Driven pile

 

(57) Abstract:

The inventive driven pile the average size of the projection on the horizontal plane overlying the broadening exceeds not less than 1.2 times the area of the projection on the horizontal plane of the lower broadening and broadening located at the height of the trunk at an average distance from each other equal to (10 60), where in - flight overlying broadening, and the departure of the lower broadening does not exceed 1/2 of the diameter or the width of a face, on which there is a broadening, thus broadening can be performed in the lower parts of one or two lateral sides of the trunk, and the faces can be made oblique to the transverse axis of the pile. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 10 ill.

The invention relates to the construction, namely, pile foundations and can be used in the construction of residential, public and industrial buildings and structures.

Known for driven piles with the broadening at the lower end, the so-called clavate. Such a short length of 3-5 m) piles have a high load carrying capacity in flooded weak clay soils with the support of the lower end of the stem on a firmer base layers [1].

However, the known piles have a number of asistenta low carrying capacity of the terms of admissible deformations of foundations and uneven settlement of foundations. And with increasing length clavate piles decreases its specific load-carrying capacity, since increasing the length of its trunk increases the area of the side surface. And clavate piles through the side face side of the broadening is not transferred to the load on the Foundation soil, as these facets are formed voids.

Further cavities (sinuses) on the side of the barrel from the Bay filled with soil in the loosened condition. Thus, the adhesion between the soil and the lateral surface of the pile is virtually absent, resulting in reduced bearing capacity known piles.

Because clavate piles have a developed area at the lower end, then the pile is advisable to lean the bottom end on a deeper durable layers of Foundation. In this case difficult is driving such piles, so as to increase the area of the pile in the lower end face dramatically increases the resistance of the trunk dive. This is because when driving the base weight of the soil displaced by the pile, is moved in a direction beyond the area of the polygon bounded by the lower end of the stem. Displacement of soil in the hand you want to attach to stoo ening, the intensity increases the resistance of the pile shaft immersion, which leads to excessive energy consumption for immersion piles.

In addition, often there is destruction of the stem clavate piles under the influence of the force of the blow required to dive. This also leads to reduction of the bearing capacity is known for driven piles. To increase the strength of the trunk can spend a significant amount of high quality cement and steel.

These drawbacks hinder the wide application of known piles.

The closest technical solution to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is driven pile, including having the tip of the barrel with the broadening spaced tiers in height at a distance from each other [2].

However, the known pile has some significant drawbacks. When immersed known piles along its trunk is formed leading well with the cross-sectional area equal to the square projection on the horizontal plane of the cross-section of the barrel in the zone of the lower broadening. With further immersion famous piles her trunk with the upper Bay is immersed in the resulting hole. In this case, the C of the bottom edge of the upper Bay and through the side surface of the barrel between the broadening of the load from the pile on the Foundation soil is almost not transmitted, which reduces the bearing capacity of the known pile.

Therefore, the application of such piles is sometimes appropriate in irrigated clay soils in the liquid state. However, the Foundation soils have low bearing capacity, especially at the rate of deformation, which also reduces their carrying capacity and scope famous piles.

There are also the disadvantages of the known pile when it operates in ground subsidence. Because when soaking is their drawdown, the parts of the trunk between the broadening is the destruction of the walls of the borehole and soil displacement to the side surface of this section of the trunk. In this case, the soil passes the additional load (load equal to its own weight allowing ground) on the pile through the top face of the broadening and also reduces the load bearing capacity of the known pile.

Also, when sinking in loose soil layers section of the trunk with the broadening on the side surface of the broadening is significant friction force, which prevents the immersion piles, resulting in significant energy consumption during the dive.

The purpose of the invention is to increase the specific carry is a General view; in Fig. 2 is a view along arrow a in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a General view of the piles, the embodiment of Fig. 4 is a view along arrow B in Fig. 3; Fig. 5 is a General view of the piles, the embodiment of Fig. 6 is a view along arrow b of Fig. 5; Fig. 7 is a General view of the piles, the embodiment of Fig. 8 is a view along arrow G in Fig. 7; Fig. 9 is a General view of the piles, the embodiment of Fig. 10 is a view along arrow D in Fig. 9.

