Heat and power installation
(57) Abstract:Usage: in the field of energy for generating electricity by the heat of the flue gases of furnaces. The inventive system includes a heating surface, placed in a recovery boiler, steam turbine, condenser and a device for the circulation of the coolant, connected through pipes in a closed loop in the form of a thermosyphon and a generator of electric current. The impeller blades of the turbine, which is located inside the housing made of magnetic material and form pairs of poles of the permanent magnets. The turbine rotor simultaneously performs the functions of the rotor of the generator. The turbine housing is made of material transparent to electromagnetic waves around it is the stator of the generator. 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of power engineering and can be used for electricity generation due to the heat of the exhaust gases of industrial furnaces and components.Known thermal power plant, a simple thermal circuit which includes the boiler unit, steam turbine generator, condenser and pumps drain water from condensare high steam parameters (temperature and pressure), that greatly complicates the arrangement of the equipment of the station, aggravates it and makes it more expensive, requires significant energy consumption for own needs and the high cost of maintenance of the plants for the chemical treatment of feed water. To generate electricity due to low coolant parameters such power plant is unsuitable. When the low temperature of the flue gases of furnaces (200-300about(C) the possibility of obtaining satisfactory pair of parameters becomes problematic, and the traditional scheme of the station with the usual set of listed equipment is too cumbersome, which makes the electricity unprofitable. In addition, significant losses of the working fluid (steam and water) and, therefore, increased consumption of make-up water, and air inflows determine that the equipment is known thermal power plants subject to a number of "ailments" (oxygen and carbon dioxide corrosion of the metal salt deposits in the superheater and the flowing part of the turbine) that reduce their reliability and efficiency.Closest to the technical essence and the achieved results to the invention is heat in the m having a rotor and a stator, a condenser and a device for feeding the condensed working fluid in the boiler, while the turbine is performed with the rotor blades placed on the shaft and positioned in the housing, connected to the system, its input and output.A disadvantage of the known technological solutions is the need for a mechanical connection of the rotor shaft of a steam turbine, located in the internal space of the closed-loop system with the rotor shaft of the generator, located outside of this space. As the ideal seal for a rotating shaft does not exist, the known installation will be leakage of steam through the turbine shaft seal, which requires periodic replenishment of its working body.The aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency of heat and power installation by eliminating leakage of the working fluid in place of the output shaft of the turbine housing for the coupling of the rotor of the generator.This objective is achieved in that in the heat and power facility containing combined in a closed system HRSG, steam turbine with an electric generator having a rotor and a stator, the condensate of the rotor blades, placed on the shaft and positioned in the housing, connected to the system with its input and output, turbine made zuzelo with a generator, the rotor of the generator is made in the form of a turbine shaft with the placement of the last blades, made of magnetic material and mounted on the shaft with the formation of pairs of poles of the permanent magnets, the turbine housing is made in the form of a closed hermetic shell of a material permeable to electromagnetic waves, and the stator of the generator is made of steel plates with coils of copper wire placed around the casing of the turbine.In Fig.1 shows a schematic diagram of thermal power plant; Fig.2 - section a-a in Fig.1.Thermal power plant comprises a boiler 1, which includes the evaporator 2 and superheating 3 part of the heating surface, is placed in the flue gas from the kiln (not shown), the steam line 4, a steam turbine 5, a plot of the housing 6 of the turbine, made of a material permeable to electromagnetic waves, the stator 7 of the generator, condenser 8, condenser 9 with non-return valve 10, the condensate pump 11, is made in the form of Hermonassa, working the CSOs, the boiler 1 is equipped with a bypass duct 15 and a valve 16 