The way to obtain copper powder by electrowinning from sulphate solutions and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention consists in the method and apparatus for producing copper powder by electrowinning from sulphate solutions, which includes electrolytic dissolution in the bath of copper anodes, the deposition of the powder in the form of a spongy precipitation on the cathode with electrolyte circulation and removing the sponge from the cathodes. The process is carried out at a voltage on the tub, set by the ratio Uin= K(1-N) , where N is the number of electrodes; and K is thermal stress calculation. Filing and circulation of the electrolyte is carried out from top to bottom parallel to the plane of the electrodes in case of complete replacement of the electrolyte in the bath for 2 to 3 hours Electrodes take bipolar. In the electrolyzer ASECNA type, tapering towards the bottom and having a rectangular cross-section, vertically along the guide grooves 12 sets of bipolar electrodes based on partition 2. The electrolyte containing copper sulfate and sulfuric acid, is continuously supplied to the channel 3 through the holes 11. In the intervals between the electrodes and the electrolyte is lowered down through the hole and the longitudinal channel is output from the bath. Copper is deposited in the form of dispersed sponge on the cathode side of the bipolar electrode is made of lead. The invention provides reduced power consumption, allows to increase the output current and to increase the performance. 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il., table 1. The invention relates to ferrous metallurgy.A method of obtaining copper powder, which consists in the electrolytic dissolution of copper anodes and deposition of powder in the form of a spongy precipitation on the cathodes of Nickel, stainless steel or titanium. The electrolysis is carried out in solutions containing 10-13 g/l copper, 130-170 g/l of sulfuric acid at a cathode current density of 1000-2000 a/m2in baths with monopolar electrodes and the voltage on the tub 1.2 to 2.0 V at a speed of circulation of the electrolyte 20-40 l/minThe disadvantages of this method are: high energy consumption, comprising 3,07-3,20 thousand kW / h per 1 ton of powder, low current output equal to 62-65%, and small unit performance.A device for implementing the known method is electrolysis ASECNA type length 3,57 m, width 0.55 m, depth of 0.7 m In the bath of the cell vertically suspended by means of hooks and rod anodes and cathodes in the form of plates the size of 0.44 x 0,49 m In the bath download the anode 23 and the cathode 22 with an interval of 100-110 mm, controleren on insulating pads fit the feed bars are designed for a current 10000-20000 A. The anodes and cathodes with rod suspension rely on the anode and cathode bus respectively.The drawbacks are: low voltage on the tub and large power flowing current, which leads to energy losses in the contacts and the electrolyte, causing high power consumption during the reduction of the yield of powder current. Large spacing between the anodes and the cathodes, to avoid possible short circuits between the floating electrodes, increases the proportion of energy loss in solution, increases the volume of the bath and thereby reduces the specific productivity. The specific productivity of the cell used in the known method, is
Q = = 5,3 kg/(m3h), where Sto- the total area of the cathodes, 9.4 m2;
i is the current density on the cathode, 1000 a/m2;
WATTS - out powder on a current of 0.65%;
1,185 - the ratio of g-equivalents of copper (31.7 g) Faraday (26,8 a/h);
V is the volume of the bath, 1.37 m3.The disadvantages should also include the need for the use of anodic and cathodic current-carrying tires of large cross section, the presence of transient contacts from the bus to the bar and next to the hooks and the electrodes that are substantially plain the high amperage requires the need to install a powerful step-down transformer, or after sequential connection of a large number of baths (100-150 pieces on the DC voltage of 200 V).The aim of the invention is to reduce energy consumption, increase the output current and the specific productivity of the cell, as well as simplifying the design and improving reliability.This objective is achieved in that in a method of producing copper powder by electrowinning from sulphate solutions, including electrolytic dissolution in the bath of copper anodes, the deposition of the powder in the form of a spongy precipitation on the cathode with electrolyte circulation and removing sponge precipitation cathodes, the process performed when the voltage across the bath is determined from the relation Uin= K(N-1), where N is the number of electrodes; K - coefficient calculating voltage, electrolyte circulation carried out by applying the latest from top to bottom parallel to the plane of the electrodes, with the full replacement of the electrolyte in the bath for 2-3 h, and the electrodes take bipolar.In the device obtain copper powder by electrolysis involving electrolytic cell ASECNA type with vertically mounted electrodes, bath taper at the bottom and has a longitudinal channel for output of the electrolyte ispolneny bipolar, bath is equipped located in the lower part of the walls of the electroconductive material to form sections that are installed on the guide lines of grooves, and each section of the bath is in communication with the longitudinal channel.In Fig. 1 shows the proposed device; Fig.2 - section a-a in Fig. 1; Fig.3 - section b-B in Fig.1; Fig.4 bipolar electrodes; Fig.5 - section b-b of Fig.4.The device has an end wall 1, wall 2 of the lower part of the tub, distribution channel 3 to output the electrolyte, the side wall 4 of the bath with the guide slots, the side wall 5 of the lower part of the tub, the longitudinal channel 6 to output the electrolyte and powder, the positive terminal 7, a negative