Multi-point level switch (and its variants)

 

(57) Abstract:

The inventive device includes a group measuring capacitive sensors, a generator of alternating voltage dividing capacitors, two switches, two transducer current-voltage, subtractive device, a synchronous detector, two Comparators, two RS-flip-flop, a differentiator, a clock generator, two patterns match, a reversible pulse counter, the adder codes, digital indicator. The electrodes of the sensors are made with a different working areas. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 5 Il., table 1.

The invention relates to electrical engineering, and more particularly to devices for signaling achieve level electroconductive liquid specified values.

Known devices for discrete level measurement that contains the group of capacitive sensors, connected through the switch and the Converter current-voltage devices comparison, the oscillator is connected through the keys to the pulse counter, digital display. The disadvantage of these devices is the low accuracy of fixation of the set point level, due to the influence of capillary phenomena.

The closest in technical essence to p is of IKI with horizontally spaced electrodes, AC voltage generator, two switches, a reversible pulse counter, the adder codes, a clock generator and a digital indicator.

Due to the horizontal arrangement of the electrodes of the measuring sensors significantly (dozens of times) increases the sensitivity of the sensor to changes in the level near the points of fixation. Acceptable sensitivity of such sensors is provided with a substantial gap between the electrodes. Therefore, the accuracy of fixation are not influenced by such factors as the viscosity of the liquid, capillary phenomena, surface tension occurring in the sensor with vertically spaced electrodes. Because the plane of the electrodes parallel to the plane of the level in the tank, and the fluid in the working volume of the sensor is open around the perimeter of the electrodes, the lag or advance level sensor is compared with the level in the tank is missing. The disadvantage of this device is a prototype design is the complexity caused by the presence along with the measuring sensors of the upper and lower compensation sensors, which are located outside the controlled level (respectively above and below this zone), as well as the need to use two lawsetsa simplify the design of the device.

The aim is achieved in that in a multipoint level switch containing measuring capacitive sensors distributed within a controlled range, each of the sensors is designed as two parallel-plate capacitors with different working areas of the electrodes, which are arranged horizontally and symmetrically relative to the middle line of sensors, one of the electrodes of all of the capacitors are connected to the shared bus sensors, the first and second switches, the second electrode of smaller area are connected with the inputs of the second switch, a source of alternating voltage connected access to the shared bus sensors, the oscillator is connected direct to one of inputs of the adder codes two trehochkovye schema matching, the first RS-flip-flop, a direct output of which is connected with the third input of the first trehochkovoy schema matching, the outputs of the first and second trehshipovyh schema matching are connected respectively with subtractive and summing the inputs of the reversible pulse counter, the output of which is connected to the input of the digital display and the second input of the adder codes connected to the output control inputs of the switches, and the first Converter current-supraordinate, tanks are the same, and sensor parameters associated with containers dividing capacitors value:

= , where = - 1;

S1and S2respectively the major and minor area of the electrodes of the sensors;o- dielectric constant;

d1and d2the gap sensors with larger and smaller electrodes;

WITHp- the capacity of the dividing capacitors;

min;max- minimum and maximum value of the dielectric permittivity of the medium, and > and the device entered the second Converter current-voltage, subtractive device, a second RS-trigger, synchronous detector, two voltage comparator and differentiating chain, the outputs of the first and second switches connected to the inputs of the first and second converters, current-voltage, the outputs of which are connected to the inputs of subtractive device, the output of which is connected to the input of synchronous detector related reference input with the output of a source of alternating voltage, and the output - signal inputs of two voltage Comparators, the reference inputs are connected to sources of positive and negative voltage outputs of the Comparators associated with the S-inputs of the first the schema matching, direct the output of the second trigger associated with the third input of the second trehochkovoy schema matching, the first inputs of both trehshipovyh schema matching given in parallel and connected to the inverse output of the clock generator, the direct output of which through differentiating the chain is connected to the R-inputs of the RS-trigger. The dividing capacitors made in the form of a dielectric coating at least one of the electrodes of a larger area of each of the capacitive sensors.