The pile includes a cap 1, a barrel 2, bottom 3 and broadening the overlying ening 4, 5, 6, located at the height of the shaft 2 at an average distance from each other in range (10-60) b, where b is the departure of the overlying broadening, and the average projected area (total area overlying the broadening divided by the number of Bay) on the horizontal plane of the broadening above the bottom of the broadening on the section of the trunk, not exceeding 2/3 of its height exceeds not less than 1.2 times the area of the projection on the horizontal plane of the lower broadening. The broadening can be performed in the lower parts of one or two lateral sides of the trunk. At least two side faces 7 of the barrel 2 may be inclined to the transverse axis of the barrel, thus broadening located on the inclined faces of the shaft.

Pile works as follows. When immersing the lower waseela part of an array of ground from space, in which he introduced the section of the trunk, is displaced beyond the edges of the lower end, i.e. to the side edges of the piles. In turn, displaced outside of the barrel, the soil passes the pressure on the soil particles surrounding the pile, and receives a seal. But in this moment there is the destruction of relationships between soil particles surrounding the pile.

With further immersion piles in the array allowing soil embedded section of the trunk with the broadening 3.

Because allowina array connection between soil particles is destroyed, it requires less effort on the implementation allowany soil ening 3 pile shaft. In turn, broadening 3 are immersed in the soil compacted at immersing the lower part of the trunk. Therefore, the soil from the bottom faces of the broadening and side side surface of the pile shaft receives an additional seal.

With further immersion of the pile in contact with soil shall overlying ening 4. Since the area of the projection on the horizontal plane overlying the broadening than the area of projection of the lower broadening, overlying broadening embedded in compacted array allowing soil. In the process of immersion in allowany the soil in the Oia. With further immersion piles degree of compaction allowing of soils at the site between the broadening increases, which increases the adhesion forces of the soil with a lateral surface of the pile and increases the reactive resistance of the soil on the bottom face of the broadening and therefore increasing the unit bearing capacity of the pile.

In the last step of the pile, the upper broadening overlap in terms of the space between the bottom and side faces of the barrel, resulting from the introduction into the soil underlying the broadening. Displaced upper Bay soil fills this space. Further dive into the ground the top of the broadening occurs seal allowing ground.

Due to the fact that the area of the projection on the horizontal plane overlying the broadening exceeds the area of the projection on the horizontal plane of the lower Bay, it is provided by the presence of compacted soil, as in the zone of coupling with the side surface of the barrel between the Bay and in the contact zone of the bottom and side faces of all of the broadening.

Because the bottom and side faces of all of the broadening interact with compacted soil, passing on the Foundation soil loading the bots.

Since the broadening is located at a distance from each other equal to (10-60) b, where b is the departure of the overlying broadening, there is a dispersion in allowina array of soil transmitted through the broadening of the load on the Foundation soil from the pile and thereby eliminates a slice of soil along the shaft within the area of projection of the overlying Bay. In this case, the bottom face of the broadening interact with the Foundation soil as the frontal surface of the pile (as the bottom of the pile).

Thus, the increased specific bearing capacity of the piles and increase the rigidity of the fixing piles in the ground than at the same time is increasing the bearing capacity of the pile deformations of its Foundation.

The upper parts of the pile, working in ground subsidence, it is necessary to perform without broadening. In this case, the section of the trunk above the upper Bay when driving piles, a gap between the bottom and side surfaces of the piles. The gap between the ground and the side surfaces of the piles in the thickness of the loose layer of soil reduction of energy consumption when submerged piles, because there is no friction on the side surfaces in the area of the barrel that facilitates immersion piles.

In this sluchae friction when the drawdown subsidence of the soil.

1. DRIVEN PILE, which includes having the tip of the barrel with the broadening spaced tiers in height at a distance from each other, characterized in that order of increasing specific load-carrying capacity by increasing the degree of compaction allowing soil along the pile shaft and reduce energy consumption during dives mostly in subsiding soils, the average size of the projection on the horizontal plane of the broadening above the bottom of the broadening on the section of the trunk, not exceeding 2/3 of its height exceeds not less than 1.2 times the area of the projection on the horizontal plane of the lower broadening.

2. Pile on p. 1, wherein the quenching is performed on the lower parts of one or two lateral sides of the trunk.

3. Pile on PP.1 and 2, characterized in that at least two side faces of the barrel is made oblique to the transverse axis of the barrel, and broadening are located on the inclined faces of the shaft.

4. Pile on PP. 1 to 3, characterized in that the broadening is located at the height of the trunk at a distance from each other (10 - 60)b, where b is the departure of the overlying broadening, and the departure of the lower broadening does not exceed 1/2 of the diameter or the width of a face, which is broadening.

 

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