terminal 8, copper cathode 9, the anode 10, a hole 11 for uniform distribution of the electrolyte along the length of the bath, guide grooves 12, the connecting hole 13 of bipolar electrodes 14.A device for receiving powder works as follows.In the cell vertically along the guide grooves 12 sets of bipolar electrodes based on partition 2. The electrolyte containing copper sulfate and sulfuric acid, is continuously supplied to the channel 3 and the through holes 11 are uniformly dissolved, and the Oia 13 and the longitudinal channel 6 is withdrawn from the bath. A constant electric current flows from terminal 8 to the cathode 9, through the electrolyte and bipolar electrodes to the anode 10 and the terminal 7. When current passes through bipolar electrodes have potentials: positive (anode) side terminal 8 and the negative (cathode) side terminals 7. On the cathode side of the bipolar electrodes is the discharge of copper ions and partially hydrogen. Copper is deposited in the form of dispersed sponge. On the anode side of the copper electrode is the electrochemical dissolution of copper. On the anode side lead electrode is the discharge of hydroxyl group and sulfation with oxygen formation and regeneration of sulfuric acid. The obtained dispersion sponge showered with the cathode surface, accumulates in the bottom part and is taken out of the electrolytic cell with circulating electrolyte through the longitudinal channel 6.P R I m m e R. apparatus for producing copper powder by electrowinning are made of plexiglass or vinyl plastic. Bath length is 750 mm, width baths 256 mm, the height of the rectangular part of the tub 220 mm, the height of the lower part of the tub from the upper edge of the longitudinal channel 185 mm, the diameter of the longitudinal channel 40 mm. Width of the guide grooves 15 mm, the distance between the slots 20 mm, the Number b is Strogov and 7 lead, which ensures the constancy of the composition of the electrolyte content of copper and sulfuric acid. The electrolyte is supplied into the tub contains 5-15 g/l copper, 100-120 g/l of sulfuric acid and water. The speed of circulation of the electrolyte is 30-40 l/h Voltage at bath set 25/37, the strength of the current flowing through the bath is 22-88 A. the duration of the electrolysis is 1 h, the temperature of the electrolyte depends on the strength of the current, the speed of circulation and the ambient temperature.Precipitated copper sponge accumulating on the cathode surface flaking on the bottom of the tub and is excreted in the electrolyte. Additionally every 20-30 min sponge clean off from the surface of the cathode line of Plexiglas. The electrolyte with copper sponge filter fabric PCBs and returned to the circulation tank.After the experience of the copper sponge washed with demineralized water until the disappearance located in the copper ion. The washed sponge is treated with a soap solution, further washed with water and dried in a vacuum drying Cabinet or in an inert atmosphere.Copper powder is weighed and given voltage in the bath, current, calculate the energy consumption, the current output, the specific production is tx2">The optimal conditions are the voltage on the tub 34-40, the content in the electrolyte copper 10-15 g/l and sulfuric acid 110-120 g/l, when the total number of electrodes equal to 26, this corresponds to a coefficient to calculate the voltage on the tub K = 1.3 to 1.6.The application of the proposed method and device allows to achieve technical and economic effect in comparison with known, a reduction of power consumption for 1080-1260 kWh/t of copper powder, to increase the current output at 1-7%, increase the specific productivity of the cell 2-3 times. In addition, simplifies the design of the electrodes is greatly reduced current in the supply chain and there are no current-carrying bus, eliminating the danger of short circuits and generally increases the reliability. 1. The way to obtain copper powder by electrowinning from sulphate solutions, including electrolytic dissolution in the bath of copper anodes, the deposition of the powder in the form of a spongy precipitation on the cathode with electrolyte circulation and removing sponge precipitation cathode, characterized in that the dissolution of the anodes and the deposition of the powder is performed at a voltage Uinon the tub, which is determined from the relation
Uin= K (N - 1),
where N is the number Onego from top to bottom parallel to the plane of the electrodes in case of complete replacement of the electrolyte in the bath for 2 3 h, and the electrodes take bipolar.2. Apparatus for producing copper powder by electrowinning from sulphate solutions, including cell ASECNA type, made in the form of baths rectangular shape in cross section, and vertically installed cathodes and the anodes, wherein the tub is made tapering at the bottom and has a longitudinal channel for output of the electrolyte and powder, in the side walls of the upper part of the tub is made of vertical guide grooves, and the cathodes and the anodes are made of bipolar.3. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the bath is equipped located in the lower part of the walls of the electroconductive material to form sections that are installed on the guide lines of grooves, and each section is in communication with the longitudinal channel.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for production of fine-grained metal powders of spherical shape. Thermal treatment of mixture of initial powdery components with powdery inert filler, which is not soaked with prepared product, is carried out at the temperature that exceeds its melting temperature. After cooling prepared powder of spherical shape is separated from filler. At that fineness of initial powders amounts to not more than 140 microns.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to exclude grinding stage and to prepare powders of spherical shape.