RS-triggers, Comparators stress, schema matching, subtractive devices, synchronous detectors are widely used in measuring devices. However, the use of subtractive device, a synchronous detector, two voltage Comparators, two RS-triggers, differentiating chain and dividing capacitors described above ties in the schemes of multipoint relays is unknown to us. This application enables you to receive new properties, namely to simplify the design of the device. This eliminates the need to use upper and lower compensation of capacitive sensors, no additional cables are required, through which the sensors connected to the device. Instead of the two Comparators of the current transferee device, which can be built on an integrated circuit, there is no need to use three controlled switches. This simplifies the design of the device.

Therefore, the proposed solution meets the criterion of "substantial differences".

In Fig. 1 presents a diagram of the multi-point level switch; Fig. 2 - arrangement of the measuring electrodes of the capacitive sensor of Fig. 3, 4 - dependence of capacitance sensors (Fig. 3) and the output voltage U8subtractive device (Fig. 4) from changes in the level h of the liquid; Fig. 5 is a timing diagram of output signals (clock generator 15 - U15; differentiating the chain 14 - U14; trigger 12 - U12; trigger 13 - U13.

The group of sensors 1 consists of capacitors 1-1 with a larger S1electrodes and capacitors 1-2 smaller S2the electrodes. One of the electrodes of all of the sensors are interconnected and connected to the output of the generator 2 AC voltage. The second electrodes of the capacitors 1-1 with a larger area via an isolating capacitor 3 is connected to the inputs of the switch 4. The second electrodes of the capacitors 1-2 lesser PLC-voltage, the outputs are connected to inputs of subtractive device 8. The output of subtractive device 8 is connected to the signal input of the synchronous detector 9, the reference input of which is connected with the output of the generator 2 AC voltage. The output of the synchronous detector 9 is connected to the signal inputs of the Comparators 10 and 11 of the voltage reference inputs of which are connected to sources of positive U+and negative U-stress. The outputs of the Comparators 10 and 11 of the voltage connected to the S-input of the RS-flip-flops 12 and 13, the R-inputs of which are connected with the output of the differentiating network 14, the input of which is connected to the direct output of the clock generator 15. Direct outputs of the RS-flip-flops 12 and 13 are connected to third inputs, and inverse to the second inputs trehshipovyh circuits 16 and 17 matches, respectively. The first inputs trehshipovyh schema matching are connected to the inverse output of the clock generator 15, and outputs to and subtractive summing inputs of the reversible counter 18 pulses. The output of the reversible counter 18 pulses connected to one input of the adder 19 codes and to the digital indicator 20. To the second input of adder 19 codes (low order) connected to the direct output of the clock pulse generator 15. The output of the adder 19 codes Amadu S1and the electrodes 23 and 24 of the capacitor 1-2 smaller S2are horizontal and so that the middle of the working clearances of both capacitors are located on the same horizontal level. The distance between the capacitor electrodes 1-1 and 1-2, respectively, d1and d2. The design parameters of the capacitors 1-1 (S1; d1) and 1-2 (S2; d2) must satisfy the relation:

= where > ; = - 1. (1)

The dividing capacitors can be made in the form of insulation coating at least one of the electrodes of a larger area of each of the capacitive sensors. The total thickness of the coating of the electrodes, the greater the area of a single sensor must be selected from the relationship:

dd= , wheredthe relative permittivity of the coating;

ddthe thickness of the coating.

In this case, the size of the gap d1shall be counted from the outer boundary of an insulating coating.

Multi-point level switch operates as follows.

Let the device is switched to the counter 18 is set to an arbitrary number N (in the particular case N=0), which is indicated by a digital display 20. In the absence of a pulse on direct wyodak switches 4 and 5.

When the switches connect to the device electrodes of the capacitors with the number N. the Operation of the detector is carried out with a period of T, consisting of two cycles t1and t2. The cycles of operation sets the generator 15.

For time t1the first stage of the work (to direct the output of the generator 15 is a signal of logical "1") sensors connected to N+ 1. The output of subtractive device 8 voltage determined by the voltage difference and outputs of the converters 6 and 7, the current-voltage

= (-)KWu, (2) where KWU- transfer coefficient subtractive device 8.

