pipe is drilled with the help of the first auger drill. The following section is drilled under lower end of installed foundation pipe. Cavity is arranged in the specified section by means of scraper and pressure of water jet. Loose soil is removed from specified cavity by mentioned first drill. Pipe for set of tools and accessories with the second auger drill and flexible shell that envelopes the lower part of the second specified drill is lowered through foundation pipe into lower part of specified section. Excess pressure is built up in specified shell, and moulding material is injected into specified cavity, surplus of which is then removed by the second auger drill. After mentioned material hardens, the specified shell is blown off and removed via specified foundation pipe. Reinforcing device is lowered into foundation pipe. Concrete material is poured into foundation pipe, at that specified cavity is filled, and specified reinforcing device is embedded into concrete, thus creating widened foot for foundation pipe. Versions of method and pile foundation are also stated.
EFFECT: higher stability and resistance to compressing and stretching forces, lower material intensity.
5 cl, 26 dwg
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry and namely to construction of bearing piles in ground rock. Device for making multi-layer sealed pile in ground rock includes, in the combination, elongated hollow tube having longitudinal axis, upper inlet end for material, open lower discharge end for material and diametre of the first external surface and common formed lower head element at open discharge end, which has diametre of the second external surface, which is more than diametre of the first external surface and made with the possibility of transmitting combination from axial and transverse stress components when hollow tube is lowered. Head element consists of common attachment to hollow tube; at that, head element includes lower driving end which in general has configuration of flattened cone between head element of external surface and lower discharge hole made in the lower driving end, and back end having in general the configuration of flattened cone, and cap of the head element covering lower discharge hole. Lower head element with the cap and hollow tube are formed for being introduced into ground rock and for displacing the earth when hollow tube with lower head element and the above cap is lowered into ground rock so that a cavity is formed in ground rock. The cap is at least partially removed from lower discharge hole when hollow tube is then lifted from the formed cavity in order to perform passage of material through lower discharge hole to the cavity section released with hollow tube and lower head element. The latter has the form of cross section and the sizes which are more than the shape of cross section and sizes of hollow tube in order to decrease friction forces on hollow tube when penetrating into ground rock and being removed from it.
EFFECT: improving reliability of the pile and capacity and production effectiveness of piles.
34 cl, 26 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention related to construction, particularly can be used for bored piles with enlarged base arrangement. The method includes hole boring, hole opening with mechanical clampshell enlarger, reinforced cage installation and filling in the hole with concrete mixture. Developing enlargement with ration of enlargement diametre to hole diametre, equal de/dh≥2 with rotation velocity equal n=20-100 revolution per minute, dependant on ground conditions. After covering distance 0.8 h, where h - height of enlargement, stop axial supply of boring media and at that level, during 3-5 revolutions execute enlargement base cleaning, and ground collector and voids between enlarger blades complete filling. Turn on axial supply and execute boring till enlargement total height and enlargement blades closure. Take away enlarger, then concrete enlarged base, install reinforced cage and complete bored piles arrangement with concreting its core.
EFFECT: method of bored pile arrangement efficiency increase and hole enlarger design improvement, hole enlarger reliability increase, easing of ground withdrawal out form ground collector and better quality of constructed bore pile.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to construction, in particular to pile foundations. Driven pile consists of shaft with axial hole, sharpened tip with circular base and conusoidal shell with spike, cavities inside shell filled with hardening solution. There is a threaded hole in tip base, which is closed with threaded plug with stem. Tip shell is rumpled with submergence force after removal of threaded plug and additional submersion of pile. For additional increase of bearing capacity there is an elastic shell on lower part of shaft with facilities for fixation of its upper and lower ends; cavity between elastic shell and shaft surface; protective jacket with facilities of its fixation of shaft, which slides in radial direction and embraces elastic shell. There is a radial hole in shaft, which connects longitudinal hole with specified cavity transformed into support belt after the pile has been submerged at the specified depth, the cavity has been filled with hardening solution via holes in shaft and the solution has hardened.
EFFECT: improved bearing capacity of hollow piles.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of drilled pile manufacturing includes well arrangement in soil. Supply of material into it. Compaction of soil under lower end of formed pile. In process of soil compaction, in the base of formed drilled pile with parametres equivalent to driven pile, its conventional camouflet cavity is arranged with diametre Dkp equal to diametre of dzs equivalent to driven pile, where: dzs - diametre (m) of equivalent driven pile. DkP - diametre (m) of conventional camouflet cavity produced in soil as it is displaced under lower end of formed drilled pile, by means of supply of controlled material volume to fill conventional camouflet cavity according to the following dependence : where V is controlled volume (m3) of material spent for filling of conventional camouflet cavity produced in soil due to its displacement into pile foundation. As well is filled with material in the form of hardening mix, preferably plastic concrete mix, diametre of equivalent driven pile is identified according to dependence , where dzs - diametre (m) of equivalent driven pile. Dskw - diametre (m) of well; Δh - measured value of subsidence (m) of plastic concrete mix in well as conventional camouflet cavity produced due to displacement of soil under lower end of formed pile is being filled. And in order to produce drilled pile with parametres of driven one of the same diametre, soil is treated in the lower end of pile till material subsides, preferably concrete mix, in well by value, which is compared with the one defined from the following ratio: Δh/Dskw=0.4. Besides in the lower end of well soil is exposed to forces, and their sufficiency is controlled (assessed) by flow of material additionally supplied to well in process of soil treatment, and its volume is identified according to formula , where Dskw - diametre (m) of formed pile. Besides in well reinforced with casing pipe, dynamic actions at soil are carried out until material subsidence value in casing pipe makes at least the following: , where Δhtr is subsidence (m) of material in casing pipe. Dskw - diametre (m) of well. Dfr - inner diametre (m) of casing pipe. Dynamic actions at soil in lower end of formed pile are carried out to achieve conventional failure, which is represented by material subsidence of not more than 2 mm in process of the last action, and when soils are compacted by electric explosions in pile foundation with application of electrode system, dynamic treatment is interrupted provided that electrode system freely installed on bottomhole in process of electric explosion sinks by not more than 1-2 cm, and in process of soil dynamic treatment at least one additional camouflet expansion is created along pile length, preferably, in zones of well opening of soils that are most pliant to compaction, which is detected by reaction of soil to test dynamic actions performed along pile length.
EFFECT: development of drilled piles with bearing capacity by soil, same as for driven piles, with minimum possible usage of resources and maximum possible usage of properties inherent in massif of soil that contains pile.
SUBSTANCE: device for compaction of soil in drilled pile well bottomhole includes casing pipe, bushing fixed on it with working element pulled through it. Working element is arranged in the form of hollow pipe, at the lower end of which there is a thrust journal and sealing attachment, and at the upper end there are upper and lower supports and inertial mass, placed on hollow pipe between upper and lower supports with sliding fit.
EFFECT: improved bearing capacity of drilled piles erected in watered and soft soils.