SUBSTANCE: there is prepared exothermal mixture by blending of grinned up to particles size not more than 0.1 mm of ferrosilicium, containing 65-95 wt % silicon, ilmenite, containing 60-65 wt % titanium dioxide, and previously azotized ferrosilicium, at ratio of component in mixture, wt %: ferrosilicium - 40-55, ilmenite - 20-40, azotised ferrosilicium - 25-40. Received mixture is ignited at nitrogen pressure 2-20 MPa. It is implemented after nitride hardening of mixture at nitrogen pressure 0.1-10 MPa during 30-40 minutes and its following grinding. Then grinded product is subject to magnetic separation, after what it is treated 15-30% solution of hydrochloric acid.
EFFECT: reduction of first cost of final product at keeping of high hardness, durability.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology, namely to producing nanoparticles in ion fluid. Proposed method comprises adding ion fluid into deposition chamber and vapour deposition of one or more materials. Proposed device comprises deposition chamber and ion fluid vessel. The latter has inlet and outlet to feed ion fluid in and withdraw it from aforesaid vessel.
EFFECT: simple method, higher quality of produced particles.
29 cl, 16 dwg, 7 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of inorganic fine fillers to be used in various industries, in particular, for production of spheroidised polydisperse powders. Initial raw components of inorganic powders of mineralogical composition and dispersity of up to 1 mm including organic inclusions into plasma generator chamber to be processed therein in plasma flow to spheroidised particles. Note here that processing in plasma flow is carried out at 100 kVA. Produced product is then cooled down and discharged Cooled micro ball-shaped product is classified at plasma generator outlet to preset properties for further use.
EFFECT: expanded dispersity range of initial raw stock, simplified process.
5 cl, 5 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating and exposure of rotated container pre-loaded with steel items and saturating mixture. The latter contains titanium dioxide in quantity of 1-3 wt % with grain size of up to 1 mcm, monosubstituted calcium orthophosphate in quantity of 2-6 wt % with grain size of 74-150 mcm, zinc powder with grain size of 25-630 mcm in quantity of 60-90 wt %, which is obtained by method of water spraying and inert material. Thermodiffusion zinc coating is performed in non-tightly closed container.
EFFECT: improving coating quality, reducing power consumption and increasing the efficiency of thermodiffusion zinc coating process.
SUBSTANCE: composite particles of powder material of ferromagnetic-diamagnetic system are obtained by combined treatment of powders of polymer diamagnetic matrix and ferromagnetic reinforcing component in quantity of 20-50%. Powder of polymer matrix represents disperse particles with particle size of 0.5-1.5 mm. Powder of ferromagnetic component represents nanocrystalline powder with particle size of 1-50 mcm. Superhigh-speed mechanical synthesis of mixture is performed in high-speed disintegrator at relative movement speeds of striking elements of 220-250 m/sec and frequency of strikes of 3000-5000 strikes/sec. The obtained composite powder contains particles with amorphism degree of not more than 80% and magnetic permeability of up to 90 and more.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining radar absorbent materials with high screening efficiency and high value of absorption coefficient within the frequency range of 1 MHz to 40 GHz.
1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to plasma technology. Proposed method comprises producing superdispersed powder by subjecting the stock to effects of plasma of high-frequency induction discharge of H-shape at voltage at inductor of 100-200 V and temperature in the discharge of 2000-10000°C. Then powder modified at the first step is modified by plasma of high-frequency induction discharge of atmospheric pressure of E-shape at voltage at inductor of 3.0-3.5 kV and temperature in the discharge of 300-1000°C at simultaneous feed of modifying reagent into plasma. At both steps the processes are realised on feeding plasma-forming gas at flow rate of 8-15 m3/h and that of carrier gas of 0.2-1.0 m3/h. Proposed method is realised in a wide temperature range to expand the range of produced powders. Note here that temperature conditions are controlled by adjusting the anode voltage on selecting H- or E-shape of high-frequency induction discharge.
