Machine to sharpen fur sheepskin
(57) Abstract:Usage: fur industry. The inventive machine to sharpen fur sheepskin contains two feed roller for feeding the skins, rotating carding shaft, consisting of a Central shaft impaled on his drives and installed them raschetyvaya elements arranged along the outer circumference of the disk receiving device for treated hides and skins, asignaciones casing and drives. Carding shaft has steel rods, fixed against longitudinal displacement by means of nuts and placed in the holes formed on the outer edge of the disc and evenly distributed around the circumference. The sleeve is formed by two hollow cylinders with different diameters and installed very close to each other on the rods. Rassasivayushee elements made in the form of a steel plate teeth. One end of each tooth is sharpened, and the other made a hole through which the tooth is placed freely in the cylinder of smaller diameter of the corresponding sleeve. Front working face of the tooth is angled forward in the direction of rotation casalingo shaft and forms a radial location of the tooth acute angle with the tangent to the circumference of the disk, etc which refers to the fur industry, namely the equipment to sharpen fur cover sheepskin.Known carding machine CM-120M (USSR) (b, Goifman, C. L. Chekmarev, E. L. Kritzberg New in mechanization of technological processes of fur production. From a series of lectures part-time faculty. Feet, Light and food industry, 1983, S. 10-12) and the carding machine Carda-1300 firm "Gamata" (Italy), which have significant drawbacks.On these machines, combing hair on the skin is needle tape, consisting of a steel wire brackets, fixed in multilayer woven tape with a rubber layer, which coils on the carding machine shaft. Itself needle tape during operation reveals a number of negative properties, especially when brushing sakaranaho hair. These include: short lifespan needle tape, calling it a great expense, what with its high cost causes large costs; the deformation of the needle from the meeting with an obstacle (rolled up hair, steel strings, needles peg purification device, thickening of the skin, foreign objects caught during processing), resulting in needle unbend at the knee and at the base, that UD is nomocratic deformation of the needle to break. The presence of the shaft with needle surface requires a car two challenging applications: restraint (strings on the machine CM-120M (USSR) or vacuum box car Carda-1300 Italian firm "Gamata") and device for cleaning the needle cover from the writhing hair comb by car CHM-120M and cleaning needle roller by car Carda-1300, which is also required additional cleaning of the cleaning roller that collects on itself hair. Needle tape during operation is extended, therefore, carding shafts of machines CM-120M and Carda-1300 requires the use of a tensioning device, complicating the design. By car CHM-120M on the skin in places, pressed against the strings, hair remains neprichesanny, therefore, the sheepskin needs to pass through the machine at least twice, causing loss of productivity.By car Carda-1300 for vacuum holding device is installed separate fan, complicating the design of the machine and causing extra power consumption. String holding the device on the machine CM-120M has also disadvantages, namely, that on the strings of hair is wound, forming a t theThe aim of the invention is to increase performance, simplify design and energy savings in the processing of fur, especially with svolenim and sakatani hair.The purpose is achieved thanks to the use of carding shaft new design, consisting of a Central shaft fixed on him with equal intervals of four disks and having holes spaced evenly around the circumference at the outer edge of the disk, through which the rods in number, for example 8, are fixed against longitudinal movement on the ends of the nuts. On each rod along the entire length are located closely to each other two bushings for smaller diameters which are freely wearing their holes plate teeth with pointed ends. With the front working face of the tooth in its working position tilted forward in the direction of rotation and is a tangent to the circumference of the disks, conducted from the point of intersection of the line of the front face of the tooth, and the circumference of the disk angle equal to, for example, 50 degrees. (similarly, the angle of the needle to the base begunne needle tape # 4 used on the carding machines).Plate teeth of each terminal are offset by gospodine the desired frequency of teeth along the length of the shaft, providing quality combing all of the areas of the scalp skin. The offset of the teeth is achieved by appropriate dimensions of the lengths of the stepped bushings at each terminal.Each plate tooth, due to the stepped shape of the sleeves, is located in the recess and thereby protected from lateral compression and can freely rotate on the sleeve. When the shaft of the plate teeth under the action of centrifugal force are arranged in radial directions and in such a situation occur from the scalp skin, leaving rollers, penetrating into him with their pointed ends.The resistance value of the plate teeth fur skins, in which the tooth is not rotated on the rod is determined by the magnitude of the centrifugal force acting on each plate tooth, which depends on the speed carding shaft, the radius of the location of the rod, the weight and the dimensions of the plate of the tooth. The resistance value of the tooth should be approximately equal to the amount of effort, in which there is a deviation of the needle needle cover tape applied to the carding machines. It is necessary that the needle surface at the shaft of the new design was "elastic is against the efforts of the resistance plate teeth are rotated in and out of hair, without damaging