The current flowing through the capacitor of the measuring sensor, is proportional to the value of their vessels WITH1and C2:

where is the voltage of the generator 2; - circular frequency voltage; C = equivalent capacitance of the sensor with a larger area of the plates with respect to the separation capacity of the capacitor Cp. If the transmission ratios TOFriboth converters 6 and 7 are equal, then taking into account expressions (2) the voltage at the output of subtractive device 8 = KWuKFri(C-C2). (3)

We will use the known expression for the capacity of a parallel-plate capacitor with a dielectric, not the/SUB> - distance of the boundaries of the m-th layer from one of the plates;

mis the dielectric constant in m-th layer;

S - area of one of the plates.

For this case (see Fig. 2) have C1= = = , (5) where is the difference of the dielectric constant of the measured fluidWand gasgover its surface;

l1- the thickness of the liquid layer in the sensor;

X1= - - the relative degree of filling of the sensor;

o- the dielectric constant.

The equivalent capacitance C'1sequential turn-on sensor and a coupling capacitor

C = = . (6)

The design parameters of the sensors are selected from the condition of equality of the containers C'1and C2when half-filled a controlled environment sensors and a specific dielectric constant of the controlled environment. Taking into account the relations (5) and (6) are = , (7) where if X1=X2=0.5 and when the value of the dielectric constant of the controlled environment, equal ,t = . (8) the Graphs of dependences of capacitances C'1and C2from the measured level in the gap sensors shown in Fig. 3 (curves I and II, respectively). The curves intersect at point a, which sootwetstwuet output sinusoidal voltage subtractive device 8, determined by the difference between the values of capacitances WITH'1and C2(see the relation (3) of the present description), when the level change within the measurement sensors increases from the beginning (as long as we dive only capacitor 1-1 with a larger area of the electrodes), then decreases due to the immersion of the second capacitor is 1-2 with a smaller area of the electrodes, changes the phase by 180aboutwhen passing through the fixation point, reached maximum at full immersion sensor 1-2 and has some constant value when the output level beyond the N-th sensor. Curves U-1 and U-2 (Fig. 4) illustrate the change of the voltage U8depending on the level within of the two neighboring sensors with numbers N and N+1 (numbering from the bottom up to the height of the tank). The relation (8) is the condition of equality of the containers half-filled sensors. Due to the fact that the dielectric constantWspecific controlled fluid differs from the value defined according to (1), point equality capacitors WITH'1=C2does not coincide with the middle line of the sensor. This mismatch causes the error signal. Substituting (8) into (7) and taking into account that (see Fig. 2).

X1snasti alarm, that is, the deviation of X'2from the value of 0.5 in this case:

=X-X2= - 0.5 in . (10)

Capacitive level switches are designed for operation at a specific range of values of dielectric permittivities controlled environment(min-max), wheremin;maxrespectively the minimum and maximum values of dielectric permittivity. Therefore, when calculating the parameters of the sensors need to take some average value of the dielectric constant. This value can be chosen from the conditions of equality of error1and2at the extremes, i.e. whenminandmax. Have

=. (11)

Taking into account expressions (11) and (10) we get:

< / BR>
After fundamentally simple, but cumbersome transformations finally, we obtain the expression (1).

This expression allows to minimize the values of the errors caused by the change of the dielectric permittivity of the medium, by selecting appropriate values of the parameters of the sensors (condition (8)). Calculations show that phrasenet alarm with very minor. When choosing the parameters of the sensors must satisfy the condition S1/d1>S2/d2. supply 1 + > 1, it is obvious that S1/d1>S2/d2.

We carried out calculations for the following case: S1=0.03 m2; S2=0,015 m2; d2=0.005 m; d1=0,00997 m;min=1,05 (liquid helium); max=81 (distilled water); (Cpvalue =0.01 f.

This range of dielectric permeability covers almost all existing electroconductive liquid. The value calculated according to (1) is about 1.1 and the maximum error at the ends of the range W(min-max):

0,003 d2=0,015 mm

If rangeWsignificantly narrowed, for examplemin=1,8;max= 3,0 (this limits changes in the dielectric permeabilities for oil products), the maximum error at the ends of range

0,0014 d2=0,007 mm

If we consider that the errors of modern detectors are 1 .. . 10 mm, it is obvious that the values obtained are very significant and in practice, or it can be neglected.