gases. The blades 17 of the impeller 18 and the turbine 5 is made of magnetic material and form pairs of poles of the permanent magnets, the number of pairs of poles (blades) may be different. The shaft 19 of the turbine, the impeller 18 and the blades 17 to form the rotor of the turbine and generator at the same time.Thermal power plant works as follows.In the assembled heat scheme is filled with the calculated amount of liquid, for example water, and then she pumped the air and she carefully sealed (sealed). If necessary, the scheme of the installation can be equipped with a vacuum pump. Start installation is smooth, transfer the hot flue gases from the bypass duct 15 in the boiler 1 through the rotation of the distributor 16 from the extreme right position in some intermediate. In this part of hot gases from the kiln will begin to flow through the boiler 1 and to heat the working fluid (water) in the evaporating section 2 of the heating surface. Formed in the liquid boiling steam enters the superheater section 3 and further in the steam line 4 odnovremenno with the early warm-up of the turbine to the condenser 8 serves cold water or other cooling agent. As the warm turbine 5 of the steam, its temperature and pressure increase with the distributor 16 flue gases up until the turbine shaft will not gain the speed necessary to achieve the specified frequency electric current in the power system, and then perform a synchronization operation and enable the generator to the network. After turning on the electric power grid of the valve 16 the gases pass to the left, causing the generator to reach maximum load and works in basic mode until you stop the kiln is the source of heat for the boiler. Necessary for the operation of the turbine 5, the pressure differential pair is achieved by operation of the jet compressor (pump), the working nozzle 12 which is connected to the tap 13 of the steam line 4, and the camera rarefaction 14 to the condenser 9. In this part of the heat of superheated steam is converted into pressure energy of the condensate before the recovery boiler, the value of which may be significantly higher than the steam pressure before the nozzle 12 (Thermal and nuclear power stations. Directory./Under the General editorship of C. A. Grigoriev and C. M. Zorin. M: Energoizdat, 1982, S. 526, Fig. 7.40.And the power setup allows you to completely eliminate leakage of the working fluid through the shaft seal of the pump, and if the pump drive steam, and through the seal of the turbine drive. In addition, the saved portion of the generated electricity or steam (steam drive), necessary to drive the feed pump.The pressure drop is also affected by the height of the liquid column before the recovery boiler and the condenser. The depth of the vacuum after the turbine 5 is provided by the effective operation of the condenser 8, the tube which continuously served chilled circulating water. The condensate collects in the lower part of the condenser and the condensate flows down, where the hydrostatic pressure increases the jet pump.When the movement of steam flowing through the portion of the turbine 5 of its potential and kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy of rotation of the turbine rotor. Due to the permanent magnets are formed in pairs blades 17, there is a rotating magnetic field that penetrates through the housing 6 of the turbine and generating an electric current in the windings of the stator 7 of the generator. Thus the mechanical energy of rotation of the turbine rotor 5 is converted into electrical energy. The result of combining the functions of the turbine rotor and the rotor of the electric generator and the placement of the shaft 19 of Timoti feed. HEAT and power installation comprising a joint in a closed system HRSG, steam turbine with an electric generator having a rotor and a stator, a condenser and a device for feeding the condensed working fluid in the boiler, while the turbine is performed with the rotor blades placed on the shaft and positioned in the housing, connected to the system with its input and output, characterized in that, to improve efficiency, turbine made zuzelo with a generator, the rotor of the generator is made in the form of a turbine shaft with the placement of the last blades, made of magnetic material and mounted on the shaft with the formation of pairs of poles of the permanent magnets, the turbine housing is made in the form of a closed hermetic shell of a material permeable to electromagnetic waves, and the stator of the generator is made of steel plates with coils of copper wire placed around the casing of the turbine.