it.Thanks to the more rare the location of the teeth on the rod, for example, at a distance one from the other 8 mm, and due to the conical shape of the end of the tooth gaps between teeth will not become clogged with hair, therefore, will not need a mechanism for cleaning carding shaft available on all known constructions of carding machines.Thanks to the turning plate teeth occur when large resistance from the skins from salango and sakaranaho hair is prevented from winding skins on carding shaft as it caught the teeth will turn around and get away from the skin. As a result, machine design eliminates the need for restraint devices (string or vacuum) on known machines.In Fig.1 is a schematic arrangement of the main working elements of the machine; Fig. 2 is a structural diagram of a carding shaft; Fig.3 - section a-a in Fig.2.The machine consists of a feed conveyor 2 (Fig.1), a feed spring-loaded shafts 3 and 4, carding shaft 5, consisting of a shaft 7, (Fig.2), left 8 and right 9 discs, intermediate discs 10 and 11, the rods 12 and nuts 13, the stepped bushing 14, the plate teeth 15, the hydrated casing has an opening lid and socket for connection to an exhaust system of the shop.Belt outlet conveyor can move in two directions.Plate tooth 15 (cross section a-a, Fig.3) is made of a steel sheet of a thickness of, for example, 1.5-2 mm, has a rounded shape of the upper part in which the hole is to put on the sleeve and the shape of the triangle directed a sharp top down, in the lower part, forming the working part of the tooth that interact with the scalp skin, while the top corner has a bend at which the tip of the tooth is directed forward in the direction of rotation of the carding roll.In a static position carding shaft teeth under the action of its own weight is directed down the front, with the bottom of the tooth located at the radius, the front line is a tangent to the circumference of the disc, drawn from the lowest point, angle of 50 deg.The outer surface of the sleeve 14 has two diameters. The bushing with a smaller outer diameter is designed for free installation of the tooth, provide the required clearances landing, both in radial and in axial directions.The rod 12 is installed in the holes of the main disks 8 and 9 and the intermediate discs 10 and 11. Basic disks perceive Radialnaya 12, reducing the span between points of intermediate support rods. To prevent axial movement of the rods on the ends are fixed by nuts 13. The maximum number of bars in carding shaft should be such that the distance between adjacent rods was slightly more than the length of the plate of the tooth. This requirement is necessary to plate tooth could turn freely around the rod and disengage if the tooth for some reason stuck in the skin.Plate teeth on the rods are arranged with the same pitch, for example 8 mm, but at each of the next rod is displaced in the axial direction, for example, 1 mm to ultimately generally on the surface of the carding shaft formed frequency of teeth, allowing you to comb the entire hair without gaps. This shift is achieved by changing the dimensions of the lengths of the first and last bushings on each rod and bushing adjacent to the intermediate disks. With the same purpose, the intermediate discs 10 and 11 are made of a thin sheet, for example, 2 mmMachine work is carried out as follows.Include drives of the machine and exhaust ventilation. A worker puts the molten skin that serves its carding shaft and at the same time keep it from shifting, as the upper shaft 3 is pressed to the bottom by means of springs (not shown).On a rotating carding shaft under the action of centrifugal forces all the teeth 15 are arranged in the radial direction ends outwards, which are found from the scalp skin, the envelope of the lower feed shaft 4. The inclination of the ends of the plate teeth forward encourages better brushing of the hair and removing the impurities. In order combing smoothly and prevent damage to hair skin it is necessary that the teeth of the carding shaft possessed properties elasticity effects, i.e., so that when the resistance of hair within the strength of hair teeth when interacting with the hair was placed in the radial direction at the carding shaft, if the resistance of the hair on any area increases dramatically, and this bundle of hair may be pulled out, the teeth acting on it should be rejected, turned on the rod, and to get out of this bunch, not destroying the hair. These areas skins require re-combing.This same property response of each tooth on overload prevents the PTO, the necessary selection and coordination of shaft speed, mass, shape and size of lamellar teeth.Carding shaft of the claimed design requires no cleaning, because the space between the teeth will not become clogged with hair in view of the fact that the teeth are arranged rarely (for example, 8 mm), can be rotated and have a form, on which the hair will not be charged. The treated skin is removed from the machine by the conveyor 6 or in the worker's side, or in the opposite direction. The depth of scratching is regulated by the joint movement of the feed conveyor 2 and the shafts 3 and 4 (mechanism not shown in the figure).The proposed design has the following advantages over known designs do not require the use of expensive needle tape having a small life; simplifies the design of the machine, as are mechanisms for holding strings or pneumatic device for cleaning the needle shaft and the tensioning needle tape by weakening.New carding shaft durable, as it is not replaceable needle tape. Power savings, because the car is missing consuming e the Kuru pneumatic device with a separate fan; simplified maintenance and reduced machine downtime by eliminating the following operations: periodic cleaning carding shaft from the hair, periodic replacement of the worn