The way to obtain copper powder by electrowinning from sulphate solutions and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention consists in the method and apparatus for producing copper powder by electrowinning from sulphate solutions, which includes electrolytic dissolution in the bath of copper anodes, the deposition of the powder in the form of a spongy precipitation on the cathode with electrolyte circulation and removing the sponge from the cathodes. The process is carried out at a voltage on the tub, set by the ratio Uin= K(1-N) , where N is the number of electrodes; and K is thermal stress calculation. Filing and circulation of the electrolyte is carried out from top to bottom parallel to the plane of the electrodes in case of complete replacement of the electrolyte in the bath for 2 to 3 hours Electrodes take bipolar. In the electrolyzer ASECNA type, tapering towards the bottom and having a rectangular cross-section, vertically along the guide grooves 12 sets of bipolar electrodes based on partition 2. The electrolyte containing copper sulfate and sulfuric acid, is continuously supplied to the channel 3 through the holes 11. In the intervals between the electrodes and the electrolyte is lowered down through the hole and the longitudinal channel is output from the bath. Copper is deposited in the form of dispersed sponge on the cathode side of the bipolar electrode is made of lead. The invention provides reduced power consumption, allows to increase the output current and to increase the performance. 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il., table 1.

The invention relates to ferrous metallurgy.

A method of obtaining copper powder, which consists in the electrolytic dissolution of copper anodes and deposition of powder in the form of a spongy precipitation on the cathodes of Nickel, stainless steel or titanium. The electrolysis is carried out in solutions containing 10-13 g/l copper, 130-170 g/l of sulfuric acid at a cathode current density of 1000-2000 a/m2in baths with monopolar electrodes and the voltage on the tub 1.2 to 2.0 V at a speed of circulation of the electrolyte 20-40 l/min

The disadvantages of this method are: high energy consumption, comprising 3,07-3,20 thousand kW / h per 1 ton of powder, low current output equal to 62-65%, and small unit performance.

A device for implementing the known method is electrolysis ASECNA type length 3,57 m, width 0.55 m, depth of 0.7 m In the bath of the cell vertically suspended by means of hooks and rod anodes and cathodes in the form of plates the size of 0.44 x 0,49 m In the bath download the anode 23 and the cathode 22 with an interval of 100-110 mm, controleren on insulating pads fit the feed bars are designed for a current 10000-20000 A. The anodes and cathodes with rod suspension rely on the anode and cathode bus respectively.

The drawbacks are: low voltage on the tub and large power flowing current, which leads to energy losses in the contacts and the electrolyte, causing high power consumption during the reduction of the yield of powder current. Large spacing between the anodes and the cathodes, to avoid possible short circuits between the floating electrodes, increases the proportion of energy loss in solution, increases the volume of the bath and thereby reduces the specific productivity. The specific productivity of the cell used in the known method, is

Q = = 5,3 kg/(m3h), where Sto- the total area of the cathodes, 9.4 m2;

i is the current density on the cathode, 1000 a/m2;

WATTS - out powder on a current of 0.65%;

1,185 - the ratio of g-equivalents of copper (31.7 g) Faraday (26,8 a/h);

V is the volume of the bath, 1.37 m3.

The disadvantages should also include the need for the use of anodic and cathodic current-carrying tires of large cross section, the presence of transient contacts from the bus to the bar and next to the hooks and the electrodes that are substantially plain the high amperage requires the need to install a powerful step-down transformer, or after sequential connection of a large number of baths (100-150 pieces on the DC voltage of 200 V).

The aim of the invention is to reduce energy consumption, increase the output current and the specific productivity of the cell, as well as simplifying the design and improving reliability.

This objective is achieved in that in a method of producing copper powder by electrowinning from sulphate solutions, including electrolytic dissolution in the bath of copper anodes, the deposition of the powder in the form of a spongy precipitation on the cathode with electrolyte circulation and removing sponge precipitation cathodes, the process performed when the voltage across the bath is determined from the relation Uin= K(N-1), where N is the number of electrodes; K - coefficient calculating voltage, electrolyte circulation carried out by applying the latest from top to bottom parallel to the plane of the electrodes, with the full replacement of the electrolyte in the bath for 2-3 h, and the electrodes take bipolar.

In the device obtain copper powder by electrolysis involving electrolytic cell ASECNA type with vertically mounted electrodes, bath taper at the bottom and has a longitudinal channel for output of the electrolyte ispolneny bipolar, bath is equipped located in the lower part of the walls of the electroconductive material to form sections that are installed on the guide lines of grooves, and each section of the bath is in communication with the longitudinal channel.

In Fig. 1 shows the proposed device; Fig.2 - section a-a in Fig. 1; Fig.3 - section b-B in Fig.1; Fig.4 bipolar electrodes; Fig.5 - section b-b of Fig.4.