Thus, if conditions (8) and (1) provides practical independence of the values of the signaled level X'2from the values of permittivity2<0,5) at the output of the detector 9 is formed by a DC voltage of positive polarity. At the transition of the measured level through the point of fixation of the output voltage subtractive device 8 changes the phase and the output of the synchronous detector 9 is formed by a DC voltage of negative polarity.

The voltage output from the detector 9 is fed to the signal inputs of the Comparators 10 and 11 voltage. At the output of the comparator 10 pulse appears if there is a positive voltage, and the output of the comparator 11 is a negative voltage on the signal input. For this purpose, the reference inputs of the Comparators 10 and 11 are given correspondingly positive U+and negative U-bias voltage.

The output pulses of the Comparators 10 and 11 are received at the S-input of the RS-flip-flops 12 and 13. When the trigger 12 is set in one state when the voltage at the output of the comparator 10, which in turn occurs when the value of the monitored level within X2<0.5, and the trigger 13 respectively when X2>0.5 in. At the beginning of each clock inwyt their previous state, and thus triggers ready to memorize the next information (Fig. 5 - U14).

During the first cycle of the t1triggers 12 and 13 will be installed in conditions that correspond to the immersion sensor N+1, namely:

the state of logical "1" trigger 12 correspond to the immersion of the sensor is less than half (X2<0,5);2>0.5 in.

In the end of the first stage in the state of the logical unit may have only one of the triggers.

During the second cycle of the t2to direct the output of the generator 15 (and the second input of the adder 19) is the signal of logical "0". The inputs of the converters 6 and 7 connect the capacitors of the sensor number n depending on the degree of immersion of the sensor outputs of the Comparators 10 and 11 receive the voltage pulse: if X2<0.5 to the output of the comparator 10 and X2>from 0.5 on the output of the comparator 11.

The pulses of the Comparators or confirm the previous logical state "1" corresponding trigger or establish in this state one of the triggers. At the end of the second quantum state of the two triggers is presented in the table.

0:0 triggers 12 and 13 (X2(N)=0,5; X2(N+1)=0,5 in normal operation, the detector is impossible, since two adjacent height sensor cannot be simultaneously immersed in the liquid by half, with X2(N+1)=0,5 always X2(N)=1.

The outputs of the triggers are connected to inputs of the logic circuits 16 and 17 matches so that pulse with inverted output of the clock generator 15, valid for time t2passes through one of these schemes at the counting input of the counter 18 only when a logical "1" is recorded in one of the trigger 12 or 13. When this condition triggers 1:0 (X2(N)<0.5 and X2(N+1)< 0,5) permit the passage of the pulse to the subtractive input of the counter slimming display unit. State trigger 0:1 permit the passage of pulses through the logic circuit 17 at the summing input of the counter 18, increasing his reading on the unit. When the condition triggers a 1:1 pulse counter inputs received.

Therefore, the counter will change up until and Converter 6 and 7 in turn will not connect sensors N and N+1 with the degree of immersion X2(N)>0,5; X2(N+1)<0.5 in. The digital indicator 20 when this highlights norona and output it outside of the middle sensor lines N and N+1 as down, and up the counter keep track of these changes.

Due to the peculiar modulation States of the switches 4 and 5 by means of the adder 19 codes will always be the sensitivity of the circuit to changes in the level without having to periodically poll all sensors, i.e., will be tracking the change of level. Due to the absence of the upper and lower compensation sensors eliminates the need for in-line connection of these sensors to the measuring circuit, which improves the accuracy of the device. In addition, in the circuit instead of two Comparators current transformer of the type used subtractive device that can be built on an integrated circuit.

In addition, due to the exclusion of the compensation sensor value decreases uncontrolled areas of the level in the tank, caused by the necessity of installing these sensors in the device prototype.

As a coupling capacitor 3 can be used dielectric coatings of the electrodes a larger area. All of the above in the description of the expression will remain in effect.