FIELD: power engineering; steam turbines.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at mounting of heavy-weight condensers of steam turbines connected with several exhaust ports of steam turbine low-pressure cylinders. Invention can be used also at servicing and subsequent adjusting of steam turbines especially, high-power ones. Invention improves reliability and increases economy of turbine in operation owing to decreasing excess loads on exhaust parts of low-pressure cylinders and support foundation plates of exhaust parts from side of condenser, decreasing friction forces along support surfaces of low-pressure cylinders, deformation of supports, formation of cracks and increasing vibration stability of turboset at different loads and modes of operation. According to proposed method of mounting of steam turbine condenser connected with several exhaust ports of low-pressure cylinders including assembling, preliminary truing, welding of connecting branch pipes and fixing in space by means of calibrated setting strips under springs. After operation of turboset under load, position of condenser in space is corrected to reduce load on support belt of low-pressure cylinders by disconnecting exhaust branch pipes of turbine and condenser, filling condenser with water of designed mass, placing inserts between upper and lower branch pipes of designed mass, placing inserts between upper and lower branch pipes and subsequent connection of branch pipes of turbine and condenser. Disconnected condenser is filled with water whose mass corresponds to designed load ΔG taken from low-pressure cylinder which is determined by value of compression Δh of spring unit under each support of condenser, basing on its rigidity characteristic K. ΔG removed from low-pressure cylinder is =ΣΔh x K. Estimation of loads on support belt of low-pressure cylinders in process of complex tests is carried out by displacement pickups checking compression of spring under all supports of condenser, and grade pickups on built-in supports of low-pressure cylinders operating at continuous monitoring by means of processor-based devices.
EFFECT: improved reliability end economy of turbine.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of heating engineering namely to power installations.
SUBSTANCE: According to the first variant the engine of boiling has a furnace chamber, a drum, a batcher, a collector switched to the drum. At that the furnace chamber with the drum are united in a common metallic body fulfilled with one removable wall, at that the axis of the drum is located horizontally, inside the drum there is a working member in the shape of a shaft leaning with its ends on the bearings installed in the center of each wall of the body from the inner side along the horizontal axis, on the shaft there are firmly fastened in parallel with the axis the planes of blades and a cog-wheel, at that the blades are fulfilled in the shape of metallic plates between which there are mounted metallic partitions forming a ring capacity filled with air and symmetrical to the axis, the steam collector is located outside of the drum. According to the second variant the engine of boiling has a furnace chamber, a drum, a batcher switched to the drum, a collector, at that the furnace chamber with the drum are united in a common metallic body, at that the axis of the drum is located vertically in the center of the bottom and bearings are installed from the inner side of the lid, inside the drum there is a working member in the shape of a shaft whose ends lean on the bearings, on the shaft axis there firmly fastened under an angle to the axis the plates of the blades in the shape of a screw, around the shaft symmetrically to its axis there is a ring capacity filled with air. near the drum there is a hot water collector communicating with it through a launder in the upper part and through the collector in the low part. The working medium in the engine of boiling is water-steam mixture.
EFFECT: the invention allows use kinetic energy of boiling water for fulfillment of mechanical work.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the field of industry and ship power engineering, predominantly to transport and stationary steam-turbine plants. The design layout of turbine sets and exhausted steam condensing plant includes the main turbine, isolated generator turbines, transonic jet condensing plants of mixing type - condensate transonic jet pimps built in housings of devices for exhaust stem bleeding from turbine sets, and combined remote condensate collector.
EFFECT: invention makes possible, while keeping constant steam turbine power, to exclude conventional stem components of the main condenser with piping for turbine sets exhaust stem condensing from design layout, to lower weight of unit equipment, reduce its volume by (36÷50) % and to improve reliability of exhaust stem condensing system.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric energy generation system using ecologically clean energy-solar and external steam hybrid electric energy generation system. System comprises solar steam generator outlet end of which is connected to inlet (3) of high pressure steam of turbine (2) through first control valve (18), steam outlet end of external controller (15) of steam is connected to inlet (3) of high pressure steam of turbine (2) through second control valve (20) and second switching valve (19), outlet (4) of low pressure steam turbine unit (2) is connected to inlet end of condensation device (5), while its outlet end is connected to inlet end of deaerator (6), its outlet end is connected to inlet end of pump (7) for supply of water, its outlet end is connected to inlet end of return water of solar steam generator through first switching valve (16), and the outlet end of pump (7) is additionally connected with bypass (11) of return water of external steam through fourth switching valve (23). System further includes tank (9) for storage of soft water.
EFFECT: invention enables using waste heat of industrial production for elimination of dependence on weather and unstable and intermittent concentration of heat solar radiation.
6 cl, 4 dwg