Nuclear reactor

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in nuclear reactors for special purposes, namely in reactors in which the maximum energy release observed in the peripheral part of the active zone, as well as in shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The essence: a nuclear reactor of the tank type consists of a body, within which gap has an active area and its surrounding shell, and coaxial side standpipe and Central canals communicated among themselves in the lower part of the rotary chamber. On the bottom of the pan is the displacer. Turning the camera has a cylindrical guide insert, the upper end of which is adjacent to the lower end of the shell, and the bottom end is installed with a gap towards the bottom. The displacer is made in the form of a cylinder, the upper part of which is limited by the cap, and installed with a clearance within the cylindrical insertion without touching the input of the active zone. 1 Il.

The invention relates to atomic energy and can be used in nuclear hull reactors for special purposes, namely in reactors in which the maximum energy release observed in the peripheral part of the active zone and the chemical industry.

Known nuclear reactor [1], comprising a housing in which the gap is set shell with an active area, coaxial side drain and the Central discharge channel provided between a bottom of the rotating camera, which is equipped with a conical shell.

The disadvantages of the known solutions are relatively low security and the reactor power due to their limited ability to control the flow of coolant at the entrance to the active area.

This disadvantage is due to the fact that in the considered design swivel camera provides only a fixed distribution of flow across the section and.C., which is characterized by relatively low values of the flow rates in the peripheral part of the active zone, which in some cases does not compensate for the actual thermal non-uniformity inherent in the power density in the active zone. The debris flow associated with the presence of intense vortex zones at the entrance to the camera.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed solution is a nuclear reactor [2], comprising a housing, within which gap has an active area and its surrounding shell, ring wsiu to the bottom, coaxial side standpipe and the Central discharge channel provided between a rotary camera, on the bottom which inside the annular insert with a gap in relation to it without touching the input of the active zone set displacer.

A disadvantage of the known solutions is the implementation of the annular insert in the form of a truncated cone, which leads to the formation of vortex zones on the inner surface of the insert. In addition, the form of the displacer in the known solution does not allow to increase the mass flow of the heat carrier in the peripheral part of the active zone, and also promotes the formation of vortex zones at the entrance to swivel the camera and increase the hydraulic resistance of the swivel camera.

The aim of the invention is to increase safety and capacity of the reactor by providing the necessary distribution of the flow over the cross section of the reactor core.

To achieve the goal proposed displacer to perform in the form of a cylinder with a lid, and an annular insert to perform cylindrical.

The drawing shows a nuclear reactor of the tank type, the longitudinal axial section.

Nuclear reactor contains cilindri is ASI channel 6. Turning the camera 3 is equipped with a cylindrical insert 7, the upper end of which is adjacent to the lower end of the shell 5, and the bottom end is installed with a clearance relative to the plate 8 and is located on the bottom 8 of the cylindrical displacer 9, the upper part of which is limited by the cover 10 and is installed with a clearance of 11 within the cylindrical insert 7 and not the input of the active zone 4.

A nuclear reactor operates as follows.

The coolant flows in the surge channel 2 between the housing and the shell 5, enters the swivel chamber 3 flows to the displacer 9, change direction, passes through the annular gap 11 between the insert 7 and the cylindrical portion of the separator 9. This scheme coolant does not create conditions for the occurrence of vortex zones at the entrance to the active zone. Next, the flow of normal falls on the peripheral part of the active zone 4. One part of it goes into the channels of the active zone 4, and the other after the turn moves to the center of the swivel chamber 3 in the gap 12 between the active area 4 and the cover 10 of the displacer 9, divided by the channel system formed of heat-generating elements of the active zone 4. From the active zone 4 stream enters the discharge channel 6 and o is in that eliminated the vortex zone at the entrance to the chamber and is provided at this specified distribution of flow across the section of the active zone, to compensate for thermal variation in the latter.

A NUCLEAR REACTOR, comprising a housing, within which gap has an active area and its surrounding shell, an annular insert, the upper end of which is adjacent to the lower end of the shell, and the bottom end is installed with a clearance relative to the plate, coaxial side standpipe and the Central discharge channel provided between a rotary camera, on the bottom which inside the annular insert with a gap in relation to it and without touching the input of the active zone set displacer, wherein, to improve safety and capacity of the reactor by providing the necessary distribution of the fluid over the cross section of the active zone, the displacer is made in the form of a cylinder with a lid, and an annular insert is cylindrical.

 

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