needle ribbon on a new, clean strings, tension control needle tape in the process. Increases productivity by eliminating downtime. The machine can effectively handle the skins with sakatani and svolenim hair. 1. MACHINE TO SHARPEN FUR SHEEPSKIN, containing two feed roller for feeding the skins, rotating carding shaft, consisting of a Central shaft impaled on his drives and installed them raschetyvaya elements arranged along the outer circumference of the disk receiving device for treated hides and skins, suction casing and the actuator, characterized in that, to improve performance and simplify the design, carding shaft has steel rods, fixed against longitudinal displacement by means of nuts and placed in the holes formed on the outer edge of the disc and uniformly distributed over the circumference of the sleeve, each of which is formed by two hollow cylinders with different diameters, mounted very close to each other is which is pointed, and in another made the hole through which the tooth is placed freely in the cylinder of smaller diameter of the corresponding sleeve, with the front working face of the tooth is angled forward in the direction of rotation of the carding shaft and forms a radial location of the tooth acute angle with the tangent to the circumference of the disk, conducted from the point of intersection of the front face of the tooth and the circumference of the disk.2. Machine under item 1, characterized in that the steel plate teeth, placed at a certain same step on the bushings of each terminal are offset along the rod relative to the plate, the teeth on the other of the rod carding shaft.
FIELD: light industry; methods of treatment of the furry semi-finished products.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of light industry, in particular, to the method of treatment of the furry semi-finished products. The furry semi-finished product is treated with the low-temperature plasma in the vacuum chamber under pressure of 25-30 Pa in the medium of the argon gas. The treatment is conducted at the oscillator frequency of 13.56 MHz, with the current strength on the anode of the oscillation valve of 0.65-0.8 A within plasma action time of 3-5 minutes and at the rate of argon consumption of 0.03-0.05 g/s. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the fur abradability, the increased strength of bonding of the fur side with the skin tissue and strength of a hair at stretching.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the fur abradability, the increased strength of the fur side pelage with the skin tissue and strength of the fur at stretching.
FIELD: fur industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention, in particular, concerns treatment of sea animal fells. Fell is subjected to tanning and treated in aqueous solution of enzyme preparation exhibiting proteolytic andelastolytic activities, its consumption being 0.1-5.0 g/L at pH 3-8. Fell is the dried and greased, after which follow rolling-shaking, straitening-stretching, chipping, rolling, and stretching.
EFFECT: improved strength and elastic-plastic properties of fell tissue of fur semi-finished product, reduced process cycle duration, reduced consumption of greasing substances, and avoided use of organic solvents.
FIELD: items of personal use, clothes.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns the fur industry and can be used in furriery-tailoring manufacture at manufacturing and repair of fur products. The method of strengthening of fur fabric leathers of a half-finished product is carried out by application and drying of a collagen-containing composition containing moist collagenic aggregation, a softener and a hardening agent. Thus the collagen-containing composition additionally contains cod-liver oil and castor oil. The composition is applied in two stages. The first stage of treatment is performed with a compound, in recalculation on a solid: collagenic aggregation 2%, glycerin 2.6-4%, oak extract 0.1%, cod-liver oil 0.2%, castor oil 0.2%, water - the rest. The second stage of treatment is performed with a compound, in recalculation on a solid: collagenic weight 6%, glycerin 7.8-12%, oak extract 0.3%, cod-liver oil 0.6%, castor oil of 0.6%, water - the rest. Drying of a fur half-finished product is performed after the first and the second application. The way allows to raise adhesion strength of body hair coat with a leather fabric, to increase useful area of a fur half-finished product due restoration of defective sites of leather fabrics and simultaneously to receive a detail with the zones differing by properties.
EFFECT: increase of adhesion strength of body hair coat with leather fabric, increase in useful area of a fur half-finished product.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: method is related to formation and form fixation of fur product items and to light industry, in particular to furriery, and may be also used to recover properties of fur products that have already been in operation. Method includes application of polymer compound onto fur skin, drying and giving proper shape to product. For application polymer compound is used, which contains plasticised polyvinyl acetate dispersion, as plasticiser - diamyl phthalate, and water. Versions of this method use the following substances as plasticiser - di(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate or tri(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, or tri(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate. Product is dried after it has been properly shaped.
EFFECT: improved quality and service life of fur products by increase of shape stability of product items and strength of hair adhesion to skin tissue due to direct stabilisation of liquid composition in wide range of climatic conditions of its application.
4 cl, 2 ex