The device has an end wall 1, wall 2 of the lower part of the tub, distribution channel 3 to output the electrolyte, the side wall 4 of the bath with the guide slots, the side wall 5 of the lower part of the tub, the longitudinal channel 6 to output the electrolyte and powder, the positive terminal 7, a negative terminal 8, copper cathode 9, the anode 10, a hole 11 for uniform distribution of the electrolyte along the length of the bath, guide grooves 12, the connecting hole 13 of bipolar electrodes 14.

A device for receiving powder works as follows.

In the cell vertically along the guide grooves 12 sets of bipolar electrodes based on partition 2. The electrolyte containing copper sulfate and sulfuric acid, is continuously supplied to the channel 3 and the through holes 11 are uniformly dissolved, and the Oia 13 and the longitudinal channel 6 is withdrawn from the bath. A constant electric current flows from terminal 8 to the cathode 9, through the electrolyte and bipolar electrodes to the anode 10 and the terminal 7. When current passes through bipolar electrodes have potentials: positive (anode) side terminal 8 and the negative (cathode) side terminals 7. On the cathode side of the bipolar electrodes is the discharge of copper ions and partially hydrogen. Copper is deposited in the form of dispersed sponge. On the anode side of the copper electrode is the electrochemical dissolution of copper. On the anode side lead electrode is the discharge of hydroxyl group and sulfation with oxygen formation and regeneration of sulfuric acid. The obtained dispersion sponge showered with the cathode surface, accumulates in the bottom part and is taken out of the electrolytic cell with circulating electrolyte through the longitudinal channel 6.

P R I m m e R. apparatus for producing copper powder by electrowinning are made of plexiglass or vinyl plastic. Bath length is 750 mm, width baths 256 mm, the height of the rectangular part of the tub 220 mm, the height of the lower part of the tub from the upper edge of the longitudinal channel 185 mm, the diameter of the longitudinal channel 40 mm. Width of the guide grooves 15 mm, the distance between the slots 20 mm, the Number b is Strogov and 7 lead, which ensures the constancy of the composition of the electrolyte content of copper and sulfuric acid. The electrolyte is supplied into the tub contains 5-15 g/l copper, 100-120 g/l of sulfuric acid and water. The speed of circulation of the electrolyte is 30-40 l/h Voltage at bath set 25/37, the strength of the current flowing through the bath is 22-88 A. the duration of the electrolysis is 1 h, the temperature of the electrolyte depends on the strength of the current, the speed of circulation and the ambient temperature.

Precipitated copper sponge accumulating on the cathode surface flaking on the bottom of the tub and is excreted in the electrolyte. Additionally every 20-30 min sponge clean off from the surface of the cathode line of Plexiglas. The electrolyte with copper sponge filter fabric PCBs and returned to the circulation tank.

After the experience of the copper sponge washed with demineralized water until the disappearance located in the copper ion. The washed sponge is treated with a soap solution, further washed with water and dried in a vacuum drying Cabinet or in an inert atmosphere.

Copper powder is weighed and given voltage in the bath, current, calculate the energy consumption, the current output, the specific production is tx2">

The optimal conditions are the voltage on the tub 34-40, the content in the electrolyte copper 10-15 g/l and sulfuric acid 110-120 g/l, when the total number of electrodes equal to 26, this corresponds to a coefficient to calculate the voltage on the tub K = 1.3 to 1.6.

The application of the proposed method and device allows to achieve technical and economic effect in comparison with known, a reduction of power consumption for 1080-1260 kWh/t of copper powder, to increase the current output at 1-7%, increase the specific productivity of the cell 2-3 times. In addition, simplifies the design of the electrodes is greatly reduced current in the supply chain and there are no current-carrying bus, eliminating the danger of short circuits and generally increases the reliability.

1. The way to obtain copper powder by electrowinning from sulphate solutions, including electrolytic dissolution in the bath of copper anodes, the deposition of the powder in the form of a spongy precipitation on the cathode with electrolyte circulation and removing sponge precipitation cathode, characterized in that the dissolution of the anodes and the deposition of the powder is performed at a voltage Uinon the tub, which is determined from the relation

Uin= K (N - 1),

where N is the number Onego from top to bottom parallel to the plane of the electrodes in case of complete replacement of the electrolyte in the bath for 2 3 h, and the electrodes take bipolar.

2. Apparatus for producing copper powder by electrowinning from sulphate solutions, including cell ASECNA type, made in the form of baths rectangular shape in cross section, and vertically installed cathodes and the anodes, wherein the tub is made tapering at the bottom and has a longitudinal channel for output of the electrolyte and powder, in the side walls of the upper part of the tub is made of vertical guide grooves, and the cathodes and the anodes are made of bipolar.

3. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the bath is equipped located in the lower part of the walls of the electroconductive material to form sections that are installed on the guide lines of grooves, and each section is in communication with the longitudinal channel.

 

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