If the coating thickness of the two electrodes larger area, respectively, d1and d<
Cp= = wheredthe relative permittivity of the coating; dd=d1+d2total coating thickness of the two electrodes. In the particular case of the possible values of d1=0 or d2=0, that is needed is a coating of at least one of the electrodes of a larger area. The gap d1this should be measured from the outer border of insulation.

Due to the horizontal arrangement of the electrodes of the measuring sensors 1 on the accuracy of fixation are not influenced by such factors as the viscosity of the liquid, capillary phenomena, surface tension occurring in the sensor with vertically spaced electrodes, and the device is simplified by a special choice of the parameters of the sensors.

1. Multi-point level switch that contains the group measuring capacitive sensors distributed within a controlled range, each of which is made in the form of two parallel-plate capacitors with different working areas of the electrodes horizontally and symmetrically relative to the vertical axis of the group of sensors, AC voltage generator, the output of which is connected to the first Eli respectively of the first and second switches, the first and second Comparators, the first Converter current to voltage, a clock generator, a first trigger, a second trigger, made in the form of RS-flip-flop, the differentiator, the first and second trehochkovye schema matching, the outputs are connected to and subtractive summing inputs of the reversible pulse counter, the output of which is connected to the input of the digital display and the first input of the adder codes, the output of which is connected to the second inputs of the first and second switches, characterized in that it introduced the dividing capacitors connected between large areas of the electrodes of the capacitive sensors and the first inputs of the first switch, parallel connected second drive current into a voltage and a subtraction unit and a synchronous detector to the signal and reference inputs of which are connected the outputs respectively of the subtraction unit and the generator AC voltage, the first trigger is executed in the form of RS-flip-flop, the output of the synchronous detector is connected to the inputs of the first and second Comparators, the outputs of which are connected to the S inputs of the first and second triggers, R inputs of which are connected with the output of the differentiator, to which input and the second input of adder codes connected prevedenia, to the second inputs of which are connected respectively inverted output of the second and the direct output of the first trigger, direct and second inverted output of the first trigger is connected respectively with the third and second inputs of the second circuit matches, and to the first input of the subtraction unit is connected to the output of the first Converter, current to voltage, the input of which the input of the second inverter current voltage connected to the outputs respectively of the first and second switches, and parameters of the capacitive sensors and the capacity of the separating capacitor is chosen from the relation

= ;

> ;

= - 1,

where S1and S2- a large and a smaller electrode area of the sensor, respectively;

0- dielectric constant;

d1and d2the gap sensors with larger and smaller electrodes, respectively;

Cp- the capacity of the dividing capacitors;

minandmax- minimum and maximum values of the dielectric permittivity of the medium.

2. Multi-point level switch that contains the group measuring capacitive sensors distributed within a controlled range, each of which is made Stalino and symmetrically relative to the vertical axis of the group of capacitive sensors, AC voltage generator, the output of which is connected to the first electrodes of each of the capacitive sensor, the electrodes are larger and the smaller squares are connected with the first inputs respectively of the first and second switches, the first and second Comparators, the first Converter current to voltage, a clock generator, a first trigger, a second trigger, made in the form of RS-flip-flop, the differentiator, the first and second trehochkovye schema matching, the outputs are connected to and subtractive summing inputs of the reversible pulse counter, the output of which is connected to the input of the digital display and the first input of the adder codes the output of which is connected to the second inputs of the first and second switches, characterized in that it introduced the parallel connected second drive current into a voltage and a subtraction unit and a synchronous detector to the signal and reference inputs of which are connected the outputs respectively of the subtraction unit and the generator AC voltage, the first trigger is executed in the form of RS-flip-flop, and the electrode larger area of each capacitive sensor is made with a dielectric coating, and the output of the synchronous detector is connected to the inputs of the first and second components is of ferentiate, to which input and the second input of adder codes connected direct output of the clock generator, the inverted output of which is connected to the first inputs of the first and second schema matching, to the second inputs of which are connected respectively inverted output of the second and the direct output of the first trigger, direct and second inverted output of the first trigger is connected respectively with the third and second inputs of the second circuit matches, and to the first input of the subtraction unit is connected to the output of the first inverter current voltage, an input and the input of the second inverter current voltage connected to inputs of respectively the first and second switches.

 

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