EFFECT: production of modified superdischarge powders in single process cycle.
3 cl, 9 ex, 2 tbl, 13 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to abrasive and bead blasting. Cermet grit comprises 3-40 wt % of cermet, 3-50 wt % of dusty wastes of steel smelting, pyrite cinder making the rest.
EFFECT: processing of cinder and wastes, better operating properties of grit, in particular, hardness and strength.
3 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of separation of particles of the predetermined dispersion from the suspension, and can be used in the industry for obtaining nanodisperse powders for manufacturing high-strength articles with improved properties. The device for separation of nanodisperse powders of metal oxides from the suspension comprises a housing made in the form of two intercommunicating vessels of a dielectric material, filled with a suspension comprising distilled water and particles of metal oxides, and interconnected by pipeline with the ability of separation, at that one of the vessels is with the ability to connect to it of the positive potential and the other - negative potential and with the ability to move to it under the influence of the electric field of particles of larger size from the vessel with the positive potential.
EFFECT: increased productivity due to reduction of the time of separation of particles and increase of service life.
7 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of producing hydrogen-saturated metal nanoparticles includes laser ablation of a solid metal target placed in a proton-conducting liquid. During ablation, negative bias is applied on the target relative to the anode immersed in the working liquid. The apparatus for producing said nanoparticles includes an ablation chamber with a plug and an input optical window for laser radiation, a solid metal target placed in a liquid which fills the ablation chamber. Outside the ablation chamber there is a laser with an optical system which focuses laser radiation through an optical window on the target. Outside the ablation chamber, the apparatus is provided with a direct current source and an anode immersed in the working liquid, the anode being made of chemically neutral conducting material, and a cathode made of high-electroconductivity material. The cathode is electrically connected to the target.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain hydrogen-saturated nanoparticles of aluminium, titanium, palladium, gold and iron, increases the rate of producing said nanoparticles, reduces power consumption and simplifies the process and the equipment.
6 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely production of finely dispersed titanium powder.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of hydrogenating initial titanium; disintegrating titanium hydride; heat decomposition of titanium hydride in vacuum and disintegration of formed cake. Heat decomposition is performed by several stages while realizing additional disintegration of cake between said stages. Before hydrogenating initial titanium, subjecting it to thermal activation at temperature 400 - 650°C. Hydrogenation is realized till providing content of hydrogen 440 - 468 cm3 per 1 g of titanium. Titanium hydride is disintegrated till achieving specific surface at least by 2 times exceeding that of produced titanium powder. Heat decomposition of titanium hydride is realized at least by two stages. Additional disintegration of cake is realized at residual content of hydrogen in range 100 - 380 cm3 per 1 g of titanium. According to invention residual content of hydrogen in powder is no more than 4 cm3 per 1 g of titanium. Yield of ready product consists at least of 94% of initial titanium mass; size fraction of titanium powder particles is less than 40 micrometers; specific surface measured according to standard method is in range 0.8 - 1.5 m2/g.
EFFECT: improved quality parameters of fine titanium powder.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: production of ferrite powders possibly used in radio engineering and radio electronics as radiation absorbing coatings and in magneto-pharmacology.
SUBSTANCE: process is realized at taking components in next relation, mass %: BaO2, 11.45 - 11.72; Fe2 O3 , 57.8 -51.4; CoO, 3.5 - 3.63; ZnO, 7.16 -7.32; Fe - the balance. Said components are mixed by mechanically activating in energy intensity apparatus for 1 - 3 min at energy intensity factor 20 - 60 g and subjected to heat treatment by initiating burning process of exothermic mixture and sintered at temperature 1160 - 1180°C for 15 - 20 min. Such process allows produce oxide hexagonal ferromagnetic with content of W-phase 98%. Static magnetic properties of such powder exceed properties of known composition and its dynamic characteristics provide doubled working frequency band due to using coating of such powder as electromagnetic energy absorber. Investigation of main magnetic characteristics of product shows that it is possible to use coating of such material for effective absorption of radiation at operation in frequency range 6±1 GHz.
EFFECT: lowered number of operations of manufacturing cycle, shortened time period for performing process, stable magnetic characteristics of powder in wide temperature range.
FIELD: strontium ferrite based permanent magnet technology; electronics, radio and instrumentation engineering, medicine, and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes synthesizing of strontium ferrite powders in vertical furnaces by transforming strontium and iron oxides into strontium ferrite in adjustable gas medium incorporating nitrogen and oxygen, proportion of ingredients being as follows, volume percent: oxygen, 25-40; nitrogen, the rest.
EFFECT: normalized activity of strontium ferrite powders synthesized in vertical furnaces.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex